Rogers digitalmethodsaftersocialmedia nov2013_optimized_

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Digital Methods After Social Media Lecture by Richard Rogers, Digital Methods Initiative, University of Amsterdam

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Rogers digitalmethodsaftersocialmedia nov2013_optimized_

  1. 1. DIGITAL METHODS AFTER SOCIAL MEDIA RICHARD ROGERS
  2. 2. DIGITAL METHODS IN CONTEXT 1. Situating Digital Methods (DMI) in Internet-related research (historically) 2. Situating DMI in Digital Humanities and E-Sciences (contemporary debates) 3. Doing Digital Methods (Both arts-based and empirical research traditions) 4. Digital Methods after Social Media
  3. 3. DIGITAL METHODS IN CONTEXT >1. Situating Digital Methods (DMI) in Internet-related research (historically) 2. Situating DMI in Digital Humanities and E-Sciences (contemporary debates) 3. Doing Digital Methods (Both arts-based and empirical research traditions) 4. Digital Methods after Social Media
  4. 4. WHERE ARE WE NOW? FROM VIRTUAL TO DIGITAL METHODS 3 VIRTUALS, OR 3 WAYS OF SEEING THE WEB Web as Cyberspace (1994-2000) Virtual as distinct from the real. Virtual studies Web as Virtual Society? (2000-2007) Virtual is part of the real. Offline as baseline Web as Virtual? Society (2007- ) 'Virtual' as indication of the real. Online as baseline Now: Use online data about society & culture, and make 'online grounded' claims
  5. 5. DIGITAL METHODS IN CONTEXT 1. Situating Digital Methods (DMI) in Internet-related research (historically) >2. Situating DMI in Digital Humanities and E-Sciences (contemporary debates) 3. Doing Digital Methods (Both arts-based and empirical research traditions) 4. Digital Methods after Social Media
  6. 6. WEB AS DATA Web data as offering the previously impossible and unacceptable The Internet offers an entirely different channel for understanding what people are saying... Tracing the spread of arguments, rumors, or positions about political and other issues in the blogosphere… [T]he concerns of an electorate become visible in the searches they conduct. They offer ample opportunities for research that would otherwise be impossible or unacceptable. Lazer et al., Computational Social Science, Science, 323, 2009.
  7. 7. HISTORICAL PROBLEM WITH WEB DATA Web data's incapacity to stand alone (1) One issue is the messiness of Web data and the need for data cleansing heuristics. The uncontrolled Web creates numerous problems in the interpretation of results (…). (2) Indeed a skeptical researcher could claim the obstacles are so great that all Web analyses lack value. (3) One response to this is to demonstrate that Web data correlate significantly with some non-Web data in order to prove that the Web data are not wholly random. -M. Thelwall et al., "Webometrics," 2005. (Emphasis added.)
  8. 8. GOOD DATA Web data in the context of 'good data' Good data are collected as cleanly as possible and as early as possible in its life cycle; they are captured regularly, and preferably over long periods of time. -C. Borgman, The Digital Future is Now: A Call to Action for the Humanities, Digital Humanities Quarterly 3(4), 2009.
  9. 9. DIGITAL HUMANITIES DATA & METHOD Two approaches: Cultural Analytics and Culturomics Cultural Analytics (Manovich): Analyzes patterns in Time Magazine and Popular Science covers, as well as Mark Rothko paintings. 'Formal' analysis (art history): grayscale, brightness, hue, saturation, and forms Culturomics (Google Books & Scholars): Lexicographical analysis of scanned books over hundreds of years. American spelling taking over from British spelling; celebrity increasingly shorter lived, etc.
  10. 10. DIGITIZED METHODS Imported and migrated methods adapted slightly to the online Online surveys - Finding the mailing lists to send them to Online samples - Become difficult. Knowability of population? Online interviews - Record interviewees? Online user studies - Browser histories? Online investigative reporting - Order of fact-checking changes?
