THE END OF THE VIRTUAL: DIGITAL METHODS
PROF. RICHARD ROGERS
FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS
Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research
2. How productive is the notion of t...
FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS
> Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research
2. How productive is the notion of...
FROM CYBERSTUDIES
OVER VIRTUAL METHODS
TO DIGITAL METHODS
Web as Cyberspace (1994-2000) Virtual as distinct from the real....
THE LEGACY OF
CYBERSPACE
[C]yberspace is now largely considered history, [yet] it is worth
recognizing its continued prese...
FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS
Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research
>2. How productive is the notion of ...
THINKING ABOUT
THE VIRTUAL
1) That which is not actually existing (virtual reality)
2) Between the actual and the real (di...
FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS
Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research
2. How productive is the notion of t...
MEDIA AS CONTENT?
WEB AS CONTENT?
"Our typographical minds have trained us to concentrate on
content, and ignore the mediu...
WEB AS PROBLEM FOR
CONTENT ANALYSIS
The Web 0.1 Under Construction: Websites need 'filling in'
The Web 1.0 Underground: "F...
THE 'EMPTY' WEB
"[T]he majority of the forum and blog discussions did not
in any way match the normative criteria of the H...
FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS
Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research
2. How productive is the notion of t...
HISTORICAL PROBLEM WITH
WEB DATA
(1) One issue is the messiness of Web data and the need for data
cleansing heuristics. Th...
FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS
Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research
2. How productive is the notion of t...
VIRTUAL (DIGITIZED)
METHODS
Online surveys - Finding the list to mail them to.
Online interviews - Become written exchange...
DIGITAL METHODS
General Digital Methods Protocol - Follow the Medium
Which objects are available? (Links, tags, threads, t...
CLAIMS GROUNDED ONLINE
"This newspaper made an inventory of right-wing and extreme
right-wing sites.... The newspaper foun...
FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS:
SUMMARY
Situating Digital Methods: Beyond online cultural studies and user studies
2. Like...
DIGITAL METHODS
OBJECTS &
APPROACHES
The Link - As reputation marker and indicator of a politics of association
The Websit...
DIGITAL METHODS
OBJECTS &
APPROACHES
6. Social Networking Sites - As friends' tastes for 'post-demographic' profiling
{7. ...
1. THE LINK
Google treats hyperlinks as reputation markers, and
as indicators of relevance.
How to follow the medium's dom...
© 2008 Govcom.org
08
E-Culture in the Netherlands: Network and Actors- _______________________
Analysis_ Richard Rogers an...
.
LINKING AS POLITICS OF
ASSOCIATION
GM Food Network - Aspirational linking, Govcom.org,
1999.
6 September 2007
What kind of 'state' of the Palestinian Web is suggested
by the Fatah-related sites?
Method
Insert Fatah-...
DYNAMIC URL SAMPLING &
INTERNET CENSORSHIP
Using lists of sensitive sites for Iran, researchers, using the
Issue Crawler, ...
A Censored Network: Iranian Social, Political and Religious Sites
A hyperlink analysis method for censored Website discove...
2. THE WEBSITE
Usability - "Don't make me think." Also: The Web is blue.
Eye-tracking - Heat maps tell stories, and help r...
2. THE WEBSITE
Internet Archive literature review - articles about it, but
not how it's used.
Follow Wayback Machine's int...
3. THE ENGINE
Engines include and exclude by not indexing orphans; by burying
sites.
Engines encourage attention deficits....
DATABODY STUDIES
AOL user 311045 apparently owns a Scion XB automobile in need
of new brake pads that is in the process of...
DATABODY 'SOLUTIONS'
Scroogle.org - An Google search proxy which prevents the
searcher's data being stored by Google.
Trac...
3. THE ENGINE
Capture and reinterpret the engine's results.
Inquire into the stability of the hierarchies of credibility.
...
ON TOP OF THE ENGINE:
THE LIPPMANNIAN DEVICE
Capture engine's results.
Query each of the first hundred result for terms.
H...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Sallie Baliunas)
Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' presen...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Timothy Ball)
Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present
i...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Robert Balling)
Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Paul Driessen)
Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present
...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Sherwood Idso)
Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present
...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Richard Linzen)
Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Patrick Michaels)
Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' prese...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Steven Milloy)
Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present
...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Frederick Seitz)
Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' presen...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (S. Fred Singer)
Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Willie Soon)
Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present
in...
6. SOCIAL NETWORKING
SITES
Presentation of (a more expansive) self.
MySpace and Facebook have different 'classes' of users...
6. SOCIAL NETWORKING
SITES
Post-demographics is a recognition that profiles are made of
interests, i.e., favorite media in...
CONCLUSION:
METHODS IN NEW MEDIA
1. Links as reputation markers.
2. Websites as archived objects awaiting study.
3. Engine...
"There are methods in media."
THANK YOU
Digital Methods Initiative, http://www.digitalmethods.net
Govcom.org Foundation, h...
