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Clase 04 bio cel


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Clase 04 bio cel

  1. 1. Metabolismo celular. Diego Iriarte León. Biología y Ciencias Naturales.
  2. 2. Metabolismo celular. Definición:son los procesos químicos que ocurren dentro de la célula para mantener la vida. Acoplamiento Quimiosmótico.
  3. 3. !"Actividad enzimática. Vías metabólicas
  4. 4. Catabolismo.En presencia En ausenciade oxígeno. de oxígeno.Respiración Fermentación.celular.
  5. 5. Glucolisis.La célula transforma la glucosa endos moléculas de piruvato o ácidopirúvico.Se forman 2 NADH.¿Cómo funciona el NADH?
  6. 6. LE 9-6_3 Electrons Electrons carried carried via NADH and via NADH FADH2 Oxidative Glycolysis Citric phosphorylation: acid electron transport Glucose Pyruvate cycle and chemiosmosis Cytosol Mitochondrion ATP ATP ATP Substrate-level Substrate-level Oxidative phosphorylation phosphorylation phosphorylation
  7. 7. LE 9-8 Energy investment phase Glucose 2 ADP + 2 P 2 ATP used Glycolysis Citric Oxidative acid cycle phosphorylation Energy payoff phase ATP ATP ATP 4 ADP + 4 P 4 ATP formed 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O Net Glucose 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O 4 ATP formed – 2 ATP used 2 ATP 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 2 NADH + 2 H+
  8. 8. LE 9-11 Pyruvate (from glycolysis, 2 molecules per glucose) Citric CO2 Glycolysis acid Oxidation phosphorylation cycle NAD+ CoA NADH ATP ATP ATP + H+ Acetyl CoA CoA CoA Citric acid 2 CO2 cycle FADH2 3 NAD+ FAD 3 NADH + 3 H+ ADP + P i ATP
  9. 9. LE 9-12_4 Glycolysis Citric Oxidation acid cycle phosphorylation ATP ATP ATP Acetyl CoA NADH + H+ H 2O NAD+ Oxaloacetate Malate Citrate Isocitrate CO2 Citric acid cycle NAD+ H 2O NADH Fumarate + H+ !-Ketoglutarate FADH2 CO2 NAD+ FAD Succinate Pi NADH GTP GDP Succinyl + H+ CoA ADP ATP
  10. 10. LE 9-13 NADH 50 FADH2 Multiprotein I FAD complexes 40 FMN Free energy (G) relative to O2 (kcal/mol) Fe•S Fe•S II Q III Cyt b Oxidative Glycolysis Citric phosphorylation: 30 Fe•S acid cycle electron transport and chemiosmosis Cyt c1 IV Cyt c Cyt a ATP ATP ATP Cyt a3 20 10 0 2 H+ + 1/2 O2 H 2O
  11. 11. LE 9-14 INTERMEMBRANE SPACE H+ A rotor within the membrane spins H+ H+ as shown when H + flows past H+ H+ it down the H+ gradient. H+ H+ A stator anchored in the membrane holds the knob stationary. A rod (or stalk ) extending into the knob also spins, activating catalytic sites in the knob. H+ Three catalytic sites in the ADP stationary knob + join inorganic ATP phosphate to Pi ADP to make ATP. MITOCHONDRAL MATRIX
  12. 12. LE 9-15 Inner mitochondrial membrane Oxidative Glycolysis Citric acid phosphorylation: cycle electron transport and chemiosmosis ATP ATP ATP H+ H+ H+ H+ Protein complex Cyt c Intermembrane of electron space carriers Q IV I III ATP synthase Inner II 2H+ + 1/2 O2 H 2O mitochondrial FADH2 FAD membrane NADH + H+ NAD+ ADP + P i ATP (carrying electrons from food) H+ Mitochondrial Electron transport chain Chemiosmosis matrix Electron transport and pumping of protons (H+), ATP synthesis powered by the flow Which create an H+ gradient across the membrane of H+ back across the membrane Oxidative phosphorylation
  13. 13. LE 9-16 CYTOSOL Electron shuttles MITOCHONDRION span membrane 2 NADH or 2 FADH2 2 NADH 2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH2 Glycolysis Oxidative 2 2 Citric phosphorylation: Glucose Pyruvate Acetyl acid electron transport CoA cycle and chemiosmosis + 2 ATP + 2 ATP + about 32 or 34 ATP by substrate-level by substrate-level by oxidation phosphorylation, depending phosphorylation phosphorylation on which shuttle transports electrons form NADH in cytosol About Maximum per glucose: 36 or 38 ATP
  14. 14. LE 9-17a 2 ADP + 2 P i 2 ATP Glucose Glycolysis 2 Pyruvate 2 NAD+ 2 NADH 2 CO2 + 2 H+ 2 Ethanol 2 Acetaldehyde Alcohol fermentation
  15. 15. LE 9-17b 2 ADP + 2 P i 2 ATP Glucose Glycolysis 2 NAD+ 2 NADH 2 CO2 + 2 H+ 2 Pyruvate 2 Lactate Lactic acid fermentation
  16. 16. LE 9-18 Glucose CYTOSOL Pyruvate No O2 present O2 present Fermentation Cellular respiration MITOCHONDRION Ethanol Acetyl CoA or lactate Citric acid cycle
  17. 17. LE 9-19 Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Amino Sugars Glycerol Fatty acids acids Glycolysis Glucose Glyceraldehyde-3- P NH3 Pyruvate Acetyl CoA Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation