Cemap 1-final-copy


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Cemap 1-final-copy

  1. 1. CeMAPModule 1
  3. 3. SECTION 1: THE UK FINANCIAL SERVICES INDUSTRY 1.1 The Functions of the Financial Services Industry Bartering = exchange goods and services - Problem: Size of some transactions unmatched MONEY (£££) : Why use money? 1) Medium of exchange = Separate commodity to exchange for products 2) Unit of account (a/c) = Measure product value Acceptable to Sufficient all parties in quantity 5 properties Divides to small units Of £££ Portable Store of value = can be saved and used later
  4. 4. Means of achieving otherwise Convenience difficult objective e.g. current a/c e.g. mortgage Aim of Financial Services IndustryProtection from risk e.g. insurance Money from lenders to borrowers
  5. 5. 1. 1. 1 1.1.1 Intermediation Surplus sector = cash rich - lend surplus fund to earn money (1) Low interest rate (IR) given Money lent to(2)-(1) Financial Intermediary e.g. banks & buildingIntermediaries societies (socs)profit margin (2) High IR Money lent to charged Deficit sector = fewer liquidity - pay money to anyone willing to lendDisintermediation = “cut out middle man” e.g. company (Co.) raises funds from public by issuing shares
  6. 6. Why use the financial intermediary? Problem without … Solved with …Geographical Locating lenders & borrowers Easy to findlocationAggregation Potential lender might not have Retail deposits are low, whilst loans are high enough - aggregate small depositsMaturity Borrower may need fund longer Most deposits are short term, whilst loans fortransformation than lender willing long term (e.g. mortgages: 20-25yrs) - range of deposit a/c – not all depositor funds w/d at same timeRisk Individual depositors reluctant to Allow spreading risk over variety oftransformation lend all savings to individual/Co. borrowers … if a few fail to repay- intermediary absorbs loss
  7. 7. 1.1.2 Risk ManagementInsurance = “means of shifting burden of risk by pooling to minimise financial loss” Depositors Small deposits made by each individual depositor FUND Large payment out from insurance fund e.g. car insurance payments for car accident caused by a depositor from this insurance fund 1.1.3 ‘Product sales’ intermediaries - Bring product providers (e.g. banks/insurance companies) & potential customers E.g. Mortgage advisers, financial advisers, insurance brokers 1.1.2, 1.1.3
  8. 8. 1.2 Financial Institutions <1980s: more defined boundaries between different financial organisations E.g. retail banks, wholesales banks, life assurance companies etc NOW: distinction blurred/disappeared E.g. bancassurance = banks owning insurance companies1.2.1 The Bank of England (BOE) - UK central bank (Federal Reserve – United States) (European Central Bank – Europe) 2 1.
  9. 9. Makes funds available when banking system Manage UK gold & foreign short of liquidity – maintain confidence currency reserves for Treasury Financial cover ஃ when gvt in: Foreign Lender of - Deficit … exchange BOE make automatic loan to market last resort gvt Issuer of - Surplus … bank notes BOE may lend out as part of its Banker general debt management policy toRegulating banking sector Functions government (gvt)NOW: FSA (1/6/98) of BOE Previously in charge of Banker to banksManaging new issues of gilt-edged Advisorsecurities (gilts) to gvt All major banks have a/c at BOE for: - deposit/obtain cashNOW: Debt Mgt Office (Treasury) … - settling clearingBOE avoids conflicts of settling IR - other transactions … high influence on IR Help formulate monetary policy (since 5/97) & full responsibility for settling IR Bank Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) - meet monthly - set base rate to ensure gvt inflation target met
  10. 10. 1.2.2 Proprietary Organisations Limited (Ltd.) Co. share Co. profit = dividends ஃ owned by shareholders: contribute to decisions on how Co. run Mutual Organisations Not Co. ஃ no shareholders Owned by members Proportion of Member typeSome demutualised (i.e. became E.g. mutualisationproprietary organisations) Small With-profit policyholderse.g. Norwich Union, Life assurance Co.Standard Life Building society Fully Friendly society Fully Depositors & borrowers Since Building Society Act 1986 building soc could demutualise (convert into banks ஃ Ltd Co.) - need approval by members readily given as members get a high number of free shares Problem: Carpet bagging = opening a/c in building soc to get subsequent shares Solution: building soc protect long-term members by restricting opening of new a/c 1.2.2
  11. 11. 1.2.3 Retail Banking Common services (e.g. deposits, loans) to personal & corporate customers E.g. High-street banks, building socs, supermarkets - Tesco1.2.3 Wholesale Banking Raise money via wholesale money markets where financial institutes & other large Co.s buy & sell financial assets Top up deposits from branch networks as required e.g. financial houses main retail banks e.g. if bank has opportunity to make substantial building soc profitable loan but doesn’t have adequate deposit ஃ can raise money quickly on interbank markets Can raise up to 50% of their liabilities via wholesale banking London interbank offered rate (LIBOR) - Includes ~400 banks = IR charged - recycle surplus cash held in banks - fixed daily (between banks, specialist money brokers) - reference rate for corporate lending ‘LIBOR + specific margin’ - Main difference between retail & wholesale banking was in size – NOW: less distinction
  12. 12. 1.2.4 Money Transmission & Clearing Process Cash Branch Internet includes method Cheque clearing Direct debit Automatic teller Telephone Credit & machine (ATM) Standing electronic orders transfers Current a/c - Basis of money transmission for most people - Money paid in & out by cash, cheque, electronically, overdraftChanges to these a/cs overtime: ‘No frill a/c’, where customers paid fee for service bank provided Due to high competition: a/cs had interest & benefits, no fees - But still 1.5 million households not have current a/c ஃ New type a/c: simple, basic ஃ encourage more people to open a/c including those on: pension state benefit 1.2.4 Features: cash card, direct debit but no cheque book or overdraft
  13. 13. Clearing = process, at the end of each business day, of settling between banks the transfer of £££, due to customers using cheques, direct debit, debit card etc ஃ transfer of net figure from 1 bank to another via a/c in BOE - Due to automated transfer methods: cheque volume - Most banks have clearing system with other banks - those which do not: require an agency arrangement with a clearing bank Electronic, same day interbank transfers Association of major banks & for high-value wholesale payment building socs which co-ordinates UK clearing services Clearing House Automated Name changed fromClear cheques Payment Sys (CHAPS) Bankers’ Automated& paper credits Clearing Services Ltd (BACS) 3-day Association for payment Operates bulk electronic process clearing (e.g. direct debits) & clearing services (APACS) Cheque & credit card Co. Voca Ltd
  14. 14. 1.31.3 The Role of Gvt 1.3.1 Influence of the European Union (EU)- UK member since 1973 - not adopt euro ஃ UK has own currency & monetary policy BUT influenced by EU policies & laws including financial services- EU parliament & Council of ministers act on suggestions from EU Commissionto adopt EU laws The laws can be … 1) Regulations - general application - entirely binding - apply to all states (unless specified otherwise) 2) Directives - objective must be achieved in specific time - But how it is achieved is up to national authorities in each state
  15. 15. 1.3.2 Regulations in UK Level Effect 1st EU law Impact UK financials industry 2nd Acts of Parliament Set laws via subsidiary law (statutory instruments) 3rd Regulatory bodies Monitor regulation & issue rules on how rules are to be met e.g. FSA 4th Financial institutes & Ensure financial institutes themselves internal departments are operating legally & competently 5th Arbitration schemes Customer complaints referred to e.g. Financial Ombudsman Service1.3.2