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010
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Richard Rogers, The End of the Virtual: Digital Methods, Internews Kiev, 4 November 2010

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Rogers digitalmethods 4nov2010

  1. 1. THE END OF THE VIRTUAL: DIGITAL METHODS PROF. RICHARD ROGERS
  2. 2. FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research 2. How productive is the notion of the virtual for Web research? The Web as a problem for content analysis 4. The Web as a less of problem for data analysis? 5. How to become a digital methods researcher
  3. 3. FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS > Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research 2. How productive is the notion of the virtual for Web research? The Web as a problem for content analysis 4. The Web as a less of problem for data analysis? 5. How to become a digital methods researcher
  4. 4. FROM CYBERSTUDIES OVER VIRTUAL METHODS TO DIGITAL METHODS Web as Cyberspace (1994-2000) Virtual as distinct from the real. Cyberstudies Web as Virtual Society? (2000-2007) Virtual is part of the real. Virtual methods Web as Virtual? Society (2007- ) 'Virtual' as indication of the real. Digital methods? Use online data and ground claims offline, or make 'online grounded' claims?
  5. 5. THE LEGACY OF CYBERSPACE [C]yberspace is now largely considered history, [yet] it is worth recognizing its continued presence in unexpected places: the U.S. Department of Defense prioritizes ‘cyberspace’ in its plans for protecting national infrastructure. At the same time, however, the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace may be read as yet more evidence of cyberspace’s demise - if not through dismissal, then by depriving cyberspace of its revolutionary connotations to the point that it is no longer recognizable. - Michael Stevenson, 2010 Terminological persistence of cyberspace (in security studies discourse)
  6. 6. FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research >2. How productive is the notion of the virtual for Web research? The Web as a problem for content analysis 4. The Web as a less of problem for data analysis? 5. How to become a digital methods researcher
  7. 7. THINKING ABOUT THE VIRTUAL 1) That which is not actually existing (virtual reality) 2) Between the actual and the real (disembodied, time-shifted or space-shifted) 3) Existing in effect (real-world effects) 4) Simulated ("artificial") (virtual world) 5) Representation (not the real thing) 6) Counterfeit (fake) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7) Related to online research (virtual ethnography; virtual methods)v The continued use of 'the virtual': Apologists, or field-builders?
  8. 8. FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research 2. How productive is the notion of the virtual for Web research? > The Web as a problem for content analysis 4. The Web as a less of problem for data analysis? 5. How to become a digital methods researcher
  9. 9. MEDIA AS CONTENT? WEB AS CONTENT? "Our typographical minds have trained us to concentrate on content, and ignore the medium." "The 'content' of a medium is like the juicy piece of meat carried by the burglar to distract the watchdog of the mind." "typographic cultural bias" "typographic trance of the West" "typographic spell" McLuhan's critique of the western obsession with content in Understanding Media
  10. 10. WEB AS PROBLEM FOR CONTENT ANALYSIS The Web 0.1 Under Construction: Websites need 'filling in' The Web 1.0 Underground: "Fandom, porn and aliens have taken cyber-theory into a political and cultural wasteland." - Jodi Dean (2004) The Web 2.0 Amateur: The Web is "[where] ignorance meets egoism meets bad taste meets mob rule." - Andrew Keen (2007) Three 'eras' of content types online
  11. 11. THE 'EMPTY' WEB "[T]he majority of the forum and blog discussions did not in any way match the normative criteria of the Habermasian public sphere." - T. Poell (2009) "It becomes clear that the quality of the [forum] discussion leaves a lot to be desired." - T. Witschge (2007) The Web continually disappoints substantively
  12. 12. FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research 2. How productive is the notion of the virtual for Web research? The Web as a problem for content analysis >4. The Web as a less of problem for data analysis? 5. How to become a digital methods researcher
  13. 13. HISTORICAL PROBLEM WITH WEB DATA (1) One issue is the messiness of Web data and the need for data cleansing heuristics. The uncontrolled Web creates numerous problems in the interpretation of results (…). (2) Indeed a skeptical researcher could claim the obstacles are so great that all Web analyses lack value. (3) One response to this is to demonstrate that Web data correlate significantly with some non-Web data in order to prove that the Web data are not wholly random. -M. Thelwall et al., "Webometrics," 2005. (Emphasis added.) Web data's incapacity to stand alone
  14. 14. FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS Situating Digital Methods in Internet-related research 2. How productive is the notion of the virtual for Web research? The Web as a problem for content analysis 4. The Web as a less of problem for data analysis? >5. How to become a digital methods researcher (digital vs. virtual methods)
  15. 15. VIRTUAL (DIGITIZED) METHODS Online surveys - Finding the list to mail them to. Online interviews - Become written exchanges by email. (Online) observation - Watching users over the shoulder. Online samples - Become difficult. Also issue of exhaustiveness. Online investigative reporting - Fact-checking by phoning/surfing? Digitized methods