  11. 11. Method Data Digitized Digitized Culturomics* Cultural Analytics* Digital Webometrics Digital DMI *Culturomics and cultural analytics may have digitized qualitative method, but they employ in part digital methods for they use search as research.
  12. 12. NATIVELY DIGITAL Natively digital is meant in a computing sense In computing, software has a native mode when it is written for a specific processor. In computing, software has a native support when it is written for a specific operating system. ("native", en.wikipedia.org) "Written for the medium"
  13. 13. DIGITAL METHODS Distinction between methods that migrate to the medium and those ‘native’ to it Which objects and data are available? (links, tags, timestamps...) How do dominant devices and platforms handle them? How to learn from and repurpose the device methods? Are findings grounded in the online? Is the online the baseline?
  14. 14. DIGITAL METHODS OBJECTS & APPROACHES The end of the virtual The link and the politics of web space The website as archived object 4. Googlization and the inculpable engine 5. Search as research: Source distance and cross-spherical analysis
  15. 15. DIGITAL METHODS OBJECTS & APPROACHES *6. National web studies *7 Wikipedia as cultural reference *8. Social media and postdemographics 9. After cyberspace: Big data, small data
  16. 16. NATIONAL WEB STUDIES How is the eb often studied? In the singular. As cyberspace, as a technical infrastructure which gives rise to place-less-ness. As a separate space. As organized by language, or personalized (atomized web). As periodized, from info-web to social web.
  17. 17. THE WEB IS GROUNDED (NATIONALLY) How else to study the Web? As grounded geographically Content is served according to one's IP address (location)
  18. 18. NATIONAL WEB STUDIES How else may they be studied? As national ebs to be studied for their 'health' Demarcate a national web Diagnose its 'health' through metrics (in a form of country profiling)
  19. 19. DIAGNOSING THE CONDITION OF A NATIONAL WEB METHODS FOR DEMARCATING NATIONAL WEBS Demarcate a national web, normally, by domain name, language, IP range, Whois, crawling (blogosphere) We harvest URLs from 'device cultures': Google (regional) Web Search, DoubleClick Ad Planner, Alexa national sites, Blog aggregators, crowd-sourcing recommender sites
  20. 20. DIAGNOSING THE CONDITION OF A NATIONAL WEB METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING NATIONAL WEBS Diagnose condition of a national Web a. 'Youthfulness' (freshness through datestamps) b. 'Brokenness' (link valiators) c. 'Responsiveness' (200 OK http response codes) d. 'Datedness' (software versions running) e. 'Dated users' (browser versions of users)
  21. 21. The health of the Iranian web Advertiser's web (Google Ad Planner) Blogger's web (Likekhor) Surfer’s geoweb (Alexa) Other 502 Bad Gateway 500 Internal Server Error 410 Gone 404 Not Found 403 Forbidden 401 Unauthorized 400 Bad Request 0 Connection Problem Searcher's web (Google Web Search) Crowd-sourced web (Balatarin) Crowd-sourced web (Donbaleh and Sabzlink) 200 OK
  22. 22. WIKIPEDIA STUDIES How is it often studied? As a question of accuracy, as a scandal-maker Wikipedia is compared to Encyclopedia Brittanica. Quality; bias. Publicity management tool. As abnormally vigilant community of free-labourers (with bots). As bureaucracy and as stigmergy. As having a relationship with Google. (understudied)
  23. 23. WIKIPEDIA / BRITANNICA COMPARISON Jim Giles, "Internet encyclopedias go head to head," Nature 438, 900-901, 2005. Nature conducted a peer review of 42 entries from Wikipedia and the Encyclopedia Britannica. The results: Only eight serious errors, such as misinterpretations of important concepts, were detected in the pairs of articles reviewed, four from each encyclopaedia. But reviewers also found many factual errors, omissions or misleading statements: 162 and 123 in Wikipedia and Britannica, respectively.
