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Juvenile corrections pp week 1


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Juvenile corrections pp week 1

  1. 1. Rick Ruddell & Matthew O. Thomas
  2. 2. Juvenile Corrections: An Overview
  3. 3.  We used to perceive juvenile offenders as kids from troubled families who needed help, support and guidance Our views of juvenile and crime are what shape the types of juvenile justice systems that we develop When the public considers juvenile crime as out-of-control, youth are typically sentenced as adult offenders and sent to prison instead of trying to reform them in juvenile justice systems The public generally supports a juvenile justice system that provides rehabilitation, support and guidance to youth in trouble with the law The U.S. is the only nation where 13- and 14-year-olds can be sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole (WAS) Roper v. Simmons (2005) abolished the death penalty for crimes that 16- and 17-year-olds committed
  4. 4.  Juvenile facilities are based on rehabilitation & punishment ( Department of Social Services V Department of Corrections) Juveniles become adults at age:  16 (NY & NC)  17 (GA, IL, LA, MA, MI, MO, NH, SC, TC & WI)  18 (remaining states & DC) Can be held in juvenile correctional facilities until their 21st birthday in most states (25th birthday in CA) 757 detention centers in the U.S. Average stay in juvenile hall is 2 weeks
  5. 5. Community Placements Most are on probation (most common sanction of juvenile court)  Must participate in alcohol or drug treatment, adhere to curfew, continue their education, report to court when ordered, follow directions of & report to probation officer on a regular basis  Can include house arrest or electronic monitoring Group homes – generally open (free to come & go); required to attend school, do chores, participate in group meetings Wilderness experience programs & boot camps – very popular in the 1980s and 1990s  Usually first-time non-violent offenders  Constructively occupied dusk to dawn  Typically there 3-6 months  Found to be ineffective
  6. 6. Institutional Placements In 2006, about 93,000 youths held here Typically large, operated by state government & closely resembles adult prisons with higher levels of security State-raised youth – has a lengthy history of crime, including serious offenders, usually difficult to manage, previously living in foster care, often drawn to gangs, expresses antisocial beliefs
  7. 7.  In 2006, 92,854 youths were committed to state training schools or other out-of-home placements  15% were girls – of these 13,943 girls, 29% were being held on violent offenses  1,951 young women (about 14%) are held for committing acts that would not be crimes if they were older Between 1997 and 2006, girls’ arrest for violent crimes decreased by 12%, males decreased by 22%; ; assaults committed by girls increased 19%, males decreased by 4%; arrests for driving under the influence by males decreased by 6%; girls increased 39%
  8. 8.  One of the biggest challenges is disproportionate minority contact (DMC) – from arrest to confinement, minority youth are overrepresented compared to their population in the community Blacks and Latinos accounted for about 12.3% and 12.5% of the national population in 2000, Black juveniles represented about 40.2% of the residential population while Latinos accounted for 20.49% of the total in 2006. ------------------------------------- A 2004 study in Illinois and New Jersey of youth in juvenile corrections populations reported that 18.9% suffered from anxiety disorders, 27% had mood disorders such as depression, and almost one-third had disruptive disorders
  9. 9.  Age of Juveniles in Residential Placement, 2006  12 & under 1,207  13 3,424  14 9,127  15 17,574  16 24,646  17 23,761  18 & older 13,115 Total of 92,854 juveniles Younger residents often require more supervision as they tend to be more impulsive and disruptive than older adolescents Incarcerated juveniles tend to have lower rates of educational or employment successes and they have histories of abuse and victimization 1,215,839 persons under the age of 18 years were arrested in 2007, a decrease of 20.4% from 1998