  16. 16. DIGITAL METHODS General Digital Methods Protocol - Follow the Medium Which objects are available? (Links, tags, threads, timestamp...) How do dominant devices and platforms handle them? How to learn from and repurpose medium methods? (Mash-up...) Are findings grounded in the online? Is the online the baseline? Distinction between methods that migrate to the medium and those ‘native’ to it
  17. 17. CLAIMS GROUNDED ONLINE "This newspaper made an inventory of right-wing and extreme right-wing sites.... The newspaper found 150 of such sites that came and went over the past 10 years. The internet archive's wayback machine was used. We found that the number of right-wing and extreme right-wing sites grew after 11 September 2001, the rise of Pim Fortuyn...The growth was explosive... The difference in language use became smaller.... The internet is revealing a hardening of the Netherlands." - NRC Handelsblad (newspaper), 25 August 2007 On 20 September 2007, it fell out of the top 1,000 results. UNDERSTANDING SOCIETAL CONDITIONS WITH THE WEB AS THE BASELINE
  18. 18. FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL METHODS: SUMMARY Situating Digital Methods: Beyond online cultural studies and user studies 2. Like cyberstudies, virtual studies are only one (niche) type of Internet research From 'content analysis' to medium specificity - studying natively digital objects 4. The Web as epistemological machinery, employing Web data sets 5. Digital methods research learns from and repurposes methods in media
  19. 19. DIGITAL METHODS OBJECTS & APPROACHES The Link - As reputation marker and indicator of a politics of association The Website - As an archived object, awaiting use The Engines - As ordering devices, providing hierarchies of credibility {4. The Spheres - As bounded, engine-demarcations, with distinctive qualities} {5. The Webs - As national Webs, with characteristics that may used for diagnoses}
  20. 20. DIGITAL METHODS OBJECTS & APPROACHES 6. Social Networking Sites - As friends' tastes for 'post-demographic' profiling {7. Wikipedia - As networked content, held together and 'co-authored' by bots} {8. Twitter - De-banalizing tweets and providing accounts of the ground}
  21. 21. 1. THE LINK Google treats hyperlinks as reputation markers, and as indicators of relevance. How to follow the medium's dominant device, and repurpose Google's link handling?
  22. 22. © 2008 Govcom.org 08 E-Culture in the Netherlands: Network and Actors- _______________________ Analysis_ Richard Rogers and Sabine Niederer. Design _Marieke van Dijk. Data_from Virtual Platform. Analysis and visualization from issuecrawler.net and tools.issuecrawler.net by govcom.org. NovemberSeptember E-Culture in the Netherlands: Network and Actors Method Insert the organisations in the Virtual Platform database as the starting points for an Issue Crawler map. Perform this over time and make a ranked list of persistent actors. Rank and profile actors in the shown issue network (August 08), and show their ranking according to Google PageRank per issue. Legend e-cultuur Ranked Actor Profile 1 of 9 (10) inlinks and (8) outlinks Google actor pagerank for issue E cultuur , beeld, fotografie, educatie. Ronnie Stevens, Oleksandr Demchenko, Eileen Bell, Erik Driessen, Hanneke Vos, Frans Nauta ... 134 picnicnetwork.org 25-Aug-2008 e-cultuur Ranked Actor Profile 3 of 9 (9) inlinks and (10) outlinks Google actor pagerank for issue Speech van Staatssecretaris Van der Laan Symposium eCultuur in Beweging, ... Van mijn korte aanwezigheid moet de volgende boodschap uitgaan: eCultuur ... 31 minocw.nl 25-Aug-2008 e-cultuur Ranked Actor Profile 7 of 9 (7) inlinks and (7) outlinks Google actor pagerank for issue creativecommons.org is not returned in the top 1000 results for e-cultuur - creativecommons.org 25-Aug-2008 e-cultuur Ranked Actor Profile 2 of 9 (10) inlinks and (0) outlinks Google actor pagerank for issue vsbfonds.nl is not returned in the top 1000 results for e-cultuur - vsbfonds.nl 25-Aug-2008 e-cultuur Ranked Actor Profile 4 of 9 (9) inlinks and (3) outlinks Google actor pagerank for issue eCultuur De Mondriaan Stichting hecht groot belang aan cultuureducatie, zowel voor jongeren als voor volwassenen. Uit onderzoeken van Ineke ... 41 mondriaanfoundation.nl 25-Aug-2008 e-cultuur Ranked Actor Profile 5 of 9 (8) inlinks and (2) outlinks Google actor pagerank for issue doen.nl is not returned in the top 1000 results for e-cultuur - doen.nl 25-Aug-2008 e-cultuur Ranked Actor Profile 8 of 9 (7) inlinks and (12) outlinks Google actor pagerank for issue waag.org is not returned in the top 1000 results for e-cultuur - waag.org 25-Aug-2008 e-cultuur Ranked Actor Profile 6 of 9 (7) inlinks and (11) outlinks Google actor pagerank for issue File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML Het Virtueel Platform, sectorinstituut voor e-cultuur , stelt zich als. doel om e-cultuur in Nederland te ... 159 fondsbkvb.nl 25-Aug-2008 e-cultuur Ranked Actor Profile 9 of 9 (6) inlinks and (2) outlinks Google actor pagerank for issue Flickr is almost certainly the best online photo management and sharing application in the world. Show off your favorite photos and videos to the world, ... 18 flickr.com 25-Aug-2008 Issue Crawler-discovered actors, significant to the e-culture sector in the Netherlands.* afk.nl aimsterdam.nl amsterdam.nl anymeta.net beeldengeluid.nl creativecommons.nl creativecommons.org cultuurfonds.nl del.icio.us doen.nl emaf.de fabchannel.com feedreader.com filmfestivalrotterdam.com filmfund.nl filmmuseum.nl flickr.com fondsbkvb.nl frankwatching.com hku.nl hollandfestival.nl hyves.nl idfa.nl kunstenaarsenco.nl last.fm marketingfacts.nl mediamatic.nl minocw.nl mondriaanfoundation.nl mondriaanstichting.nl prinsbernhardcultuurfonds.nl syntens.nl transartists.nl uva.nl vsbfonds.nl youtube.com *Each actor was present in the e-culture networks in April, June and August 2008.