  24. 24. WIKIPEDIA AS CULTURAL REFERENCE How else may it be studied? As cultural reference As articles mature, they may express a national as opposed to neutral point of view. Neutral to whom? Compare article elements: title, authors (or editors), table of contents, images and references. Also: location of the anonymous editors (based on IP address), and a reading of the talkpages. How to have language Wikipedia versions show cultural reference?
  25. 25. Referenced hosts in the Srebrencia articles per Wikipedia language version, colored by frequency, and ordered by frequency and by alphabet, 20 December 2010 1 2 3 4 5 6 Serbian un.org srebrenica.ba Bosnian un.org srebrenica.ba Dutch un.org icty.org Croatian un.org srebrenica.ba icty.org ic-mp.org groene.nl icty.org bosnia.org.uk guardian.co.uk idc.org.ba srebrenica-zepa.ba bosnia.org.uk guardian.co.uk ic-mp.org helsinki.org.yu icj-cij.org hlc.org.yu iwpr.net ogrish.com news.bbc.co.uk nytimes.com ohr.int srebrenica-zepa.ba vreme.com sense-agency.com vladars.net dzemat-oberhausen.de inzl.unsa.ba preventgenocide.org srebrenicagenocide.blogspot.com zeneucrnom.org vandiepen.com books.google.nl dutchbat.luchtmobiel. nl dutchbat1.com emperorsclothes.com nu.nl ochtenden.nl volkskrant.nl 128.121.186.47 b92.net helsinki.org.yu hlc.org.yu news.independent.co.u k ogrish.com reuters.com slobodan-milosevic.org Serbo-Croatian un.org srebrenica.ba srebrenicazepa.ba srebrenica.nl vladars.net English un.org srebrenica.ba icty.org bosnia.org.uk guardian.co.uk icj-cij.org ic-mp.org idc.org.ba icj-cij.org iwpr.net idc.org.ba news.bbc.co.uk nytimes.com ohr.int vreme.com balkaninsight.com iwpr.net news.bbc.co.uk nytimes.com ohr.int vreme.com bim.ba 128.121.186.47 domovina.net edition.cnn.com europarl.europa.eu b92.net balkaninsight.com bim.ba independent.co.uk domovina.net newsweek.com pbs.org potocarimc.ba edition.cnn.com europarl.europa.eu groene.nl
  26. 26. DUTCH ENGLISH BOSNIAN CROATIAN SERBIAN SERBOCROATIAN Burial of 465 identified Bosniaks, Potočari, 2007. Map of the Srebrenica military operations, made by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, with green arrow showing the route of the Bosnian forces. Map of the location of Srebrenica, the Republika Srpska, Bosnia-Herzegovina. Srebrenica-Potočari Memorial and Cemetery, Bosnia-Herzegovina. Grave of a 13-year old Bosniak boy. Ratko Mladic. An exhumed body with blindfold and hands tied behind his back. As of September 2012, the photo has been removed from Wikipedia article. Exhumed grave of victims, 2007. Podrinje Identification Project's facility for storing, processing, and handling exhumed remains.. "UN left 8,000 to die in Bosnia." Headline in The Independent, 30 October 1995. Satellite photo of Nova Kasaba mass grave. International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Den Haag, the Netherlands. Srebrenica Genocide Memorial Stone at Potočari, with the victim count of 8,372. Skull exhumed outside of Potočari, July 2007. Wall of names at the Srebrenica Genocide Memorial. War-damaged buildings in Srebrenica. The Bosniak enclaves of Srebrenica and Zepa, declared safe areas by the U.N. in 1993.