  16. 16. 1.3.3 Taxation Raise revenue Why tax? Control money supply - If gvt general tax … less £££ for investment & loan repayment … less attractive for investors to invest 2 levels of tax on investments (e.g. unit & investments trusts): 1) fund managers taxed 2) investors taxed1.3.3
  17. 17. Country individual treats as home, even if they live for a time in another country Domicile Domicile of origin = domicile of individuals father (or mother if unmarried) on date of their birth Domicile of choice = change to different domicile - Achieved by putting permanent roots in a different country & severing previousEffects Domicile UK? Inheritance tax Inheritance tax Yes (birth/live 17 of Any assets worldwide previous 20 yrs in UK) No Only on UK assets Individual present for at least 183 days/tax yr in UK Income tax – on worldwide (un)earned & (un)brought to UK Residence Effects Capital gains tax (CGT) – on worldwide gains UK has double taxation agreement with other countries ஃ an individual is not taxed 2 times on the same income/gains
  18. 18. Income Tax = liability based on income received in a tax/fiscal year (6 Apr – 5 Apr next year)Process of deciding income tax: Budget delivered (each yr) containing taxation proposal Finance Bill published Approved by parliament & receives Royal Assent Law made: new Finance Act (main law: Income & Corporation Taxes Act 1988) R85 form – filled to declare individual (children & adults) does not need to pay tax & can received interest from certain deposits gross, without tax deduction at source - Children’s income from settlement by parents is treated as parents income for tax purposes ஃ cannot set children’s unused allowance against this income
  19. 19. Income taxed NOT income taxedEmployment salary inc bonus, commission, Redundancy pay & other losses (unless >£30000taxable benefits ஃ excess tax)Pensions & retirement annuities Interest on National Savings CertificateProfits from trade/profession Capital part of purchase life annuityTips ISAs & PEPsInterest on banks & building soc deposits Gift Aid paymentsDividends from Co.s Proceeds qualifying life assurance policyIncome from trusts Gambling profitsIncome from gvt & local authority stocks Lottery prizesRents & other land & property income Wedding presents & presents from employerValue of benefits (if total income + benefits > Retirement & redundancy money£8500) – (Co. cars – tax based on CO2emission rating) Education grants to full time students War widow pension Some social security benefits Housing grants Interest on tax rebate
  20. 20. AllowancesPersonal allowance = income amount received each yr before tax - Applies to all UK residence incl. children - Not transferable to anyone else (2009/’10) £6,475 £9,490 – people >65+ yrs £9,640 – people >75+ yrsFor people >65yrs with income exceeding specific figure (£22,900 - ’09/10), personal allowancereduces £1 every £2 income over threshold (not reduce below under-65 allowance) Blind Person’s allowance (’09/10): £1,890 - transferable to blind/non-blind spouseMarried couples allowance - Applied before April 2000 (now withdrawn, unless 1 spouse is born before 6/4/’35)
  21. 21. Gross income – Pension contribution – Allowable expense Taxable income Scheme set by employer/ to Cost carried out by personal/stakeholder pension employment, allowances Band Taxable income (£) (’09/’10) % taxed Earned income Investment income Not apply if individual non- savings taxable income is Lower 2,440 10 >£2,440. Basic 37,400 2,441 - 37,400 20 Higher > 37,400 > 37,400 40E.g. 1 Married man aged 30 earns £20,000pa E.g. 2 A single woman aged 40 earns £50,000pa(’09/’10) building society income, & no other (’09/’10). She is employed and has personalincome. His has a personal allowance of £6,475 allowance of £6475 Gross income: £50,000Gross income: £20,000 Personal allowance: £6,475Personal allowance: £6,475 Taxable income: £43,525 (50000-6475)Taxable income: £13,525 (20000-6475) £2,440 at 10% £244 (2440*0.1)£2,440 at 10%: £244 (2440*0.1) £34,960 (37400-2440) at 20%: £6,992 (34960*0.2)£11,085 (13525-2440) at 20%: £2,217 (11085*0.2) £6,125 (43525-37400) at 40%: £2,450Total taxable: £2461 (244+2217) Total taxable: £9,686 (244+6992+2450)
  22. 22. - Most investment income taxed at source at basic rate: 20% Non-taxpayers get tax-free interest (by signing declaration) Higher taxpayers pay further 20% of gross interest via tax return/coding Net rate Gross rate = 0.8 (100%-20%)- Share dividends – receive net of nominal 10% tax Satisfy lower & basic rate taxpayers Higher taxpayer pays further 22.5% (32.5% total) Non-taxpayers can NOT reclaim 10% Net rate Gross rate = 0.9
  23. 23. Employees - Income tax paid via pay-as-you-earn (PAYE) system – employers calc using tables by HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) How calc? Employers supplied with tax code number for each employee Amount of ‘free’ pay incl P40 given to employee by employer in Apr each yr allowances, benefits etcPrevious yr:Tax deduction, & over/under paymentsNI contribution, P45 to employee & HMRC by employer when leaving job from previous yrtax code Given to new employer – for information about tax deductions Self-Employed (inc business partners) Total Revenue - total expenses - Capital allowance => Income tax paid to HMRC based on net profits - Self-assessment rules: taxpayer calculate own liability & sends it to the tax authorities for approval /Accountant/HMRC
  24. 24. Classification of Type of Income Before: Classified under schedules A, D, E & F – abolished Now: Income Tax (Earnings Income Tax (Trading & & Pensions) Act 2003 Other Income) Act 2005 Covers incomes inCovers income previous in Schedule E: other schedules - Employment income - Pensions - Taxable social security benefits Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 - Trading income - Property income - Savings & investment (from self employment) income incl interest - Dividends
  25. 25. Income taxed at Source - HMRC collects income tax at source from person making payment, not the recipient - Tax deducted at basic rate - Further liability at higher rates collected by direct assessment on taxpayer E.g. in PAYE – employee receives net of tax1. Tax Paid Investment Income - Investment income taxed at source - Recipient has no further liability (unless higher rate taxpayer) - Non-taxpayers reclaim by completing tax return Interest from bank & element of certain building soc deposit life annuities loan stocks fixed-interest E.g. of investments Income from trusts loans to Co.s income taxed at source & settlements debentures Interest from certain Dividends from UK Co.s finance Co. deposits (not income tax liable but tax credit) Distributions from unit trusts
  26. 26. Taxation of Proceeds from Life Assurance Policy - Investors premium paid to Co.s life fund which given to different assets e.g. property, shares- Basic rate tax on income (e.g. dividend, gilt interest, rental income)- 20% capital gains tax(CGT) on profit when fund sold- taxed at source- Higher rate taxpayer further liability 20% of gain (ஃ total: 40%) for non-qualifying policy Qualifying policy rules: 1) Premiums paid ½-yearly / ¼-yearly/yearly, monthly for at least 10 yrs - if cease before 10yrs or ¾ of terms agreed – non-qualifying 2) Premium in 1 yr must not exceed twice the premium in any other yr or 1/8 of total premiums payable 3) Sum paid to death must be at least 75% total premiums payable
  27. 27. Taxation of Proceeds from Unit Trust Collective investment under trust deed - Income generated via share dividend- Unit holders receive net of tax - ஃ no liability to basic rate taxpayer - further liability to higher rate taxpayer- Gilt interest & dividends on foreign shares do not pay UK tax Pay basic rate tax Pay corporate tax- Exempt from CGT, although unit holder maybe liable if sell at profit
