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Crisis And Strategy Management - James Grunig / MAM


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Apresentação ministrada pelo consultor e pesquisador norte-americano James Grunig durante mesa-redonda com executivos brasileiros realizada em 04/08 no Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo - MAM. O evento celebrou o lançamento do livro "Relações Públicas: teoria, contexto e relacionamentos", que serviu como base para a elaboração do conteúdo da palestra.

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Crisis And Strategy Management - James Grunig / MAM

  1. 1. James E. Grunig, Professor Emeritus Department of Communication University of Maryland College Park Maryland USA Park, Maryland,
  2. 2. Research IN public relations. Used by practitioners in their work. Research ON public relations. C Constructive, critical research by academic scholars , y on the practice of public relations. Research FOR public relations. p Applied basic research to develop concepts and tools for the practice of public relations.
  3. 3. Explain and measure the value of the communication function to organizations and to society (research on public relations). relations) Define the role of public relations in o ga at o a strategy and governance organizational st ategy a d go e a ce (research on public relations). Develop concepts, tools, and measures for communication professionals to use in strategic management (research for public relations.
  4. 4. Public relations participates in strategic decision-making to help manage the behavior of the organization. f h i i Public relations is a bridging activity to build relationships with stakeholders rather than a set of messaging activities designed to buffer the organization from stakeholders. Emphasis is on two-way and symmetrical h d l communication of many kinds to provide publics a voice in management decisions and to facilitate dialogue between management and publics.
  5. 5. By cultivating relationships with strategic stakeholders and publics. Relationships have value because they: ◦ Reduce costs costs. ◦ Increase revenue. ◦ Reduce risk risk. ◦ Directly lead to reputation (organizational behaviors recalled by publics) publics). ◦ Are intangible assets.
  6. 6. 1. Participating in management decision- making to identify consequences that create stakeholders. 2. 2 Segmenting stakeholders and publics publics. 3. Using communication to cultivate relationships with strategic publics publics. 4. Influencing management behavior. 5. Mitigating iss es and crises issues crises. 6. Measuring the quality of relationships.
  7. 7. Model of Strategic Management of Public Relations No Consequences Management Decisions Consequences Consequences Organizational Reputation Rep tation Communication Programs Stakeholders Relationship (Relationship Cultivation Outcomes Strategies) P1 P2 Pi Publics Achievement of Organizational Goals Ci Crises Behavior of Publics Creates Issues
  8. 8. All public relations involves issues management. It is not a specialized function. Publics create issues out of consequences. Issues are “managed” by managing dialogue managed with publics.
  9. 9. Most crises are caused by management decisions. Crisis planning is more important than the plan that results. Crisis scenarios can help with planning. Surviving the crisis may depend on the g y p relationships already in place.
  10. 10. The l i Th relationship principle. hi i i l Organizations can withstand both issues and crises better if they have established good, long-term f relationships with publics who are at risk from decisions and behaviors of the organization. The accountability p y principle. p Organizations should accept responsibility for a crisis even if it was not their fault.
  11. 11. The disclosure principle principle. At the time of a crisis, an organization must disclose all that it knows about the crisis or problem involved. The symmetrical communication principle. At the time of a crisis, an organization must consider the public interest to be at least as important as its own interest interest.
  12. 12. Trust. One party’s level of confidence in and party s willingness to open itself to the other party. (e.g., “Whenever this organization makes an important decision, decision I know it will be concerned about people like me.”) Mutuality of control control. The degree to which parties agree on who has rightful power to influence one another. (e.g., “The management of this organization gives people like me enough say in the decision-making process.”)
  13. 13. Commitment The extent to which each party believes and feels that the relationship is worth spending energy to maintain and promote. promote (e.g, “I feel that this organization is trying to maintain a long-term commitment to people like me.”) Satisfaction. The extent to which each party feels favorably toward the other because positive expectations about the h h b b h relationship are reinforced. (e.g., “Both the organization and people like me benefit from the relationship.”)
  14. 14. Symmetrical strategies are most effective, e g effective e.g., ◦ Access. ◦ Di l Disclosure and openness. d ◦ Participation in mutual networks. ◦ Shared tasks. ◦ Involvement of leadership. ◦ Continuing dialogue.
  15. 15. Asymmetrical strategies are least effective, e.g., ff i ◦ Avoidance. ◦ Contention. ◦ Accommodation.
  16. 16. Most thinking about and measurement of reputation reflect a symbolic, interpretive, approach to public relations—that you can “manage” a reputation by managing messages. messages Reputations consist of what members of different p publics think and say about an organization. y g Reputations held by strategic publics usually consist of recalled behaviors—good and bad. These reputations are a product of relationships relationships. Thus, public relations executives should “manage” reputations by counseling management on what the p y g g organization should do—i.e., on how to behave—and by cultivating relationships with publics.
  17. 17. Environmental scanning. Identifying stakeholders and segmenting publics. Scenario building. Evaluating public relations programs. g g Establishing an ethical framework for public relations. Empowerment of the public relations function. Institutionalizing public relations as a strategic management function.