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Teoria Do Conhecimento - Parte 1

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Slide do professor de ADM 106 da UFV - Professor Jorge

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Teoria Do Conhecimento - Parte 1

  1. 1.  O que é o conhecimento?  O que se pode conhecer?  Quando se tem conhecimento?  Pra que serve o conhecimento?  Por que ter conhecimento?  Onde está o conhecimento?  Quem tem conhecimento?  Como ter conhecimento?  Ter conhecimento é bom ou ruim?
  2. 2.  O objetivo desta aula é discutir o conceito de conhecimento e os diversos problemas relacionados a ele.
  3. 3. ◦ O que é?  Quais são os fundamentos do conhecimento humano ? ◦ O que se pode conhecer?  Conhecimento do “material” (perceptível)  Conhecimento do imaterial  O que significa “existir”? ◦ É possível ter conhecimento?  Se sim, como distinguir o verdadeiro do falso?  Se não, qual o estado mais aceitável que posso alcançar ? ◦ Como se pode conhecer?
  4. 4. ◦ Onde está o conhecimento? ◦ Quem tem conhecimento?  Existe conhecimento inato? Qual? ◦ Para que serve o conhecimento? ◦ Como se comunica o conhecimento ? ◦ Ter conhecimento é bom ou ruim?
  5. 5. Não são as respostas que movem o mundo, são as perguntas...
  6. 6. “I Keep six honest serving-men (They taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When And How and Where and Who” Rudyard Kipling (1902) (Conhecido como 5 W e 1 H)
  7. 7.  Quem?  Quanto?  Quando?  Por que?  Onde?  O que?  Como? (Conhecido como 3 Q e 1 POOC)
  8. 8.  Crença verdadeira justificável (Platão) ◦ Paradigmas
  9. 9.  Crença ◦ Uma crença não é mais verdadeira por ser unânime, nem menos verdadeira por ser solitária (Millor Fernandes, 1994)  Verdade  Justificável  Logic… an imperative, not to know the true, but to posit and arrange a world that shall be called true by us. (Friedrich Nietzsche)
  10. 10.  Do que existe ou sempre existiu
  11. 11.  Os três mundos de Popper ◦ Mundo1:  O mundo físico ou o mundo fora da mente, independente da mente e antecede a consciência. O mundo da matéria e as forcas (gravitacionais, magnéticas, etc.) Corresponde a noção de ‘coisa em si’ de Kant. ◦ Mundo 2:  O mundo da consciência ou de estados mentais. O mundo dos fenômenos mentais, como dor, medo, etc. ◦ Mundo 3:  O mundo dos artefatos conceituais ou verdades que não sendo físicas, constituem verdades independentes da mente humana, como , por exemplo, os princípios matemáticos e geométricos.
  12. 12.  Existem quatro causas implicadas na existência de algo: ◦ A causa material (aquilo do qual é feita alguma coisa, a argila, por exemplo); ◦ A causa formal (a coisa em si, como um vaso de argila); ◦ A causa eficiente (aquilo que dá origem ao processo em que a coisa surge, como as mãos de quem trabalha a argila); ◦ A causa final (aquilo para o qual a coisa é feita, por exemplo, portar arranjos para enfeitar um ambiente).
  13. 13.  “it is impossible for a person to (re)search either for what he know or what he doesn’t… He couldn’t (re)search for what he knows, for he knows it and no one in that condition needs to (re)search; on the other hand he couldn’t (re)search for what he doesn’t know, for he won’t even know what to (re)search for”. (Socrates) (Adapted from Day, 1994, p.47).
  14. 14. ◦ Fundamentalismo:  Crenças básicas  Toda crença não básica deve ser justificada em relação às crenças básicas para adquirir sua validade  Representante: Descartes (Descartes) ◦ Ceticismo:  Rejeita o fundamentalismo argumentando que não existem princípios internos validos.  Representantes: Dewey, Pierce. ◦ Falseamento:  Todo conhecimento é passível de revisão.  Não existe nada que experiências futuras não possa provar que nosso conhecimento é provisório.  Representante: Popper
  15. 15.  O conhecimento existe por si ◦ Se o ser humano nasce sem ele (tabula rasa), deve adquiri-lo de alguma forma.  O desvendar do conhecimento  O problema da Transferência.  O conhecimento é uma construção humana. ◦ A natureza histórica do conhecimento.  A construção do conhecimento;  Conhecimento como paradigma.
  16. 16.  O ser humano atribui a origem do conhecimento a fontes variadas: ◦ Revelacão, inspiração divina, graça; ◦ Autoridade, tradição, precedente legal, opinião de especialistas; ◦ Senso comum (comunicação interpessoal); ◦ Lógica: dedutiva e indutiva; ◦ Observação sensorial (empírica); ◦ Pesquisa científica (busca disciplinada).
  17. 17. O que significa existir?
  18. 18.  A visão materialista: ◦ Se algo existe pode ser medido e pesado.  Atomismo e Reducionismo: ◦ Qualidades primárias da matéria:  Extensão no espaço  Preenchimento do espaço  Forma e tamanho  Movimento e descanso  Os objetos maiores são formados de objetos menores  Alem de objetos, a natureza é composta de espaço e tempo, como o meio onde existem os objetos. John Locke (1632-1704)
  19. 19.  Qualidades secundárias da máteria ◦ Potências que causam em nós várias sensações (calor, pressão, etc.)
  20. 20.  A experiência consiste de duas formas distintas de percepção: ◦ De objetos externos sensíveis; ◦ De operações internas da mente:  Crenças;  Dúvidas;  Raciocínio;  Desejos;  Reflexões.
  21. 21. Experiência Percepção Sensorial Reflexão Inferência Dedução Indução
  22. 22.  Auto-Conhecimento ◦ Conhecimento do outro  Conhecimento da realidade ◦ Para entender ◦ Para mudar  Visão Utilitarista ◦ Para “se dar bem” ◦ Para “enganar” ◦ Para “levar vantagem”  A lei de Gerson. (vide youtube)
  23. 23.  Símbolos  Linguagem
  24. 24.  A caixa de Pandora
  25. 25.  (Eclesiastes 1) ◦ 17 E apliquei o meu coração a conhecer a sabedoria e a conhecer os desvarios e as loucuras, e vim a saber que também isto era aflição de espírito. ◦ 18 Porque na muita sabedoria há muito enfado; e o que aumenta em conhecimento, aumenta em dor.  (Eclesiastes 12) ◦ 12 E, demais disto, filho meu, atenta: não há limite para fazer livros, e o muito estudar é enfado da carne.
  26. 26.  Conhecimento, sem visão e força moral, gera tecnocratas.  Força moral, sem visão e conhecimento, gera ideólogos.  Visão, sem força moral e conhecimento, gera demagogos. (Warren Bennis)
  27. 27.  Todo ser humano, por natureza, deseja conhecimento (Aristóteles, 384 a.C.-322 a.C.)  O conceito de Conhecimento tem muitos problemas.  Sem nos debruçarmos sobre estes problemas o conhecimento não passa de meras ilusões.

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