  28. 28. National Insurance (NI) = tax on earned incomeClass Rate 1 - 11% on earnings between primary threshold (£110/wk (’09/’10)) to upper limit (£840/wk (’09/’10)) - Reduced level of 1% on earnings above upper limit - Employers pay 12.8% on employees earning above lower limit = secondary threshold (£110/wk (’09/’10)) – but no upper limit - Lower contribution if employees contracted out of state 2nd pension (S2P) 2 - Self-employed flat rate £2.40/wk- if profit exceed lower threshold (£5,075/wk (’09/’10)) - Paid monthly direct debit 3 - Voluntary contributions by people who otherwise not allowed full basic pension or sickness benefits (e.g. career break, working abroad) - Flat rate £12.05/wk (’09/’10) 4 - Additional contribution by self-employed in annual profits between minimum & maximum level - Paid to HMRC ½-yearly with income tax - Rate: 8% profits between £5,715 - £43,875 + 1% profits > £43,875
  29. 29. Capital Gains Tax (CGT) = paid on net gain on disposal of physical & financial assts inc shares, unit trust Sale, transferring/giving asset, received compensation for loss/destructionCGT not paid in some situations : Gains on qualifying life assurance policies Property disposed due Gilts to death (get inheritance tax) disposed of by owner Main private residence National Savings certificate & PAYE scheme Ordinary private E.g. Premium bond & lottery winnings motor vehicles Personal belongings, antiques, Foreign currency for personal expenditure jewellery etc – if <£6000 ISA National, historic, PEP (personal equity plans) scientific gift that is nations interest
  30. 30. - If a loss is made on asset when it is disposed, individual can offset it against gains elsewhere - How? 1st: Offset loss against gains in the year the loss occurred Then: Residual loss maybe carried forward to future years But capital loss can not be carried back to a previous year - Tax payable on net gains in tax year (after deducting allowable capital losses in same/previous year) - Each individual has annual CGT allowance (£10,100 (‘09/’10)) level of gains allowed in year before CGT start incl. to trustees of mentally disabled & personal representatives: £5,050 (’09/’10) - can not carry forward to next year if unused - Capital loss can be carried forward but annual exemption can not ஃ losses brought forward to extent required to reduce gain to level of annual exemption residual losses then carried forward
  31. 31. Calculation of CGT Rules:1) Costs of purchase can be added to the purchase price, & selling costs deducted from sale price 2) Cost of improvements to assets can be treated as part of purchase price (not incl. maintenance & repair cost) 3) Capital gains before 31/3/82 have different tax – value on 31/2/82 substituted for actual purchase price Gains – Annual CGT Allowance – Losses  Taxable Gains Subject to 18% tax - Low rate of 10% on the first £1million of cumulative gains from disposal of trading businesses & shares = Entrepreneur’s relief To claim this relief: individual must own at least 5% of ordinary share capital of the business (most property letting businesses are exempt from this relief)
  32. 32. E.g. Vanessa brought £50,000 units in unit trust ( May’04) & sold for £80,000 ( June ‘08). At the same time she sold £10,000 shares that she brought for £12,000. What CGT will she pay? - Gain on unit trust: £30,000 - Annual allowance: £10,100 (9,600) - Loss on shares: £2,000 - Taxable gain: £17,900 (30000 – 10100 – 2000) - Tax at 18%: £3,222- Problem: CGT is due on the whole gain in the year when gain realised, even if the gain made wasin a longer period, but only 1 annual exemption against years worth of gain - some shareholders & unit-trust holders sell holding each year & then repurchase the following day ஃ smaller gain covered by that years exemption = bed & breakfasting Out-lawed in ’98 Budget: shares & unit trusts sold & repurchased within 30 days treated as if these 2 transactions did not occurred
  33. 33. Roll-Over Relief (ROR) = Assets disposed of are replaced by other business assets, on which ROR claimed ஃ instead of CGT on original disposal, deferred until final disposal made- Replacement asset must be brought between 1 year before to 3 years after sale of original asset- Relief claimed up to the lower of either the gain or amount reinvested Hold-Over Relief = CGT on gain of gift of certain assets can be deferred until recipient disposes - assets used by donor in his/family Co./group trade - shares in transferor’s personal Co./unlisted trading Co. - agricultural property – relief from inheritance tax - assets where immediate charged inheritance tax Payment of CGT - CGT charged on gains from disposal in 6 Apr to 5 Apr next year - CGT paid on 31 Jan at end of the tax year when gains realised - Details of chargeable assets disposed during tax year included in individuals tax return
  34. 34. Inheritance Tax (IHT) = Tax on estates of deceased, on… 1) On 40% of the amount estate exceeds nil-rate band (£325,000 (’09/’10) - From 9/10/’07: surviving spouses/civil partners can increase their own nil-rate band by the proportion of un-used nil-rate band from the earlier death of their spouse/partner 2) Potentially exempt transfers (PETs) = gifts made during persons lifetime -Tapering relief (scaling down) over final 4/7yrs before death 80% (4th yr), 60% (5th yr), 40% (6th yr), 20% (7th yr) of max (if longer ஃ exempt) - some lifetime gifts to Co.s, organisations, trusts not PETs but chargeable lifetime transfers: tax decreased rate of 20% immediately due & full tax if donor dies within 7yrs (tapering relief) Donation to charity, political party, to nation Small gifts up to £250 per recipient in each tax yr Transfer bet spouses during life & death ExemptionsGifts on regulated basis from income Wedding gifts up to £1000 (increasedwhich not affect donors standard living to £5000 for gifts from parents & £2500 from grandparents Up to £3000pa for gifts not covered by other exemptions. Any remainder can be carried only forward 1yr
  35. 35. Value Added Tax (VAT) = Indirect tax on sale of most goods/services in UK: 17.5%Exemptions: financial transactions (loans, insurance) (not incl financial advice) supply of health & education goods: not technically exempt as they have zero-rated tax subjects to VAT but current rate is 0% - Business regulated for VAT if annual turnover > £68,000 (’09/’10) Adv: - VAT paid on business expenses can reclaimed Disadv: - increase expense to customers (charged VAT) - increase administration (collecting, accounting & paying VAT) Stamp Duty = Tax paid by purchaser with respect to certain transaction e.g. security, land- Tax imposed on documents that give effect to the transaction – e.g. conveyancing of property- Documents need stamping within a certain time period, else transfer not accepted- % of purchase price Stamp Duty Reserve Tax: on securities = 1.5% of market value for bearer instrument shares = 0.5% Financial instruments e.g. bonds, where name of owner not recorded ஃ possession of certificate only proof of ownership ஃ title physically passes From 13/3/’08: Transactions in a Stamp Duty Reserve Tax charge of < £5 are exempt
  36. 36. -Stamp Duty Land Tax - dependent on property value Stamp duty rate (%) Purchase price of the property (£) 0 < 125,000 (150,000 in spec disadvantaged areas) 1 125,001 – 250,000 3 250,001 – 500,000 4 > 500,000 Corporation Tax = Paid by limited Co.s on profit – within ‘accounting period’ (financial yr) Trading profitsAlso paid by: 1/4/08 – 31/3/09 Capital gainsclubs, societies, associations, trade& housing associations & by co-operatives Income from lettings Interest on depositsNOT: conventional businesspartnership, ltd liability partnership,self-employed individual
  37. 37. - Co.s in UK pay corporate tax on worldwide profits Co.s elsewhere only pay corporation tax on profits from their UK-based businessCo.s rate Profit (£) Rate When dueSmall 0 – 300,000 21% ’09/’10 9 months after end of relevant accounting periodMarginal 300,001 – 1.5 mil Marginal 9 months after end of relevant accounting periodMain > 1.5 mil 28% ’09/’10 Quarter-yearly instalments half–way through accounting period Withholding Tax = tax on income levied at service before that income received E.g income tax on UK employees - Tax levied, in specific countries, on income ((un)earned) by non-residents ஃ income not leave country without being taxed E.g. UK withholding tax of 20% on earnings of non-resident entertainers & sports people - UK has double taxation agreement with 100 countries ஃ not taxed twice