  23. 23. . LINKING AS POLITICS OF ASSOCIATION GM Food Network - Aspirational linking, Govcom.org, 1999.
  24. 24. 6 September 2007 What kind of 'state' of the Palestinian Web is suggested by the Fatah-related sites? Method Insert Fatah-related sites in Issue Crawler. Perform co-link analysis. Render as spring map. Findings Fatah's Palestinian Web may be characterized primarily as a 'civic Web'. Fatah-related websites link to each other as well to Palestinian NGOs, Palestinian Media and to a lesser extent to International NGOs and Media. There are no links to other Palestinian political actors or to any official .ps websites. What kind of 'state' of the Palestinian Web is suggested by the Hamas-related sites? Method Insert Hamas-related sites in Issue Crawler. Perform co-link analysis. Render as spring map. Findings The Hamas-affiliated news agency, Palestine Information Center, has numerous mirrored websites in various languages, hosted and registered under the main domain name Palestine-Info, with different domain extensions (Palestine-info.info, Palestine-info.co.uk, Palestine-info.net, etc). These sites, together with otherHamas-related websites do not link out to other (Palestinian) websites.Instead, they provide links to RSS-feed readers, whereby individuals and other sites may subscribe to Hamas-related content. 6 September 20076 September 2007 The Palestinian Political Webs: Separate Spheres? Fatah-related and Hamas-related Networks Compared . Mapping the Palestinian Web Space ___________________________ 07 SeptemberAnalysis by Anat Ben-David. Design by Marieke van Dijk. The research presented in this publication is the result of a project supported by Canada's International Development Research Centre (www.idrc.ca). The Information Society in Palestine project was conceived and implemented by the Advanced Network Research, Cambridge Security Programme, and The SecDev Group (www.secdev.ca). A co-production of the Govcom.org Foundation, Amsterdam, and the Information Society in Palestine project, Cambridge. Fatah-related and Hamas-related networks compared
  25. 25. DYNAMIC URL SAMPLING & INTERNET CENSORSHIP Using lists of sensitive sites for Iran, researchers, using the Issue Crawler, perform hyperlink analysis, discovering further URLs, and run them through a proxy in Iran for code 403’s (forbidden). On 20 September 2007, it fell out of the top 1,000 results. A METHOD FOR THE DISCOVERY OF CENSORED WEBSITES
  26. 26. A Censored Network: Iranian Social, Political and Religious Sites A hyperlink analysis method for censored Website discovery. © 2006 Govcom.org and ONI 06 Internet Censorship Visualizations________________________2006 Data_by OpenNet Initiative and map by Issuecrawler.net. Analysis_by Richard Rogers, Nart Villeneuve and Erik Borra, and design_by Marieke van Dijk. A Censored Network: Iranian Social, Political and Religious Sites IRAN Legend Blocked sites Newly discovered blocked sites Accessible sites Inaccessible site (owing to DNS issue) A co-production between the Govcom.org Foundation, Amsterdam, and the OpenNet Initiative, a partnership between the Citizen Lab at the Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto, the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, the Advanced Network Research Group at the Cambridge Security Programme at Cambridge University, and the Oxford Internet Institute, Oxford University. medusa2000.com Newly discovered blocked sites: http://home.bip.net/radiohambastegi/ http://ir.mondediplo.com/ http://www.alahwaz.com/ http://www.ashoob.com/ http://www.asre-nou.net/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/ http://www.channelonetv.com/ http://www.didgah.com/ http://www.didgah.net/ http://www.fadaee.org/ http://www.fedayi.org/ http://www.fwhi.org/ http://www.geocities.com/~fedaian/ http://www.gozareshgar.com/ http://www.iran-jommelli.com/ http://www.iranazad.com/ http://www.irandokht.com/ http://www.komalah.org/ http://www.kvinnonet.org/ http://www.mani-poesie.de/ http://www.medusa2000.com/ http://www.mihan.net/ http://www.negah1.com/ http://www.peykeiran.com/ http://www.radio-international.org/ http://www.radiobarabari.net/ http://www.rdki.com/ http://www.roozonline.com/ http://www.shahrvand.com/ http://www.zagros.info/ alahwaz.com alefbe.com amnesty.org ashoob.comasre-nou.net avairan.com avayeashena.com