  27. 27. WIKIPEDIA STUDIES Digital Methods contributions to the study of Wikipedia Wikipedia as cultural reference Wikipedia as controversy diagnostics machine
  28. 28. SOCIAL MEDIA STUDIES Digital Methods contributions to the study of social media 1. Web data becomes a main source of social data (also Twitter) 2. Postdemographics as emerging object of study 3. Ethics and Leaky gardens 4. Networked content as avenue of analysis
  29. 29. DIGITAL METHODS AFTER SOCIAL MEDIA >1. Web data becomes main source of network analysis (and how to study Twitter) 2. Postdemographics as emerging network culture and object of study 3. Ethics and Leaky gardens 4. Networked content as avenues of analysis
  30. 30. ONLY ONLINE DATA? Web data as preferred data to study social phenomena "When all you have is a Twitter API, every problem looks like a hashtag" - Michael Stevenson
  31. 31. TWITTER STUDIES WITH DIGITAL METHODS Digital Methods contributions to the study of social media First, decide whether you are studying Twitter I, Twitter II or Twitter III Twitter I: Banal, phatic, ambient friend-following Twitter II: News-following, elections and disasters Twitter III: Generic data on social phenomena, any topic
  32. 32. TWITTER I, TWITTER II, TWITTER III 'Twitter' as object of study and critique Twitter I (2006-2009): Urban lifestyle tool (origins) and 'Banal' Tagline: "what are you doing?" Twitter II (2009-2012): Elections, disasters and revolutions. Tagline: "what's happening?" Twitter III (2012- ): Research tool and data market Tagline: "compose new tweet"
  33. 33. TWITTER I, TWITTER II, TWITTER III 'Twitter' as object of study and critique >Twitter I (2006-2009): Urban lifestyle tool (origins) and 'Banal' Tagline: "what are you doing?" Twitter II (2009-2012): Elections, disasters and revolutions. Tagline: "what's happening?" Twitter III (2012- ): Research tool and data market Tagline: "compose new tweet"
  34. 34. Source: BBC News, 17 August 2009
  35. 35. What are tweets? 40.5% could be classified as pointless babble, 37.5% as conversational, 8.7% as having pass-along value, 5.85% as self promotion, and 3.75% as spam.
  36. 36. TWITTER I, TWITTER II, TWITTER III 'Twitter' as object of study and critique Twitter I (2006-2009): Urban lifestyle tool (origins) and 'Banal' (what did you have for lunch?) >Twitter II (2009-2012): Elections, disasters and revolutions. Monitoring tool for 'what's happening' and change agent Twitter III (2012- ): Research tool and data market (politics of Twitter data)
  37. 37. Berman, Ari (2009), “Iran's Twitter Revolution,” The Nation blog, The Nation, 15 June.
  38. 38. method. Step 1: Capture all tweets with #iranelection between 10 and 30 June 2009, and archive them at rettiwt.net.
  39. 39. the collection. #iranelection dataset (10-30 June 2009): Tweets tagged with #iranelection: 653,883 Unique number of Twitter users with #iranelection tag: 99,811 Twitter users of #iranelection with multiple tweets: 46,702 Twitter users of #iranelection with more than 20 tweets: 6,000 Twitter users of #iranelection with 1 tweet: 53,109 Twitter users of #iranelection who were retweeted: 36,913 Twitter users of #iranelection retweeted multiple times: 16,336 Twitter users of #iranelection retweeted at least 10 times: 2,829 Twitter users of #iranelection retweeted 1 time: 20,577 Number of languages using #iranelection: 26 Number of tweets with #iranelection in English: 612,373
  40. 40. method. Step 2. Filter out top 3 RTs per day Turn Twitter into sory-telling machine
  41. 41. What’s happening in Iran just after the disputed election (DMI, 2009)?
  42. 42. Mousavi holds an emergency press conference. The voter turn-out is 80%. SMS is down; Mousavi’s website and Facebook are blocked. Police are using pepper spray. Mousavi is under house arrest; he is prepared for martyrdom. Neda is dead. There’s a riot in Baharestan Square. First aid info is here. Bon Jovi sings “Stand by Me” in support. Ahmadinejad is confirmed the winner. Light a candle for the ppl of Iran.
  43. 43. TWITTER I, TWITTER II, TWITTER III 'Twitter' as object of study and critique Twitter I (2006-2009): Urban lifestyle tool (origins) and 'Banal' (what did you have for lunch?) Twitter II (2009-2012): Elections, disasters and revolutions. Monitoring tool for 'what's happening' and change agent >Twitter III (2012- ): Research tool and data market (politics of Twitter data)
  44. 44. TWITTER III - DATA MARKET Terms of service change and Twitter softens blow by donating to Library of Congress - e "[Twitter is not] considering the myriad number of PhD students who basically just lost their work, or the researchers that were close to saying something meaningful and now have no way to do it" (Watter, 2011). Must you work at Twitter to use it as researcher?
  45. 45. TWITTER III - DATA MARKET Politics of archived Twitter What kind of research tool is the Twitter archive? Access. Any portion of the Collection originally posted to the Twitter service six months prior to the then-current date may be made available to Library staff and to bonafide researchers according to the policies of the custodial division of the Library responsible for the administration and service of materials of this nature, provided that the researcher signs a notification mutually agreed upon by Donor and the Library prohibiting commercial use and redistribution of all or a substantial part of the Collection (Library of Congress, 2010).
  46. 46. DIGITAL METHODS AFTER SOCIAL MEDIA 1. Web data becomes main source of network analysis (and how to study Twitter) >2. Postdemographics as emerging object of study (and how to study Facebook) 3. Ethics and Leaky gardens 4. Networked content as avenues of analysis
  47. 47. POSTDEMOGRAPHICS Web data as preferred data to study social phenomena Postdemographics is the study of how preferences organize social media networks. Examples: Showing compatibility of the interests of 'friends' of Democratic and Republican presidential candidates. Showing relatedness of an interest (e.g., Islam or Christianity) to other interests.
  48. 48. DIGITAL METHODS AFTER SOCIAL MEDIA 1. Web data becomes main source of network analysis (and how to study Twitter) 2. Postdemographics as emerging network culture and object of study >3. Ethics and Leaky gardens 4. Networked content as avenues of analysis
  49. 49. ETHICS AND LEAKY GARDENS "But the data is already public" (Zimmer, 2010) Social media encourages more exposure just as scholarship increasingly encourages care (and far less scraping than before) Examples: Profiling a user according to which web services she subscribes to Lo Pinpointing highly networked right-wing extremists
  50. 50. PERUSSUOMALAISET FORZA N U O VA SICILIA E S PA Ñ A 2000 RISPOSTE LAIQUE SIOE DEUTSCHLAND BRITISH N AT I O N A L PA R T Y SIOE FRANCE SIAD DENMARK V O TA FORZA N U O VA ALLE COMUNALI DI MILANO SIOE ENGLAND PA X E U R O PA SWEDISH DEFENCE LEAGUE LIGUE DE DEFENCE FRANCAISE BLOC I D E N T I TA I R E DER DANSKE VORENING P L ATA F O R M A P E R C A T A L U N YA NORWEGIAN DEFENCE LEAGUE ATA K A F R E M S K R I T T S PA R T I E T S VENNER