  38. 38. 1.3.4 1.3.4 Economic & Monetary Policy Microeconomic objective = concern individual firms/consumer Macroeconomic objective = long-term objectives economic policies gvt trying to achieve - economic aggregates = total picture of economy as whole Balance of payment Unemployment Price stability Satisfactory equilibrium economic growth Gvt tries to expand economy Need low, controlled Foreign currency: so labour, land & capital inflation rate expenditure = receipt Economic output is growing in real terms over time & Rising level of prices: increasing standard of living £££ into country = £££ out Rate of money supply>- Linked to exchange rate growth of good/services UK economy grew fast in 2000- Gvt aim: currency price stable – now onset of recession (0 inflation is undesirable - 2006: annual growth of grossஃ not so …  unstimulated investment) domestic product (GDP) at 3% - high as to reduce export - low as to increase inflation Measure of value of goods & services produced within country over specific period of time - Affects US & EU economy
  39. 39. - The four macroeconomic objectives work in 2 pairs: E.g if unemployment growth inflation improve balance of payment- Impossible to achieve all 4 E.g unemployment inflation- UK economic policy (until recently) was ‘stop-go’ = gvt cause fast and slow economic growth Employment Growth Inflation Inflation Growth Unemployment - Gvt aim: - aggregate demand in line with productive economic capacity - low inflation rate for long periods of sustained economic growth average annual rate of 2% (max divergence 1% either side) measured by consumer price index (CPI) replaced retail price index (RPI) derived in same way as harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP): used in eurozone
  40. 40. How do the gvt keep inflation regulated? 1) Monetary Policy – acts on money supply & IRs History: Monetary policy was 2nd place to fiscal policy, as thought fiscal policy had more effect on demand, whilst monetary policy just fine tunes economy 1979: monetary policy more important in controlling economy Method: (by monetary economists) 1) Money supply Inflation To control increasing £££ supply must control amount credit creation credit creation by banks By manipulating IR* – influence demand for credit 2) Bank restrict amount lend * policy in UK 3) Borrowers required to provide minimum cash deposit to make purchase - Monetary Policy Committee decides IR BOE lend to banks/other institutes = Repo rate (Base rate) - Change IR? direction? how much?Treasury can give BOE determines other IRs chargedinstructions in ‘extreme Announce decision immediately to borrowers & paid to lenderseconomic circumstances’ Minutes published 2 weeks later
  41. 41. Impact of IR changes- Banks base rate is a variable rate – as it follows BOE IR- Until recently, most IR on loans were variable - Disadv: (especially in large transactions e.g. mortgage)  Income is not variable ஃ difficult for borrower as: Sudden IR borrower unable to make repayment repossession- Due to high, active wholesale £££ market – lender get amounts at fixed rate Pass rate to borrowers & others - Disadv:  borrower lose out if variable rate lowers below the fixed rate  penalty if pay off mortgage within fixed rate period (protects lender)  arrangement fee – charged by lender for reserving sufficient fund at fixed rate- In UK: fixed rate mortgages – short initial period variable rate – remainder of term- Other EU countries: longer fixed term
  42. 42. 2) Fiscal Policy (MP) – manipulate finances of public sector … influence money supply & economy activity Gvt, local authority, public corporations - Public sector provide national/regional services e.g. education, healthcare, transport Funds from private sector Funds from individuals & firms via (in)direct tax - Changes in public & private sector affect the economy - Outcomes: Budget … Amount of tax … £££ to Result on economy public sector spending Balanced = - Neutral Surplus > - Employment - Money supply Deficit < - Employment - Money supply (inflation) Gvt borrow to finance the deficitPublic Sector Net Cash Required (PSNCR) = cash measure of public sector short-term net financing required
  43. 43. - Aim of gvt: Increase sustainable level of growth & employment - Fiscal policy maintains sound public finances over the medium term 2 fiscal rules: 1) Golden rule = gvt borrow to INVEST, not fund current spending 2) Sustainable investment rule = public sector net debt, as proportion of GDP, is held over the economic cycle at a stable level - Fiscal policy outlined by gvt Chancellor of Exchequer in the annual Budget (March) Pre-budget report – allow public to consult on policies Revenue plans (incl individual & Co tax) Gvt planned expenditure- Monetary policy – acts on economy as whole- Fiscal policy – can have macroeconomic & microeconomic effects & target specific parts of economy E.g. 1) Tax incentives to manufacturing Co.s to boost employment 2) Gvt grants to firms that move to underdeveloped geographic areas
  44. 44. LOOK AT APPENDIX (I) 1.3.5 Welfare & Benefits 1.3.5- UK gvt provide assistance in need- Lots of critics, as it is expensive. But the system is envy of other countries- High number of benefits, but low amount £££ ஃ benefits are only to get individual out of extreme poverty Support for People on Low Incomes  (= specifications) Working Tax Credit = Top up of earnings on low incomes for disability/ cost of qualifying childcare  People (16+yrs) with children, work 16> hrs/wk  People (25+yrs) with no children, work 30 hrs/wk - 16+yrs, work 16yrs/wk, disabled - they/partner 50+yrs & work 16 hrs/wk & return to work after out-of-work benefit Income Support - Tax free benefit - Not dependent on claimant having paid NI contributions  Income lower than specific amount  Saving < £16,000 (<£6000 ignored) – assume £1/wk every £250 above £6000 (deduct benefit)  Working < 16hrs/wk (disability & working > 16hrs/wk)  Not full time student  16+yrs  High Range can claim: >60yrs, single parent, disabled, unemployed
  45. 45. Income Support Payments (ISP) - Amount of ISP depends on lots of factors: age, income, savings, partners/children- 3 parts of payments: 1) Personal allowance – cover day-2-day expenses of claimant, partner, children 2) Premiums – additional payments to people with extra needs e.g. disabilities 3) Other additions – inc mortgage interest payments & other housing costs Jobseeker’s Allowance (JSA) Contribution based Income based- payable for 6 months  seeking work for at least 40hrs/wk- fixed rate- irrespective of savings/partners earnings  working <16hrs/wk- paid gross but taxable  18 yrs – pensionable work  not in full time education dependent on having paid Class 1 NI contribution  signed JSA agreement – steps to look for work - credited NI contributions (NICs) every week receiving JSA
  46. 46. Support for Bringing Up Children 2 types: 1) During pregnancy 2) During children growing up Statutory Maternity Pay (SMP) - from employer when woman becomes pregnancy while employed worked for same employer, without break, > 26 wks incl 15th week before baby due (qualifying week) average weekly earnings in 8 weeks up to qualifying week not less than lower earning limit – level NICs become payable must have paid at least a specific minimum level of Class 1 NICs - Payable for 39 weeks - Earliest payment begins: 11 weeks before the baby due, & latest when baby born - 2 rates: 1) 1st 6 weeks: amount paid is 90% average weekly earnings 2) Remaining: flat rate – subject to 90% of average weekly earnings - Taxable - NICs due on amount paid
