Jonathan R. White www.cengage.com/cj/white Chapter: 5Practicing Terrorism: Gender Roles, Tactics and Force Multipliers Rosemary Arway Hodges University
Gender and Mission Gender and Mission o Ideology draws certain types of recruits to a movement, and it influences the tactics terrorist groups employ. ▪ Gender impacts tactics and is often related to ideology. o Women active through the evolution of terrorism ▪ Role of women has often been overlooked ▪ Women were active in terrorism: ▪ at the time of the French Revolution, ▪ in 19th century Russia, ▪ in racial terrorism in the United States, ▪ in revolutionary terrorism in Ireland and leftist movements after 1968. The role of women is more closely related to political orientation than tactics.
Gender and Mission Gonzalez-Perez: o Women are more drawn to domestic terrorist groups. o Women in domestic groups gravitate toward combat and leadership. o Women in international groups are more likely to be employed as supporters, sympathizers and spies. Ness: o Women relegated to support and service in religious terrorist groups. ▪ This will change as women become more involved. o Women developed combat and leadership positions in secular organizations.
Gender and Mission Blee: o The role of women in racial terrorism in the United States: ▪ In the post-Civil War era, they served as inspiration for male violence. ▪ In the 20th century women became actively involved in lynching. ▪ In the late twentieth century, White Supremacy groups recruited women in support roles.
Gender and Mission Overlooking Female terrorists o Stack-O’Connor: ▪ Female terrorism is overlooked for the same reason that female criminality has been underplayed: researchers do not think of women as criminals, but rather, as victims. o Ness: ▪ Popular culture does not accept the idea of female terrorists. o von Knop: ▪ Women used as attackers or suicide bombers are following male model. o Sjoberg: ▪ Studies of women in terrorism are generally ignored. ▪ Media presentations follow the same track.
Tactics of Terrorism and Multiplying Force Jenkins reports six tactics of terrorism: o Bombing o Hijacking o Arson o Assault o Kidnapping o Hostage taking Terrorism includes threats from weapons of mass destruction and virtual attacks through computer systems.
Tactics of Terrorism and Multiplying Force This tactics of terrorism can be enhanced by force multipliers. Force multipliers o increase striking power without increasing the strength of a unit Force multipliers giving terrorists more striking power include: o Technology o Media coverage o Transnational support networks o Religious fanaticism
Tactics of Terrorism and Multiplying Force Most common weapon of terrorism is the bomb. Anarchists in 1848 – philosophy of the bomb o Only way to communicate with the social order was to destroy it. Irish Republican Army found the bomb to be the most important weapon after 1969. Groups throughout the world found bombs could be delivered by suicide attackers o Suicide bombings and road side bombs are weapons of choice against U.S. military in Iraq.
Tactics of Terrorism and Multiplying Force Terrorists increase effectiveness by applying explosive technology to weapons. Middle Eastern type of military-style weapon o Thermobaric bomb o Mini-nuke Force multipliers enhance destructive power while innovation is used to achieve shock and surprise. Purpose of a terrorist attack – send a message of chaos and destruction to a larger audience. o Victims are not the target; they are killed to send a message.
Technology Terrorism is influenced by technology Cyberterrorism o Cyberterrorists threaten to interrupt or confuse the flow of information. o Cyberterrorism refers to use of computers to attack technological targets of physical attacks on computer networks. o Targets for cyberterrorism: ▪ Computers ▪ Computer networks ▪ Information storage and retrieval systems o There has been a sharp rise in such attacks, with the Internet providing the vehicle for launching most of the strikes.
WMD: Biological Agents Weapons of Mass Destruction – WMD – are biological arsenals containing bacterial and viral weapons. o Microbes weaponized to increase their ability to kill o Difficult to control but relatively easy to produce Biological agents include: o Natural poisons or toxins o Viruses o Bacteria o Plagues Most threatening according to CDC are: o Smallpox o Anthrax o Plague o Botulism o Tularemia o Hemorrhagic fever
WMD: Biological Agents Two biological attacks in America o 1984 religious group in Oregon ▪ Bacteria on a salad bar ▪ Elect religious followers to local office o Anthrax in the wake of 9-11 ▪ Two tabloid writers infected thru the mail ▪ Followed by numerous anthrax attacks throughout the United States o The Commission on the Prevention of weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism (2010) found that the United States still had no structure in place to respond to a biological attack.
WMD: Chemical and Radiological Weapons Forms of chemical alterations include: o Radiological poisoning and “dirty” radioactive devices Chemicals: o Generally easier to deliver than biological weapons o Faster acting Radiological devices: o Slower than most chemicals o Longer lasting o Can be spread like chemicals
WMD: Chemical and Radiological Weapons Four types of chemical agents: o Nerve agents ▪ Ingestion, respiration, or contact o Blood agents ▪ Absorbed through the respiratory system o Choking agents ▪ Absorbed through the respiratory system o Blistering agents ▪ Burn skin and internal tissue areas upon contact
WMD: Chemical and Radiological Weapons Chemicals are attractive to terrorists. o Easy to control o Users can avoid area they attack Chemical weapons are problematic. o Delivery mechanism o Need for large quantities of chemicals o Chemicals can be neutralized by weather patterns, air, and water. Dirty bomb o Explosive used to spread a chemical or radioactive agent around a large area o Drawback of the dirty bomb ▪ The heat produced by the explosion may destroy the chemicals attached to the bomb
WMD: Nuclear Weapons Nuclear weapons o Available on the black market from sources in the former Soviet Union. o It is much easier for terrorists to use a conventional weapon or to spread chemicals than to build a nuclear weapon. o The U.S. Congress has designated a site in Nevada as the repository for all the radioactive waste used in America’s nuclear power plants, and all this material must be shipped across the country. This nuclear waste is a ready-made dirty bomb
WMD: Nuclear Weapons Nuclear terrorism: o Two methods for obtaining a nuclear device: ▪ Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) ▪ Plutonium Levi: o The United States is not ready for an attack. o Problems associated with terrorist’s attempts to obtain a weapon: Sophisticated security mechanisms National arsenals are secured Weapons are heavy and difficult to transport o The United States should approach nuclear terrorism in two manners: debunking popular myths and focusing on a comprehensive approach to a terrorist group and all its activities; revamp defense systems.