  51. 51. NORWEGIAN DEFENCE LEAGUE 124 B R I T I S H N AT I O N A L PA R T Y 136 P L ATA F O R M A P E R C ATA L U N YA LIGUE DE DEFENCE FRANCAISE SIOE ENGLAND SIAD DENMARK B L O C I D E N T I TA I R E 101 F R E M S K R I T T S PA R T I E T S V E N N E R E S PA Ñ A 2 0 0 0 86 28 4 2 Jade Day 2 1 Olivia Nolan Eric Gaillard 7 S a r e e t a We b r a - B h a r a j 7 Andrea Ogando Dos Santos Janne Louise Lindfeng 9 Nasir Abdul 14 Arnt Road Kvile Kamil Ryba Mads Anderse 21 21 22 Mikkie Dikkie 35 Stefano NS Liberi 31 Franz Mulet Sanz Steve Simmons 44 Kevin Scott 58 Martin Hansen Roy-Birger Mulstad 58 62 Ann Lisbeth Andersen 53 58 Charles Martel 65 David Parada Perez 65 John Sorli Stephen Gash 85 Pavel Chernev Leo Baardsen 87 Lars Ostergaard Ferran Estruch 109 Va s i l i R i c h a r d s s o n List of Counter-jihadist Facebook Groups' top administrators, according to their degree centrality in the total network. The dimension of each node is based on the total number of connections in the larger counter-jihadist network. 159 CONNECTIONS REMI STEINER #1 JOSEP ENGUIX #2 CHRISTEN KROGVIG #3 New personalities of the counter jihadist social network
  52. 52. DIGITAL METHODS AFTER SOCIAL MEDIA 1. Web data becomes main source of network analysis (and how to study Twitter) 2. Postdemographics as emerging network culture and object of study 3. Ethics and Leaky gardens >4. Networked content as avenues of analysis
  53. 53. NETWORKED CONTENT ANALYSIS Social media data as means to study content Networked content as avenue of analysis Examples: Likes, shares, comments, liked comments (Facebook) Public highlights (Amazon Kindle)
  54. 54. Chapter Seven / More experimental methods 11 q. / 2.556 h. INFIDEL Tota l h igh ligh ted q u otes a n d n u m b er of tim es p er b ook a n d c a tegor y 10 q. / 1.117 h. AMERICA ALONE 8 q. / 226 h. WHILE EUROPE SLEPT 10 q. / 128 h. THE AL QAEDA READER 11 q. / 73 h. 10 q. / 182 h. WHY I AM NOT A MUSLIM 9 q. / 112 h. NOW THEY CALL ME INFIDEL 11 q. / 65 h. 8 q. / 778 h. THE POLITICALLY INCORRECT GUIDE TO ISLAM 10 q. / 176 h. 10 q. / 174 h. BECAUSE T H E Y H AT E THEY MUST BE STOPPED 19 q. / 85 h. 13 q. / 83 h. L O N D O N I S TA N INSIDE ISLAM 13 q. / 56 h. 7 q. / 56 h. STEALTH JIHAD AMERICAN JIHAD I S L A M ’ S WA R A G A I N S T T H E W O R L D 11 q. / 39 h. 10 q. / 38 h. THE ORIGINS OF THE KORAN 10 q. / 34 h. U N D E R S TA N D I N G JIHAD JIHAD IN THE WEST 5 q. / 15 h. 4 q. / 12 h. 6 q. / 18 h. JIHAD I N C O R P O R AT E D L E AV I N G ISLAM RELIGION OF PEACE?: WILLFUL BLINDNESS FUTURE JIHAD 10 q. / 33 h. EURABIA 9 q. / 431 h. THE TRUTH ABOUT MUHAMMAD 10 q. / 151 h. CRUEL AND USUAL PUNISHMENT 10 q. / 77 h. RELIGION OF PEACE? 10 q. / 48 h. I N F I L T R AT I O N 10 q. / 32 h. ISLAM UNVEILED 1 q. / 3 h. 1 q. / 3 h. W H AT T H E K O R A N R E A L L Y S AY S THE MYTH OF ISLAMIC TOLERANCE
  55. 55. To p e x a m p l e s o f h i g h l i g h t e d q u o t e s p e r c a t e g o r y “ISLAM IS A RELIGION OF THE PEACE THAT WILL COME WHEN EVERYONE IS MUSLIM OR AT LEAST SUBJECT TO THE ISLAMIC STATE. AND TO ESTABLISH THAT PEACE, MUSLIMS MUST WAGE WAR.” The Po litically In c orre c t G uide t o Isl a m ( an d t h e C r u s a d e s ) , R o b e r t S p e n c e r, 1 0 9 h i g h l i g h t s . “I FOUND MYSELF THINKING THAT THE QURAN IS NOT A HOLY DOCUMENT. IT IS A HISTORICAL RECORD, WRITTEN BY HUMANS. IT IS ONE VERSION OF EVENTS, AS PERCEIVED BY THE MEN WHO WROTE IT 150 YEARS AFTER THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD DIED. AND IT IS A VERY TRIBAL AND ARAB VERSION OF EVENTS. IT SPREADS A CULTURE THAT IS BRUTAL, BIGOTED, FIXATED ON CONTROLLING WOMEN, AND HARSH IN WAR.” Infidel, Ay aan Hirsi Al i, 3 2 5 hi g hl i g ht s. “IN ISLAM, BECOMING AN INDIVIDUAL IS NOT A NECESSARY DEVELOPMENT; MANY PEOPLE, ESPECIALLY WOMEN, NEVER DEVELOP A CLEAR INDIVIDUAL WILL. YOU SUBMIT: THAT IS THE LITERAL MEANING OF THE WORD ISLAM: SUBMISSION. THE GOAL IS TO BECOME QUIET INSIDE, SO THAT YOU NEVER RAISE YOUR EYES, NOT EVEN INSIDE YOUR MIND.” Infidel, Ay aan Hirsi Al i, 2 7 6 hi g hl i g ht s. “EVERY SOCIETY THAT IS STILL IN THE RIGID GRIP OF ISLAM OPPRESSES WOMEN AND ALSO LAGS BEHIND IN DEVELOPMENT. MOST OF THESE SOCIETIES ARE POOR; MANY ARE FULL OF CONFLICT AND WAR. SOCIETIES THAT RESPECT THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN AND THEIR FREEDOM ARE WEALTHY AND PEACEFUL.” Infidel, Ay aan H irsi Al i, 3 7 5 hi g hl i g ht s. “THE BREAKING OF THE TREATY IN THIS WAY, WOULD REINFORCE THE PRINCIPLE THAT NOTHING WAS GOOD EXCEPT WHAT WAS ADVANTAGEOUS TO ISLAM, AND NOTHING EVIL EXCEPT WHAT HINDERED ISLAM.” The Po litically In c orre c t G uid e t o Isl am ( a n d t he C r u s a d e s ) , R o b e r t S p e n c e r, 1 0 6 h i g h l i g h t s . “ S O W E H AV E A G L O B A L T E R R O R I S T M O V E M E N T I N S U L AT E D W I T H I N A G L O B A L P O L I T I C A L P R O J E C T I N S U L AT E D WITHIN A S E V E R E LY S E L F - S E G R E G AT I N G RELIGION WHOSE ADHERENTS ARE THE FA S T E S T- G R O W I N G D E M O G R A P H I C I N T H E D E V E L O P E D W O R L D . ” America Alo ne: T h e E n d of t h e Worl d as We K n o w I t , M a r k S t e y n , 1 1 5 h i g h l i g h t s . “ S O W E H AV E A G L O B A L T E R R O R I S T M O V E M E N T I N S U L A T E D W I T H I N A G L O B A L P O L I T I C A L P R O J E C T I N S U L AT E D W I T H I N A S E V E R E LY S E L F - S E G R E G AT I N G R E L I G I O N W H O S E A D H E R E N T S A R E T H E F A S T E S T- G R O W I N G D E M O G R A P H I C I N T H E D E V E L O P E D W O R L D . ” America Alo ne: T h e E n d of t h e Worl d a s We K n o w I t , M a r k S t e y n , 1 2 2 h i g h l i g h t s .
  56. 56. DIGITAL METHODS IN CONTEXT 1. Situating Digital Methods (DMI) in Internet-related research (historically) 2. Situating DMI in Digital Humanities and E-Sciences (contemporary debates) 3. Doing Digital Methods (Both arts-based and empirical research traditions) 4. Digital Methods after Social Media
  57. 57. DIGITAL METHODS THANK YOU Further information: R. Rogers, Digital Methods, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013 Digital Methods Initiative, http://www.digitalmethods.net rogers@uva.nl

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