  47. 47. Maternity Allowance - Given if individual not able to claim SMP e.g. self-employed, recently changed jobs- Paid by Department of Work & Pensions (DWP) – not employers- Disadv: lower rate than SMP- Adv: not subject to taxRate: 1) Standard rate to those earnings > lower earning limits 2) 90% average earning paid to earnings < lower limit but > minimum threshold- High number of restrictions- Payable for 39 weeks- Earliest payment begins: 11 weeks before baby due, latest: baby born1. Child Benefit - tax free benefit to parents bringing up child- not means-tested & not depend on NICs paid- to each child <16yrs to 19yrs – if full time education/training- higher rate to eldest child, lowest to youngest
  48. 48. Child Tax Credit - help parents on low incomes (people earning < £66,000/yr maybe eligible) - payable in addition to child benefit - parent do not have to be working to claim - paid to child’s carer - paid until 1st Sept after child’s 16th birthday/20th birthday (if child in full time education, not claiming income support/any tax credit, not serving custodial sentence of 4+ months) Support for People Ill/Disabled1. Statutory Sick Pay (SSP) - Paid by an employer to an employee who is off due to illness for 4+ days- paid maximum for 28 weeks (spells of sickness with < 8wks between them) = 1 spell- to people with average earnings > NICs payable- taxed & NI deducted (like normal earnings)
  49. 49. Incapacity Benefits - claim if self-employed/ long period of sickness (>28 wks)- depend on payment of Class 1/2 NICs – else may get income support- 3 levels: 1) Short-term lower rate - payable to 28 wks - not subject to income tax 2) Short-term higher rate - payable 29-52 wks - taxable 3) Long-term rate - terminally ill: highest rate from 28+ wk - highest rate - payable if sick > 52 wks - taxable Attendance Allowance - for those 65+ years & need personal care as ill- not means-tested & not dependent on paid NICs- 2 levels: 1) lower rate – need care by day & night 2) higher rate – need help both day & night
  50. 50. Disability Living Allowance (DLA) - for people who need help with personal care &/or getting around - Tax free  usually for <65yr old  need help for qualifying 3 month period & expect to need help for further 6 months (unless terminal within 6 months)2 components: 1) Care component – for daily tasks e.g. washing, cooking etc 2) Mobility component – if difficulty in walking/ not walk1. Carer’s Allowance - for people giving up time/job to look after someone- not need to be relative to qualify- not depend on NICs- flat rate (+ for partners/children)- taxable & declared on tax returns Carer: - between 16-65yrs - spend > 35hrs/wk as carer - earn no more than certain amount each wk - not in full-time education (21+ hr/wk supervised study) Patient: - receive DLA/AA/constant attendance allowance - not in hospital
  51. 51. Support for People in Hospital/Residential/Nursing Care- some of patients needs met by NHS ஃ benefits reduced whilst claimant in hospital- if in residential care/nursing home but can not afford the minimum charges ஃ income support available- if in private establishment, income support available if < £16,000 (worked out by adding fees for home + meals & subject to maximum benefit amount dependent on the type of care received) Support for People in Retirement- 1st introduced in 1908- current state pension from WW2 since NI Act 1946 (pension to employed people at 65yrs)- flat-rate pension = basic state pension - not related to employee earnings- NI Act 1959 - intro earnings related pension: 1961: Graduated pension scheme 1978: State earnings related pension scheme (SERPs) 2002: 2nd state pension (S2P)
  52. 52. Basic State Pension (BSP)- provide little more than subsistence-level standard of living - 25% of national average earning- single person: £95.25/wk, married couple: £152.30/wk (’09/’10)- pay-as-you-go basis, NICs from working population immediately paid out- no. pensions & employment - chance of BSP above inflation- gvt proposes BSP in line with average earnings index not cost of living index – in 2012 Additional State PensionSERPS - aim: pension 25% average earnings (BSP) to 50% - pay-as-you-go funding ஃ increased cost pressureS2P - initially offered on earnings-related basis, changing to a full flat rate basis - only to employed people paying Class 1 NI contribution, not self-employed - obliged to be S2P unless contracted out (themselves (full contribution paid but rebate bytransfer to alternative pension arrangement) or employer (on membership of employer’s pensionscheme – pay lower NIC)) Pension Credit - ensure retired have total income of specific minimum amount - single person: £130/wk, couple: £198.45/wk - increasing each yr taking account of inflation
  53. 53. LOOK AT APPENDIX (II) SECTION 2: FINANCIAL ASSETS- Less people hold financial wealth in cash, but invest to make profit (intermediary chain) 2.1 Deposits - Deposit based investments: capital element fixed but investment income varies - Why? Adv Disadv Capital secure – amount invested Inflation reduces value of capital (increased intact inflation causes value to reduce in real term) Readily accessible banks & Risk of loss of capital if institute becomes insolvent building societies (Financial Services Compensation Scheme)2.1
  54. 54. 2.1.1 Bank a/c – 3 types of interest bearing a/c: 1) Deposit a/c- Depositors (individual/corporation) invest £1- no max- Return via interest - variable (banks base lending rate) - calculate daily & added to a/c on periodic basis ( ¼ly, ½-yearly, yearly)- Some have higher IR, by may need minimum investment- Deposits can be subject to notice withdrawal e.g. 7 days - maybe waived subject to penalty e.g. Amount interest that could be earned over period- Investment fund for emergency/other- Less attractive long-term 2) Money Market Deposit a/c- Higher IR than deposit a/c- IR reflects current money market IR & vary according to amount invested- 2 types: 1) Fixed a/c - term deposit a/c = sum £££ invested for fixed period (e.g over night, 5yrs) - interest fixed over period & can not be withdrawn before 2) Notice a/c fixed term but need notice period to withdraw - no - bank given same period of notice of change in IR (e.g. 7 days, 6 months+) - for people with high amounts of cash to place on short-term deposit until required
  55. 55. 3) Interest Bearing Current a/c- Provide immediate access to funds without loss of interest- Range of services: cheque-book & guarantee cards, cashpoint facility- Mass market caused by high competition between banks/building societies- IR (may have lower rates on phone/internet)- Some banks offered high-interest cheque a/c – have higher IR, but require higher minimum levelof investment (£1000-£10000) Taxation- tax on interest = 20% e.g. 4% gross interest ஃ net = 3.2% - lower & basic tax payer – no further liability - higher rate tax payer – liable for 20% more - interest paid gross/can reclaim tax for non-tax payers who complete R85 form - 10% taxpayers can reclaim additional 10%
  56. 56. 2.1.2 Building Society a/c- For investors’ with surplus funds for long time- Competitive IR- Different from banks in legal structure: Building societies = mutual organisations owned by members Banks = limited co.s owned by shareholders- 2 types of a/cs: Ordinary share a/c - Instant access without penalty - Lower IR than notice a/cs Notice a/c - Access in 7, 30, 60, 90 days - If require immediate access: get penalty charge (interest earned over notice period)- Tiered IRs (higher investment  higher rate)- Short-term & immediate access- Taxation ( 2.1.2
  57. 57. 2.1.3 Offshore Deposits= Investment medium, bank/building society/other form of investment based outside UKin country with more adv taxation – “taxation havens” e.g. Canary Islands- Disadv: Higher risk than onshore investment, as: 1) adverse currency movements when converted back to sterling 2) less protection by investors protection schemes – check via local regulatory authorities- Maybe useful if investor needs £££ outside UK- Interest paid gross- UK resident must declare to HMRC - can avoid tax by letting returns roll up & withdrawing £££ in future when become non-resident- Specific rules if investor resident/non-resident for UK tax 2.1.3