WMD WMD …. an international problem o All countries should encourage their nuclear companies to control their trade. ▪ Prohibit sales of nuclear goods to those countries that sponsor or support terrorism. ▪ For example Uzbekistan, the biggest exporter of nuclear materials (uranium) and fuels (natural gas, petroleum), must regulate their nuclear industry.
The Media as A Force Multiplier Governments and terrorists benefit from media portrayal of terrorist activity. Everyone involved in terrorist conflict tries to manipulate images of terrorist activities. o Continuous reporting amplifies the aura of small groups o Striking power of the group is magnified o Wilkins: terrorists try to multiply force through communication
The Media as A Force Multiplier Nacos: Most terrorist groups have objectives beyond publicity o Groups want recognition Wolfsfeld: Media victories are crucial for terrorism o How battles are reported as important as battlefield combat o Neither side wants to be portrayed as aggressor o Media primary tool for demonizing the enemy Terrorist groups will attempt to portray respectability in all forms of media.
The Media as A Force Multiplier All forms of media can be used to multiply force. o Internet is gaining attention of security forces Online communication brings measure of freedom when media is heavily controlled Emerging as a major source of information Krasnoboka: The Internet does not have an overwhelming impact in democratic countries, but it is a powerful tool for opposition forces in authoritarian régimes. o Movies assist terrorism and distort issues • Create popular images of propaganda • Responsible for strong emotional projections • Presents another venue for examination, for both assisting terrorism and distorting issues
Economic Targeting and Transnational Attacks Transnational support or operations can be used as a force multiplier. o Striking transnational or international economic targets increases the effectiveness of terrorist operations. Three types of transnational attacks: o Tourism o Energy o Shipping
Economic Targeting and Transnational Attacks Tourism o Attacks on tourism have a negative economic consequences (ETA). Energy o Interest in oil and gas production o Fossil fuels present tempting targets. Represent power and strengths of industrialized world. Strikes against oil refineries or transfer facilities have economic impact on the West. Examples: Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan
Economic Targeting and Transnational Attacks Endemic terrorism o Form of violence occurring in Africa where arbitrary national boundaries have been drawn through ethnic and tribal divisions Niger Delta o Oil plays crucial role Used to fund endemic terrorism and corrupt governments o Becomes target for those who cannot control production Oil companies investing in the area have greater incentive to focus on security than poverty engulfing the region. If poverty, endemic terrorism and criminalized policies are not addressed it will: o Become base for emergence of new international terrorist groups o Provide resources for training and eluding detection
Economic Targeting and Transnational Attacks Transportation o Provide tempting economic target as they produce mass casualties with minimal effort. o Protection of transportation is very expensive. Major feature of homeland security o Critics of homeland security policies argue that ports remain unsecured due to costs of increased protection. Attacks on aviation, shipping and transportation increase cost of security.
Suicide Attacks – Conflicting Opinions Gambetta’s three types of suicide attacks: o Suicide in warfare o Suicide for a principle without killing others o Suicide terrorism Altruistic suicide: suicide terrorists frequently believe they are sacrificing their lives for a greater good. Pape: o Attackers are so diverse, it may not be possible to find a single profile. o Suicide terrorism should be considered as a strategic tool. o Suicide terrorism gives a small group the power to coerce large governments. o Suicide terrorists tend to be more lethal than other types of attacks. o They strike greater fear in the target audience. o Each attack hints at future horrific violence. o It is a strategy designed to multiply expectations of political victory.
Suicide Attacks – Conflicting Opinions Theory of suicide terrorism Pape: o Three factors must be in place prior to a suicide terror campaign: Nationalistic or ethnic group must be resisting the occupation of a foreign power. Foreign power must represent a democratic government whose voters will not allow indiscriminate slaughter and total repression of the people in occupied area. Difference in religions of the occupying power and the people living under occupation.
Suicide Attacks – Conflicting Opinions Suicide terrorism is not caused by a single religion; it is caused by differences between two religions. Pape’s evidence from case studies: o Israeli occupation of the Shi’ite areas of Lebanon o The Sinhalese (Buddhist) control of the Tamil (Hindu) region of Sri Lanka o The fighting between Sunni Kurds and Sunni Turks in Eastern Turkey o The Indian (Hindu) struggle with the occupied Sikhs
Models for Suicide Bombing Tosini : o Suicide bombings are based on a strategic logic; a rational choice perspective. o This neglects the study of the social structure and culture of the group engaged in suicide terrorism. Wade and Reiter: o Suicide attacks are not used mainly against democracies. o Muslim states suffer more suicide attacks than Western democracies. Gunaratna: o All suicide bombing attacks have three things in common: Secrecy Reconnaissance Rehearsal