avayezan.com azadi-iran.org baztab.com bbc.co.uk/persian channelonetv.com cpiran.org didgah.com didgah.net etehadchap.com etehadefedaian.org ettelaat.com fadaee.org fadai.org fadaian.org fedayi.org forughfarrokhzad.org fwhi.org geocities.com/~fedaian golshan.com golshirifoundation.org gooya.com gozareshgar.com hadisara.com hamshahri.net hayateno.org home.bip.net/radiohambastegi i-w-o.org ihrwg.org ilna.ir ir.mondediplo.com iran-chabar.de iran-e-sabz.org iran-emrooz.de iran-jommelli.com iran-newspaper.com iran.mojahedin.org iranazad.com irandokht.com iransocialforum.org irna.com isnagency.com jebhe.org jebhemelli.net jebhemelli.org jonge-khabar.com kanoon-zendanian.org kargar.org kasravi.info komala.org komalah.org kvinnonet.org mani-poesie.de marxists.org marzeporgohar.org mihan.net nashrieh-nameh.com negah1.com nehzateazadi.org news.gooya.com panahjoo.compayvand.com/news pdk-iran.org peiknet.com peykeiran.com radio-international.org radiobarabari.net radiofarda.com radiokomaleh.com radis.org rahekargar.net ranjbaran.org rdki.com rfi.fr/fichiers/Langues/rfi_persan_main.asp rooydad.com roozonline.com roshangari.com rowzane.com sarbedaran.org sh-shafa.com shahrvand.com shamlou.org shamlu.com sharareha.com sharghnewspaper.com siahkal.com siasate-kargari.com tehrantimes.com toufan.org tudehpartyiran.org un.org voanews.com womeniniran.com wpiran.org wsu-iran.org zagros.info zan.org Method & Findings: Using Issuecrawler.net, crawl URLs (on 30 March 2006) from the OpenNet Initiative's list of Iranian social, political and religious sites. Find network of sites through one iteration of co-link analysis (pictured). Fetch each site through a proxy in Iran (on 18 May 2006). Discover sites previously unknown to be blocked. Compare newly discovered blocked sites with entire list of Iranian Websites checked by the OpenNet Initiative. The finding is the discovery of 30 blocked sites in Iran. Size of node indicates inlink count from network.
  27. 27. 2. THE WEBSITE Usability - "Don't make me think." Also: The Web is blue. Eye-tracking - Heat maps tell stories, and help redesign sites. Site optimization - "Grabbing more eyeballs" Site features - types of interactivity ergo participation How is it often studied? User and Eyeball Studies
  28. 28. 2. THE WEBSITE Internet Archive literature review - articles about it, but not how it's used. Follow Wayback Machine's interface - Privileges single-site histories. Capture a site's history. What does it tell? How else to study it? As an archived object, awaiting use.
  29. 29. 3. THE ENGINE Engines include and exclude by not indexing orphans; by burying sites. Engines encourage attention deficits. Users rarely look past result 10. 'Contemplative man' replaced by 'flickering man.' Googlization turns the engine into an object of mass media critique. Google as monolith. Surveillance studies. One’s search history becomes new databody. How is it often studied? As a dark web-maker, as attention deficit, as 'googlization'
  30. 30. DATABODY STUDIES AOL user 311045 apparently owns a Scion XB automobile in need of new brake pads that is in the process of being upgraded with performance oil filters. User 311045, possibly a Florida resident, is preoccupied with another topic as well: >how to change brake pads on scion xb 2005 >us open cup florida state champions >how to get revenge on a ex >how to get revenge on a ex girlfriend >how to get revenge on a friend who f---ed you over >replacement bumper for scion xb >florida department of law enforcement Stored Search Engine Queries (anonymized) - What do they tell?
  31. 31. DATABODY 'SOLUTIONS' Scroogle.org - An Google search proxy which prevents the searcher's data being stored by Google. TrackMeNot - A Firefox extension that periodically issues randomied search-queries to popular search engines, e.g., AOL, Yahoo!, Google, and MSN. It hides users' actual search trails in a cloud of 'ghost' queries, significantly increasing the difficulty of aggregating such data into accurate or identifying user profiles. Answers to Stored Search Engine Queries (anonymized) - What to do?
  32. 32. 3. THE ENGINE Capture and reinterpret the engine's results. Inquire into the stability of the hierarchies of credibility. Query individual sites for partisanship and commitments with the Lippmannian Device. How to repurpose Google for social research?
  33. 33. ON TOP OF THE ENGINE: THE LIPPMANNIAN DEVICE Capture engine's results. Query each of the first hundred result for terms. How far are terms from the 'top of the Web'? (Source distance.) Inquire also into sources' partisanship and commitments. Google as data source for the study of source partisanship
  34. 34. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Sallie Baliunas) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. Source_google.com Query_“Sallie Baliunas” Method_Search for query “Sallie Baliunas” in top 100. Organized in order. Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Date_30 July 2007 Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. CC_BY:NC:SA climateark.org (2)marshall.org (6) realclimate.org (55) abc.net.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) bbc.co.uk (0) bom.gov.au (0) cbc.ca (0) ciel.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) climatechange.com.au (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) climatecrisis.net (0) dar.csiro.au (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) defra.gov.uk (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ec.gc.ca (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecokids.ca (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) eea.europa.eu (0) eldis.org (0) energy.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) epa.gov (0) exploratorium.edu (0) faqs.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) ft.com (0) g8.gov.uk (0) gcrio.org (0) grida.no (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iea.org (0) iisd.org (0) ipcc.ch (0) iucn.org (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) mofa.go.jp (0) nature.com (0) nature.org (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) open2.net (0) panda.org (0) pewclimate.org (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) scidev.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) state.gov (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) ucar.edu (0) un.org (0) unep.org (0) who.int (0) whoi.edu (0) worldwildlife.org (0) greenpeace.org (0) campaigncc.org (0) sourcewatch.org (0) climatescience.gov (0) CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS
  35. 35. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Timothy Ball) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. Source_google.com Query_“Timothy Ball” Method_Search for query “Timothy Ball” in top 100. Organized in order. Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Date_30 July 2007 Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. CC_BY:NC:SA campaigncc.org (6) marshall.org (2) abc.net.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) bbc.co.uk (0) bom.gov.au (0) cbc.ca (0) ciel.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) climatechange.com.au (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) climatecrisis.net (0) dar.csiro.au (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) defra.gov.uk (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ec.gc.ca (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecokids.ca (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) eea.europa.eu (0) eldis.org (0) energy.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) epa.gov (0) exploratorium.edu (0) faqs.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) ft.com (0) g8.gov.uk (0) gcrio.org (0) grida.no (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iea.org (0) iisd.org (0) ipcc.ch (0) iucn.org (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) mofa.go.jp (0) nature.com (0) nature.org (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) open2.net (0) panda.org (0) pewclimate.org (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) scidev.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) state.gov (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) ucar.edu (0) un.org (0) unep.org (0) who.int (0) whoi.edu (0) worldwildlife.org (0) greenpeace.org (0) climateark.org (0) realclimate.org (0) sourcewatch.org (0) climatescience.gov (0) CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS
  36. 36. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Robert Balling) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. Source_google.com Query_“Robert Balling” Method_Search for query “Robert Balling” in top 100. Organized in order. Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Date_30 July 2007 Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. CC_BY:NC:SA campaigncc.org (2) climateark.org (2)marshall.org (2) realclimate.org (11) sourcewatch.org (4) greenpeace.org (0) climatescience.gov (11) abc.net.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) bbc.co.uk (0) bom.gov.au (0) cbc.ca (0) ciel.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) climatechange.com.au (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) climatecrisis.net (0) dar.csiro.au (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) defra.gov.uk (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ec.gc.ca (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecokids.ca (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) eea.europa.eu (0) eldis.org (0) energy.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) epa.gov (0) exploratorium.edu (0) faqs.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) ft.com (0) g8.gov.uk (0) gcrio.org (0) grida.no (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iea.org (0) iisd.org (0) ipcc.ch (0) iucn.org (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) mofa.go.jp (0) nature.com (0) nature.org (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) open2.net (0) panda.org (0) pewclimate.org (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) scidev.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) state.gov (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) ucar.edu (0) un.org (0) unep.org (0) who.int (0) whoi.edu (0) worldwildlife.org (0) CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS
  37. 37. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Paul Driessen) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. Source_google.com Query_“Paul Driessen” Method_Search for query “Paul Driessen” in top 100. Organized in order. Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Date_30 July 2007 Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. CC_BY:NC:SA campaigncc.org (1) sourcewatch.org (28) abc.net.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) bbc.co.uk (0) bom.gov.au (0) cbc.ca (0) ciel.org (0) climateark.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) climatechange.com.au (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) climatecrisis.net (0) climatescience.gov (0) dar.csiro.au (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) defra.gov.uk (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ec.gc.ca (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecokids.ca (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) eea.europa.eu (0) eldis.org (0) energy.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) epa.gov (0) exploratorium.edu (0) faqs.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) ft.com (0) g8.gov.uk (0) gcrio.org (0) greenpeace.org (0) grida.no (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iea.org (0) iisd.org (0) ipcc.ch (0) iucn.org (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) marshall.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) mofa.go.jp (0) nature.com (0) nature.org (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) open2.net (0) panda.org (0) pewclimate.org (0) realclimate.org (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) scidev.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) state.gov (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) ucar.edu (0) un.org (0) unep.org (0) who.int (0) whoi.edu (0) worldwildlife.org (0) CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS
  38. 38. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Sherwood Idso) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. Source_google.com Query_“Sherwood Idso” Method_Search for query “Sherwood Idso” in top 100. Organized in order. Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Date_30 July 2007 Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. CC_BY:NC:SA realclimate.org (42) sourcewatch.org (14) climatescience.gov (0) greenpeace.org (0) campaigncc.org (1) climateark.org (1) abc.net.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) bbc.co.uk (0) bom.gov.au (0) cbc.ca (0) ciel.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) climatechange.com.au (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) climatecrisis.net (0) dar.csiro.au (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) defra.gov.uk (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ec.gc.ca (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecokids.ca (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) eea.europa.eu (0) eldis.org (0) energy.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) epa.gov (0) exploratorium.edu (0) faqs.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) ft.com (0) g8.gov.uk (0) gcrio.org (0) grida.no (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iea.org (0) iisd.org (0) ipcc.ch (0) iucn.org (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) marshall.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) mofa.go.jp (0) nature.com (0) nature.org (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) open2.net (0) panda.org (0) pewclimate.org (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) scidev.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) state.gov (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) ucar.edu (0) un.org (0) unep.org (0) who.int (0) whoi.edu (0) worldwildlife.org (0) CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS
  39. 39. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Richard Linzen) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. Source_google.com Query_“Richard Linzen” Method_Search for query “Richard Linzen” in top 100. Organized in order. Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Date_30 July 2007 Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. CC_BY:NC:SA realclimate.org (13) campaigncc.org (0) climatescience.gov (0)sourcewatch.org (0) abc.net.au (0) ciel.org (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) climatecrisis.net (0) dfat.gov.au (0) eldis.org (0) envirolink.org (0) faqs.org (0) ft.com (0) iucn.org (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) mofa.go.jp (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) ucar.edu (0) who.int (0) acfonline.org.au (0) bbc.co.uk (0) bom.gov.au (0) cbc.ca (0) climateark.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) climatechange.com.au (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) dar.csiro.au (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) defra.gov.uk (0) ec.gc.ca (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecokids.ca (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) eea.europa.eu (0) energy.gov (0) epa.gov (0) exploratorium.edu (0) foe.co.uk (0) g8.gov.uk (0) gcrio.org (0) greenpeace.org (0) grida.no (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iea.org (0) iisd.org (0) ipcc.ch (0) marshall.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) nature.com (0) nature.org (0) panda.org (0) pewclimate.org (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) scidev.net (0)state.gov (0) theglobeandmail.com (0)un.org (0) unep.org (0) whoi.edu (0) worldwildlife.org (0) CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS
  40. 40. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Patrick Michaels) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. Source_google.com Query_“Patrick Michaels” Method_Search for query “Patrick Michaels” in top 100. Organized in order. Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Date_30 July 2007 Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. CC_BY:NC:SA campaigncc.org (3) climateark.org (1) climatecrisis.net (1) climatescience.gov (7) epa.gov (0) ipcc.ch (4) marshall.org (2) pewclimate.org (2) realclimate.org (45) abc.net.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) bbc.co.uk (0) bom.gov.au (0) cbc.ca (0) ciel.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) climatechange.com.au (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) defra.gov.uk (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ec.gc.ca (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecokids.ca (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) eea.europa.eu (0) eldis.org (0) energy.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) exploratorium.edu (0) faqs.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) ft.com (0) g8.gov.uk (0) gcrio.org (0) greenpeace.org (0) grida.no (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iea.org (0) iisd.org (0) iucn.org (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) mofa.go.jp (0) nature.com (0) nature.org (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) open2.net (0) panda.org (0) CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS
  41. 41. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Steven Milloy) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. Source_google.com Query_“Stephen Milloy” Method_Search for query “Stephen Milloy” in top 100. Organized in order. Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Date_30 July 2007 Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. CC_BY:NC:SA bbc.co.uk (0) climateark.org (2) climatechallenge.gov.uk (1) climatechange.ca.gov (1) climatechangecollege.org (1) climatecrisis.net (1) dar.csiro.au (1) defra.gov.uk (1) ec.gc.ca (0) ecn.ac.uk (1) ecy.wa.gov (1) eea.europa.eu (1) energy.gov (1) envirolink.org (1) epa.gov (1) exploratorium.edu (0) greenpeace.org (1) ipcc.ch (1) ltscotland.org.uk (1) metoffice.gov.uk (1) mofa.go.jp (1) nature.org (1) ncdc.noaa.gov (1) pewclimate.org (1) realclimate.org (33) sourcewatch.org (27) state.gov (1) unep.org (1) who.int (1) whoi.edu (1) abc.net.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) bom.gov.au (0) campaigncc.org (0) cbc.ca (0) ciel.org (0) climatechange.com.au (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) climatescience.gov (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ecokids.ca (0) eldis.org (0) faqs.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) ft.com (0) g8.gov.uk (0) gcrio.org (0) grida.no (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iea.org (0) iisd.org (0) iucn.org (0) marshall.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) nature.com (0) open2.net (0) panda.org (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) ucar.edu (0) un.org (0) worldwildlife.org (0) CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS
  42. 42. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Frederick Seitz) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. Source_google.com Query_“Frederick Seitz” Method_Search for query “Frederick Seitz” in top 100. Organized in order. Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Date_30 July 2007 Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. CC_BY:NC:SA campaigncc.org (1) climateark.org (4)marshall.org (8) realclimate.org (35) sourcewatch.org (21) abc.net.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) bbc.co.uk (0) bom.gov.au (0) cbc.ca (0) ciel.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) climatechange.com.au (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) climatecrisis.net (0) climatescience.gov (0) dar.csiro.au (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) defra.gov.uk (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ec.gc.ca (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecokids.ca (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) eea.europa.eu (0) eldis.org (0) energy.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) epa.gov (0) exploratorium.edu (0) faqs.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) ft.com (0) g8.gov.uk (0) gcrio.org (0) greenpeace.org (0) grida.no (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iea.org (0) iisd.org (0) ipcc.ch (0) iucn.org (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) mofa.go.jp (0) nature.com (0) nature.org (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) open2.net (0) panda.org (0) pewclimate.org (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) scidev.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) state.gov (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) ucar.edu (0) un.org (0) unep.org (0) who.int (0) whoi.edu (0) worldwildlife.org (0) CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS
  43. 43. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (S. Fred Singer) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. Source_google.com Query_“Fred Singer” Method_Search for query “Fred Singer” in top 100. Organized in order. Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Date_30 July 2007 Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. CC_BY:NC:SA campaigncc.org (1) climateark.org (1) climatescience.gov (11) greenpeace.org (1) realclimate.org (14) sourcewatch.org (64) abc.net.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) bbc.co.uk (0) bom.gov.au (0) cbc.ca (0) ciel.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) climatechange.com.au (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) climatecrisis.net (0) dar.csiro.au (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) defra.gov.uk (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ec.gc.ca (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecokids.ca (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) eea.europa.eu (0) eldis.org (0) energy.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) sourcewatch.org (64) envirolink.org (0) sourcewatch.org (64) epa.gov (0) exploratorium.edu (0) faqs.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) ft.com (0) g8.gov.uk (0) gcrio.org (0) grida.no (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iea.org (0) iisd.org (0) ipcc.ch (0) iucn.org (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) marshall.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (64) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (64) nature.com (0) nature.org (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) open2.net (0) panda.org (0) pewclimate.org (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) scidev.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) state.gov (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) ucar.edu (0) un.org (0) unep.org (0) who.int (0) whoi.edu (0) worldwildlife.org (0) CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS
  44. 44. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Willie Soon) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. Source_google.com Query_“Willie Soon” Method_Search for query “Willie Soon” in top 100. Organized in order. Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Date_30 July 2007 Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. CC_BY:NC:SA campaigncc.org (2) marshall.org (4) realclimate.org (27) sourcewatch.org (0) climatescience.gov (0) greenpeace.org (0) climateark.org (1) abc.net.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) bbc.co.uk (0) bom.gov.au (0) cbc.ca (0) ciel.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) climatechange.com.au (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) climatecrisis.net (0) dar.csiro.au (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) defra.gov.uk (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ec.gc.ca (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecokids.ca (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) eea.europa.eu (0) eldis.org (0) energy.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) epa.gov (0) exploratorium.edu (0) faqs.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) ft.com (0) g8.gov.uk (0) gcrio.org (0) grida.no (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iea.org (0) iisd.org (0) ipcc.ch (0) iucn.org (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) mofa.go.jp (0) nature.com (0) nature.org (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) open2.net (0) panda.org (0) pewclimate.org (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) scidev.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) state.gov (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) ucar.edu (0) un.org (0) unep.org (0) who.int (0) whoi.edu (0) worldwildlife.org (0) CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS
  45. 45. 6. SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES Presentation of (a more expansive) self. MySpace and Facebook have different 'classes' of users. Distinction between real-life friends and 'friended' friends. How are they often studied? Presentation of self, class conflict, friends?
  46. 46. 6. SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES Post-demographics is a recognition that profiles are made of interests, i.e., favorite media interests (movies, TV shows, books) Study how profilers make use of preferences. How else may they be studied? As post-demographics
  47. 47. CONCLUSION: METHODS IN NEW MEDIA 1. Links as reputation markers. 2. Websites as archived objects awaiting study. 3. Engines as epistemological machines with new orders of things. {4. Spheres as demaracted engine spaces for comparative study.} {5. Webs as national, to diagnose the condition of a country.} 6. Social networking sites as sets of friends' (post-demographic) tastes. {7. Wikipedia as networked content, dependent on bots for quality.} {8. Twitter as source of accounts on the ground.} DIGITAL METHODS FOR (NEW) MEDIA RESEARCH
  48. 48. "There are methods in media." THANK YOU Digital Methods Initiative, http://www.digitalmethods.net Govcom.org Foundation, http://www.govcom.org Prof. Dr. Richard Rogers, University of Amsterdam, rogers@uva.nl

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