  58. 58. 2.1.4 Cash ISAs = Tax- efficient individual savings a/c- Different forms (3.2.4) e.g. cash ISA – tax free interest on bank/building society deposit a/c - maximum: £3,600 per tax year 2.1.5 National Savings & Investments = Range of savings & investment products on behalf of gvt - From post-office & NS&I website - Low risk – all products guarantee return of any capital invested- Different types if products for different types of investors (terms, IRs, tax) 2.1.4 &
  59. 59. Buying & Selling Shares - Stock Exchange (SE) = London’s stocks & share market - Trade: gvt stock, share capital & loan capital, oversees, options 2 markets: Main market Alternative Investment Market (AIM)- Allows Co.s to be quoted on SE - Separate market on SE (since ‘95)- Requirements incl: - for new Co.s with potential to grow - Financial & other information - Enable Co. to raise capital by issuing share - Co. must’ve traded for > 3yrs - high public audience & high profile by joining - > 25% issued shares in public hands - less rules & rigidity than main market Listing Rules by FSA (acts as UK Listing Authorities (UKLA)
  60. 60. Types IR Age (yrs) Minimum Other Amount (£) Easy Access Tiered, *(gross paid & income taxable) 11+ 100 Savings a/c Investment Variable, Tiered – 7 levels, * 7+ or 500 – 50,000 a/c parents if child <7 Income Variable, Tiered, *, Monthly regular income, Bonds Interest paid until withdrawal No term & capital withdrawn at any time Guaranteed Guaranteed 1,2 or 5 yrs at a time, Fixed IR 16+ Interest paid monthly, net of basic rateincome Bonds depending on term income tax Guaranteed Calculated yearly but added to investment 16+ Lump-sum investment,growth bonds at the end of the term 1,3 or 5 year term Guaranteed 18+ Lump sum, fixed term investment with growth equity bonds potential linked to FTSE100 while security on original investment Savings Gross interest- no liability to income or CGT 100 -15,000 Fixed interest certificate (FIC)= fixed IR on chos Certificate ஃ attractive to higher rate tax payers term (2/5 yrs) Index linked certificate = value with inflation (terms 3 & 5 yrs)Premium Bonds 100- Regular (monthly) draw for tax free prizes for 30,000 investors, /person Prizes maybe worth lots of £££, Encash any time with 8 days notice Children’s Fixed for 1st 5yrs + bonus on 5th yr, final 16+ for <16 Lump sum for 5> yrs, Bonus Bonds bonus on 21st birthday Encash <21 yrs, No interest paid after 21yrs
  61. 61. 2.2 Fixed-Interest Securities 2.2.1 Gvt. Stocks - Gilt edged securities (gilts) = British gvt securities & represent gvt borrowing - Safe - as gvt not default interest or capital payments - Categorised according to length of time left until redemption date = date gvt buys gilt back at original issue value (par value) [normal: £100]Short dated (shorts) Medium dated (mediums) Long dated (Longs) Undated- <5 yrs - 5 – 15 yrs - 15>yrs = No redemption date- 0-7 yrs (UK Debt - 7 – 15 yrs (UK Debt - at gvt discretionManagement Office) Management Office) - Gvt under no obligation to ever redeem - Interest paid at fixed rate = coupon - Index-linked gilts = interest payments & capital value move in line with inflation ஃ investors purchasing power of capital & interest received is constant (unlike other fixed interest stocks – inflation reduces purchasing power) E.g. If gilts with coupon of 5% & redemption date 2021 = “Treasury 5% 2021” - Interest normally paid ½-yearly E.g. If holder of £10,000 nominal of Treasury 5% 2021  £250 interest per 6 months Paid grossly – subject to income tax 2.2, 2.2.1
  62. 62. - Not redeemable by investors before redemption date, but can be sold to other investors Price depends on: 1) Market IRs 2) Nearness to redemption date 3) Supply & demand Gilts prices quoted: Cum dividend or Ex dividend Buyer acquires stock itself & While buyer acquires stock itself, forthcoming entitlement to next interest payment interest payment payable to previous owner of the stock (i.e. seller) - Capital gains made on gilt sale are free of CGT E.g. Higher rate taxpayer buys £100,000 par value Treasury 5% 2019 at price 80.0 i.e. pays £80,000 for stock Receives annual interest: £5,000 [£2,500 per ½ yearly] (5% of £100,000 = £5000) = represents yield 6.25% [5,000/800,000]Interest paid gross but 40% tax paid ஃ net annual interest = £3000 [5000*0.4 = 2000, 5000-2000= 3000]Later he sells stock for £90,000 – no CGT on gain of £10,000 [90,000-80,000]
  63. 63. 2.2 Fixed Interest SecuritiesGvt Stocks 2.2.3 Permanent Interest 2.2.4 Corporate 2.2.2 Local (2.2.1) - Bearing Shares(PIBS) Bonds Authority Stocks - issued by building society to raise capitalLocal authority can borrow - fixed IR – ½ yrly£££ by issuing stocks/bonds - paid gross – taxable(fixed term, fixed interest - PIBs rank below ordinary a/c in prioritysecurities) of payment – if Co. becomes insolvent - Secured on local authority assets - Represent loans to commercial organisations - Not negotiable (i.e. can not get lower - Fixed redemption dates, specific redemption price) & fixed return at maturity value & fixed IR - Return of capital on maturity guaranteed - Brought & sold at prices reflecting market IRs - not as secure as gilts(as no gvt guarantee) - Higher risk than gilts – as no gvt backing ஃ - Guaranteed IR – ½ yearly tend to offer higher yields (profits) - Paid net: - Basic:20% - Higher: 40% - Non-taxpayer: can reclaim 2.2.2 – 2.2.4
  64. 64. 2.3 Equities & Other Co. Finance- Co. need to raise £££ to commerce/expand business- High number of ways, incl: corporate bonds (2.2.4), shares 2.3.1 Ordinary Shares (equities)- Brought by private investors, most transactions made by institutions, life, pension funds- Shareholders ‘own Co’ ஃ 2 main rights: 1) Receive share of profit via dividends 2) Participate in how Co. run – voting at shareholders meetings - Rights of shareholder differ from Co. to Co. ஃ specific rights in Articles of Association – found at Co.s offices or Co. House - Direct investment in shares is high risk (loss of all capital) , - mitigate by investing in a range of shares & products (3.2)- Share trading prices depend on a number of factors:  Profitability of individual Co.  Strength of market sector  Strength of UK & worldwide economies  Supply & demand for shares & investments- Share prices in: - short term – fluctuate - long term – outpaced inflation & provide higher growth than deposit type investments 2.3, 2
  65. 65. Returns From Shares Risk & Reward - Shareholders in limited liability (LLB) Co. ஃ not liable for Co. debt as they are a separate legal identity - Investment can reduce/loss if Co. liquidates - High potential for return – over long-term Assessment of Financial Returns2 forms: 1) Capital growth = growth share prices 2) Income = dividends received on share of Co.s distributed profits - Assess success of shares & future performance by: 1) Earnings per share = [Co.s net profit / No. shares] - not normally amount of dividends to shareholder on each share (as Co. retains some profit for e.g. expansion) 2) Dividends cover = how much of profit distributed as dividends - e.g. if 50% profit as dividends: “covered twice” - 2+ cover – acceptable by investor <1 – company paying dividends from retained surplus from previous year 3) Price/Earnings ratio (P/E) = share price / earnings per share - useful guide to shares growth prospect
  66. 66. Taxation of shares- Dividends received net of 10% (tax credit equal to amount deducted) - Non-taxpayers can not reclaim - Higher taxpayer have to pay additional 22.5% ஃ 32.5% of gross … introduced to smooth effect of abolition of advanced corporation tax (ACT) – 6/4/99 E.g. Higher rate taxpayer receives net dividend of £900 from UK shares ஃ gross dividend is £1000 [900/(100%-10%)]. She pays further 22.5% of gross ஃ further £225 [1000*0.225]- Gains subject to CGT - may offset against annual CGT exemption allowance
  67. 67. Ex-Dividend- Dividend paid ½-yearly on dividend date- Lots of administration to ensure dividend paid on time ஃ Payment process begins a few weeks before - ‘snapshot’ of shareholders anyone purchasing shares between then & dividend not receive between this period, share is ex-dividend (xd) - share expected to fall approximately by the dividend amount on the day it becomes xd2.3.1.5 Share Indices- Stock Exchange Daily Official List gives closing price of previous days FT & other newspapers- 3 ways to measure share performance: 1) FT Ordinary Share Index (FT Index) = index of 30 major industrial Co.s share - represent ~ ¼ market value of UK equities 2) FTSE 100 Index = index of top 100 Co.s, weighed according to market value 3) FTSE Actuaries All-Share Index = index of ~ 900 shares split into sectors - measure price movements, show yields, ratios, total returns
  68. 68. Issues SE rule: Existing Co., with shareholders, who want to issue more shares, 1st have to offer shares to existing shareholders (usually at discount) - shareholders not wanting to take up right, can sell right to someone else Compensates for any fall in value of existing shares (which may occur due to dilution of the holding as a proportion of the total shareholding) Scrip Issues (/Bonus Issue/Capitalisation Issue) = Issue of additional shares, FREE, to existing shareholders - No extra capital is raised - Achieved by transferring reserves into Co.s share a/c Increase the number shares & reduce the share price proportionally
  69. 69. Shares = Shareholders entitled to dividends on Co.s profits at fixed rate- Not carry voting rights unless dividends delayed - Payment hierarchy: 1) Loan interest 2) Preference shares 3) Ordinary share dividends Other Shares Cumulative preference shares = if dividend not paid, entitled to dividend accumulation until paid Convertibles = securities issued by Co.s to raise capital which can be converted to ordinary Co. shares at a later date - before: issued in form of a loan (lower IR than normal as can convert to equity) now: convertible preference shares
  70. 70. 2.3.2 Loan Stock- Co. borrows from banks & other lenders - Loan stock & debentures are for long-term ஃ help in Co.s long term plan - issued on specific terms incl. interest payable, redemption date etc Loan secured in some way e.g. on Co.s property (unlike loan stock)- Some loans stocks are converted to ordinary shares - (but no obligation)- Interest rather than dividends payable (whether or not sufficient profit made) - Paid net of 20% tax - Higher taxpayer: additional 20% - Non taxpayer: can reclaim- Creditors = holders of these debts of issuing Co. (i.e. to who £££ owed) - take priority over shareholders - not have right to vote at meetings- Risk depends on Co.s prospects & strength Loan stock is higher risk than debentures - as no backing security
  71. 71. 2.4 Real Estate 2.4 Residential property Types Agricultural property Commercial & Industrial property Adv Disadv Property acceptable security for borrowing Risk of unable to find suitable tenants UK property market well developed Location very important Rents (ஃ capital value) tend to move with Property less available than other forms of £££ values ஃ good against inflation investment Property management readily available Property market affected by economic conditions Highly costly- High risk for small investors ஃ spread risk: Property bonds = underlying fund invested to range of properties & shares in property Co.s Real estate investment trusts ( Taxation Property income - allowable expense deductions  Income tax (Basic: 22%) On disposal of property  CGT (can offset capital expenditure against CGT)
  72. 72. 2.4.2 Buy-To-Let (BTL)- Overall trend in 30yrs: property prices increasing ஃ problem for 1st time buyers esp. SE UK Eased by renting market In recession: uncertain job market  difficult to commit to large mortgage- Shortage of BTL in UK compared to EU as traditionally BTL mortgages had …:  higher IR charged compared to the standard mortgage, as lenders thought BTL was more to do with commercial loans CHANGED  rental income excluded from borrowers income, when assessing ability to make mortgage repayments Why? - Stimulate growth in private sector of rental market - Encourage borrowing at competitive IR to sustain income & capital growth - BTL mortgages scheme is a result of an initiative by the Association of Residential Letting Agents (ARLA) & mortgage lenders (introduced by Alliance & Leicester, Halifax & Natwest) - many schemes require agent to be member of ARLA involved in selecting suitable property, tenants, tenancy agreement, managing property- Gross rent needs to be 125-150% of monthly mortgage payment- Other costs e.g. wear & tear (10%/yr) (not incl. cost of furniture, fittings) offset against income tax (from rent)
  73. 73. 2.4.3 Commercial Property = Anything not residential e.g. shops, offices, hotels etc- Provides high rental income, steady growth in capital value Adv Disadv Require rental reviews (normally no Higher average value more than 5 years between reviews) ஃ spreading risk more difficult Longer lease than residential property Generally not show spectacular growth More stable & long-term tenants Higher borrowing IR Lower initial refurbishment costs- Lenders carry out detailed investigation before lending:  Land & property quality  Reputation of builder, architect etc  Suitability of likely tenant 2.4.3
  74. 74. 2.5 Commodities e.g. metals, foodstuff, electricity, timber, timber, music, art - Lots of opportunity - directly & indirectly: 1) Investment in precious metals 2) Lots of trade via ‘forward contracts’ binding agreement where 1 party must sell & other must buy specific amount of commodity at specific price at specific date - Lots of traders do not need the commodities, but make profit by speculating price movement via purchasing & selling 2.6 Foreign Exchange = Exchange of currencies between countries Foreign exchange market = international market where currencies exchanged - buying & selling over the whole worldMain participants: - 24 hour due to technology Banks, central banks, - millions of transactions per hourother financial institutions 2.5
  75. 75. - Changing price of 1 currency for another reflects demand & supply of the currency Due to: 1) international trading of: Goods – raw materials from different countries Services – financial services, individual to different country for jobs 2) Investment Short term – Co. in surplus want to invest e.g. in country with current high IR Long term – individual & Co. buy shares & long-term loans to borrowers of other countries - Currency speculators = trade in currency markets to speculate changes in exchange rates & buying/selling at appropriate timeE.g. Exchange £1million to $, at 55p exchange rate (ஃ $1=55p) ஃ £1 million = $1,818,182 [£1,000,000/0.55] Exchange $1,818,182 to £, at 57p exchange rate  Profit: £36,364 [$1,818,182 x 0.57 = £1036363.64, £1036363.64 - £1,000,000 = £36,364] 2.6
  76. 76. 2.7 Money Market Instruments - Term to describe a number of forms of short-term debt - Interest is dependent on the amount invested/borrowed & amount repaid 2.7.1 Treasury Bills = short-term redeemable securities issued by the Debt Management Office (DMO) of the Treasury- Fund-raising instruments used by the UK gvt. (similar to gilts)- Low risk- Difference compared to gilts: Treasury Bills Gilts Term Short (~91days) Long Interest paid? No (zero-coupon’ securities. Instead Yes issued at discount par value- Can by brought and sold throughout term- Strong secondary market by banking organisations Significant IR changes- Prices tend to rise steadily until redemption date Affected by: Supply & demand- Purchased in large amounts (mainly large organisations)
  77. 77. 2.7.2 Certificates of Deposit (CDs)- Method of facilitating short-term (~3/6 month) larger scale lending (£50,000+) If required for longer period: ‘rolled over’ for further 3/6 months- Issued by building societies & banks- Interest:  Fixed rate  paid with return of capital at term end- Are bearer securities = repayment on specified term will be made to certificate bearer on maturity date - if require £££ before maturity date, can sell the certificate- Can sold between banks to balance their liquidity position
  78. 78. 2.7.3 Commercial Paper = unsecured promissory note (i.e. a promise to repay funds that have been received in exchange for the paper)- Issued by businesses (e.g. pension funds & insurance Co.s), who want to borrow large amounts- Offers cheaper borrowing opportunities for Co.s with good credit ratings - if Co. has bad credit rating: Paper backed by letter of credit from a bank that guarantees repayment- Issue period: 5 – 45 days - can roll over if required for longer period Adv Flexible IR is not fixed for a long period
  79. 79. LOOK AT APPENDIX (III) SECTION 3: FINANCIAL PRODUCTS 3.1, 3.2- help solve financial problems & meet financial needs- ‘Packaged’ products supplied by product providers3.1 Investments- Main form of direct investment (Section 2)3.2 Collective (/Pooled) Investments = Arrangement where individual investors can contribute (via lump sum/ regular savings) to a large investment fund Lower risk High choice Adv for investor Reduced dealing cost Services of skilled investment manager at cost shared amongst investors
  80. 80. Location (e.g. country) Industry (e.g. technology, energy)- Categories of investment funds Type (e.g.shares, gilts, etc) Other forms of specialisation (e.g. ethical investments etc) Aim (to produce …) income (& modest capital gains) capital gains (& modest income) Balance between growth & income - Managed funds = manager invests appropriate proportion in a range of Co.s to meet managed funds objectives Chosen by people seeking steady growth, where risk loss is minimum (e.g. pension provisions/mortgage repayments) Unit trusts Investment trusts Main forms of collective investments Investment bonds Open Ended Investment Co.s (OEICs)
  81. 81. 3.2.1 Unit Trusts 3.2.1 = pooled investment created under trust deed places obligations on the manager & trustee- Investor may contribute via lump sum / regular contribution / both- Lots of unit trusts in UK: total funds = £450 billion- Trust is divided into units- Open ended ஃ manager can create more units in response to demand Valuing fund assets Managing trust fund Role of Unit Fixing unit prices Trust Manager Manager obliged to buy back units Offering units for sale Buying back units (under trust deed) from unit-holders Incl. investors who wish to sell - Manager generates profit via management fees & dealing in units
  82. 82. The Trustee - has overall responsibility to ensure investor protection Hold & control trusts assets Set out trusts investment directives Ensure investor protection procedures adequate Issue unit certificate to investors Roles Approve proposed marketing Collect & distribute income from trusts assetsSupervise maintenance register of unit holder Ensure manager complies with terms of trust deed - Trustee roles carried out by institutions e.g. clearing banks/life Co.s Authorisation of Unit Trusts - Regulated under Financial Services & Market Act 2000 (UK) - Authorised by FSA
  83. 83. Pricing of Units = Total value of assets / No. units issued- Calculated by manager daily by a method specified in the deed - Directly related to value of underlying securities that makes up fund- 3 Prices:  Offer price = price investor buys units from manager  Bid price = price manager buys back units from investors  Cancellation price = minimum permitted bid price - takes into account full cost of buying & sell - when there are buyers & sellers of units, bid price > minimum level, as costs reduced due to underlying asset not needing to be traded - Unit trusts use bid price, offer price & bid offer spread difference between bid & offer price (5-6%) - Some managers moving to a single-price system – as better understood by investors - may impose exit charge if sold within 3/5yrs
  84. 84. Historic & Forward PricingBefore 1988: client brought & sold at price determined before start of dealing period e.g if funds daily valuation is at noon ஃ dealing period: midday to midday (following day) Historical pricing - Now this is unacceptable, as it does not reflect what is happening in the marketForward pricing = clients buy/sell in given dealing period at prices determined at end of dealing period - prices published in the financial press are a guide to investors- Firms managers can use historical pricing - but must switch to forward pricing if underlying market in which trust invested moves 2% either direction since last valuation
  85. 85. Buying & Selling Units- No need for secondary market in units of Stock Exchange, as unit manager must buy units back if investor wishes to sell Simple & more attractive for investors recorded as confirmation- Units can brought directly from manager/intermediaries via writing/telephone- Purchaser receives 2 documents from the manager: 1) Contract note = specifies fund, No. units, unit price, amount paid - gives purchase price (needed for CGT when units sold) 2) Unit Certificate = specifies fund & no. units held - proof of ownership- To sell units, unit holder must sign form of renunciation on the reverse of the unit certificate sendit to the manager (new certificate sent to the unit holder if they still holds units) Charges 1) Initial charges = cover cost of purchasing fund asset & commission payments to intermediaries - typically covered by bid-offer spread 2) Annual management charge = fee paid for use of professional investment manager - varies: 0.5 – 2% of fund value - deducted on monthly/daily basis
  86. 86. Types of Units Accumulation units Distribution/Income units= Automatically reinvest any income generate = Split off any income receivedby underlying asset (for capital growth) & distributed to unit holders May increase unit value in line Taxation of Unit Trusts with value of underlying assets Income Tax - Authorised unit trusts (except. fixed interest trusts) treated as Co.s for tax ஃ Corporation tax on income (not growth within fund) - Dividend income received already 10% taxed  Lower & basic rate taxpayer – no further liability  Non tax payer – not reclaim  Higher rate taxpayer - further 22.5% of gross incomes (ஃ 32.5%) e.g. Distribution of £18 net to shareholders: ஃ gross = £20 [£18/1-(10% tax)] - if higher taxpayer: further £4.50 taxed [20*22.5%]
  87. 87. - Income from overseas securities, cash & fixed interest securities have 20% corporation tax ஃ when this income is paid out …  Non taxpayer – reclaims  Lower rate taxpayer – reclaim ½ (liable 10% & reclaim 10%)  Basic rate taxpayer – no additional liability  Higher rate taxpayer – further 20% of gross income e.g. Distribution of £40 net to unit holder (from overseas) ஃ Gross income = £50 (£40 / (1-20%)) - if higher rate taxpayer - pay further £10 (£50 * 20%) - if non-taxpayer – reclaim £10 (£50 - £40) CGT - None within unit trust - Maybe liable when unit cashed - Reduced liability due to annual exemption allowance, taper relief
  88. 88. Risk of Unit Trusts- Reduced risk as: - Pooled investment = spread between 30-150 different shares - Legal constitution: trustees have responsibility of proper management (reduce risk of fraud) - Actual risk is dependent on the type of unit trust (as different trusts for different investors for different risk profiles): Investment type Risk Cash fund Similar to deposit a/c (low) Specialist fund High (e.g. emerging market) Overseas funds Added risk of currency fluctuations- No guarantee that initial capital returned in full or specific income paid
  89. 89. 3.2.2 Investment Trusts (IT) 3.2.2 = Collective investment, but unlike unit trusts, not unitised fund- Not actual trusts, but public limited Co.s whose business is investing in stocks & shares - To invest: Investor purchase shares of the IT Co. on the Stock Exchange To cash in: Sell to another investor - Closed ended = number of shares available is constant- Share price dependent on:  Some extent on value of underlying investment (not so directly as unit trusts)  Factors affecting demand & supply Lower than Net Asset Value (NAV) per share = total value of investment fund / number share issued - Discounted ஃ investor should receive higher income & growth level than obtained by investing directly in the same underlying shares- Can benefit from gearing = borrow £££ to take adv of business investment opportunities (like other businesses)Unit trust can High growth potential of rising marketNOT use gearing – but can cause losses (e.g. in 2000s)