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Challenge 3 safe water opt


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Dec 4-5, 2018 | York University

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Challenge 3 safe water opt

  1. 1. Safe Water Optimization Tool for Humanitarian Response Syed Imran Ali Ph.D., Dahdaleh Institute for Global Health Research, York University Jean-Francois Fesselet, Public Health Department, MSF-OCA Matt Arnold, MSF-OCA/DIGHR Emergency Data Science: Taking Advantage of the Data Flood | December 4th, 2018
  2. 2. • Waterborne diseases  leading threats • Safe water is essential for public health Core Challenge
  3. 3. • Chlorination is the main method for water treatment  Cheap, easy to use, offers residual protection • Current guidance not based on any field evidence  Often fails to ensure water is safe Core Challenge
  4. 4. • Hep E, South Sudan, 2012-13 • CDC: 40-60% households with no detectable chlorine1 • U of Barcelona: faecal viruses in stored water2 • Post-distribution contamination  waterborne diseases in camps in Uganda, Malawi, Kenya, Sudan3-8 Field Experience (1) CDC. Final Report: Hepatitis E Outbreak Investigation: Results from the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) Survey, Environmental Investigation, and Seroprevalence Survey in Jamam and Yusuf Batil Camps, Upper Nile, South Sudan; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Atlanta, 2013. (2) Guerrero-Latorre, L.; Hundesa, A.; Girones, R. Transmission sources of waterborne viruses in South Sudan refugee camps. CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water 2016, 44, 1–6. (3) Steele, A.; Clarke, B.; Watkins, O. Impact of jerry can disinfection in a camp environment - experiences in an IDP camp in Northern Uganda. Journal of Water and Health 2008, 6 (4), 559–564. (4) Swerdlow, D. L.; Malenga, G.; Begkoyian, G.; Nyangulu, D.; Toole, M.; Waldman, R. J.; Puhr, D. N. D.; Tauxe, R. V. Epidemic cholera among refugees in Malawi, Africa: treatment and transmission. Epidemiology and Infection 1997, 118 (3), 207–214. (5) Roberts, L.; Chartier, Y.; Chartier, O.; Malenga, G.; Toole, M.; Rodka, H. Keeping clean water clean in a Malawi refugee camp: a randomized intervention trial. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2001, 79 (4), 280–287. (6) Mahamud, A. S.; Ahmed, J. A.; Nyoka, R.; Auko, E.; Kahi, V.; Nguhi, M.; Burton, J. W.; Muhindo, B. Z.; Breiman, R. F.; Eidex, R. B. Epidemic cholera in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya, 2009 : the importance of sanitation and soap. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 2012, 6 (3), 234–241. (7) Shultz, A.; Omollo, J. O.; Burke, H.; Qassim, M.; Ochieng, J. B.; Weinberg, M.; Feikin, D. R.; Breiman, R. F. Cholera Outbreak in Kenyan Refugee Camp: Risk Factors for Illness and Importance of Sanitation. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2009, 80 (4), 640–645. (8) Walden, V. M.; Lamond, E.; Field, S. A. Container contamination as a possible source of a diarrhoea outbreak in Abou Shouk camp, Darfur province, Sudan. Disasters 2005, 29 (3), 213–221.
  5. 5. • Emergency guidelines not based on evidence from emergency settings Came from WHO GDWQ for cities • Not suitable for refugee camps • What’s important is water safety in the household! Core Problem
  6. 6. • Evidence-based guidance for water treatment in emergencies • UC Berkeley, UNHCR, MSF, HIF • 2014-2016: South Sudan, Jordan, Rwanda, Tanzania Previous Research
  7. 7. New Evidence-based Guidance
  8. 8. What would be ideal is to have a unique water treatment guideline for every site The Next Opportunity
  9. 9. …takes routine monitoring data and applies data analytics to generate customized water chlorination guidance for any field site that ensures water is safe to drink. Safe Water Optimization Tool
  10. 10. SWOT Schematics
  11. 11. SWOT System Architecture Courtesy: Mike Spendlove, Avanade Inc.
  12. 12. • Achmea Foundation & GCC Humanitarian Grand Challenge • Nov 2018 – Dec 2020 o User engagement o Back-end analytics o Front-end interface o Field trials in refugee camps (3) & Refinements o New applications: household water treatment, conflict zones, urban slums, intermittent water systems o Field trials (3) & Refinements o Chlorine taste & odour threshold research o Dissemination and scaling Development and Proof-of-Concept MVP = Minimum Viable Product
  13. 13. • Global Dataset on water quality  Determine influencers for chlorine decay and water safety • Climate: temperature & precipitation • Environmental hygiene Machine Learning Possibilities
  14. 14. Fin.