Use of Special Hydrated Lime for Tunnel Grouts

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Presentation made at the Congress of the Association Française des Tunnels et Espaces Souterrains (AFTES - Lyon, 17 Oct. 2011)

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Use of Special Hydrated Lime for Tunnel Grouts

  1. 1. USE OF SPECIAL HYDRATED LIME IN THE DESIGN OF GROUTING MORTARS D. Lesueur, C. Joly, D. Puiatti, F. Verhelst, J. Burdin Lyon Oct 17, 2011 Congrès AFTES 2011 1
  2. 2. Outline • Back Grouting Mortars • High Surface area Slaked Lime (HSSL) • First use of HSSL in tunnel grout: The Groene-Hart tunnel • Latest use of HSSL in tunnel grout: The security gallery of the Frejus tunnel • Conclusions Congrès AFTES 2011 2
  3. 3. Outline • Back Grouting Mortars • High Surface area Slaked Lime (HSSL) • First use of HSSL in tunnel grout: The Groene-Hart tunnel • Latest use of HSSL in tunnel grout: The security gallery of the Frejus tunnel • Conclusions Congrès AFTES 2011 3
  4. 4. Back Grouting Mortars • Tunnel bored with TBM with shield • Unique specifications for each tunnel – Fluid • Fill the annulus between walls and segment rings • Pumpable over a large period of time – Stable • No segregation over time and under pressure (bleeding) – Resistant • Match the mechanical properties (and permeability) of the surrounding rock • Resist the mechanical stresses – Cost effective Soil/Rock • Minimize additives and binder content Congrès AFTES 2011 Tunnel Grout Segment Rings 4
  5. 5. Back Grouting Mortars • Different types of grouts depending on tunnel context – Active grouts • cement-based – Semi-inert grouts • fly ash + hydrated lime – Inert grouts • fly ash or ground limestone – Gravel Soil/Rock Tunnel Grout Congrès AFTES 2011 Segment Rings 5
  6. 6. Outline • Back Grouting Mortars • High Surface area Slaked Lime (HSSL) • First use of HSSL in tunnel grout: The Groene-Hart tunnel • Latest use of HSSL in tunnel grout: The security gallery of the Frejus tunnel • Conclusions Congrès AFTES 2011 6
  7. 7. Hydrated (or Slaked) Lime Quicklime AT HE CaO calcium oxide T°>900°C H2O calcium carbonate 2 CO Limestone CaCO3 HEAT Hydrated Lime Ca(OH)2 calcium hydroxide Congrès AFTES 2011 7
  8. 8. High Surface area Slaked Lime • Patented Lhoist hydration technology • Tradename Proviacal® SP • High reactivity grade – 3 times more surface area (BET method with nitrogen adsorption) – 3 times more porous volume (BJH method with nitrogen adsorption) Congrès AFTES 2011 8
  9. 9. Outline • Back Grouting Mortars • High Surface area Slaked Lime (HSSL) • First use of HSSL in tunnel grout: The Groene-Hart tunnel • Latest use of HSSL in tunnel grout: The security gallery of the Frejus tunnel • Conclusions Congrès AFTES 2011 9
  10. 10. First Use: Groene-Hart Tunnel Grout • Bored in 2002-04 in the Netherlands • Tunnel characteristics – Thalys High Speed railway between Rotterdam and Amsterdam – Built by Bouygues + Koop Holding Europe – Central 7.2 km of tunnel bored in soft soil with the then-world biggest TBM (14.87 m diameter) Congrès AFTES 2011 10
  11. 11. Groene-Hart Tunnel Grout specifications Normal Break in / out < 10-4 m/s < 10-4 m/s 2,000 kg/m3 2,000 kg/m3 > 1.25 kPa > 1.25 kPa to be measured to be measured Bleeding <2% <2% Flow test 45 cm 45 cm Permeability Density Yield stress Filter loss 7.5 min / 2 bars Pumpability Until 24 hours Compressive Strength 0.5 MPa after 90 days Congrès AFTES 2011 1.5 MPa after 24 hours 11
  12. 12. Groene-Hart Tunnel Grout formulation (60,000 m3 in total) Mix 1 Mix 2 0/2 Slurry kg/m3 820 1,140 2/8 Gravel kg/m3 400 - Proviacal® SP kg/m3 60 70 Fly Ash kg/m3 300 300 Plasticiser l/m3 3.6 5 Stabiliser l/m3 0.2 0.35 Congrès AFTES 2011 12
  13. 13. Easier design with High Surface area Slaked Lime • Benefits of Proviacal® SP as compared to standard lime – Less lime • 82 to 65 kg/m3 – Less plasticiser • 5.6 to 3.6 l/m3 – Less stabiliser • 0.35 to 0.2 l/m3 • How does it work? – Pozzolanic reactions • high surface increases early set – Rheology stabilizer • stabilizes yield stress and flow Congrès AFTES 2011 13
  14. 14. Outline • Back Grouting Mortars • High Surface area Slaked Lime (HSSL) • First use of HSSL in tunnel grout: The Groene-Hart tunnel • Latest use of HSSL in tunnel grout: The security gallery of the Frejus tunnel • Conclusions Congrès AFTES 2011 14
  15. 15. Latest Use: Frejus Tunnel Grout • Being bored from 07/2011 until end 2012 • Tunnel characteristics – New security gallery of the Frejus tunnel linking France (Modane) to Italy – Built by Razel + Bilfinger Berger – 5.5 km in France + 3 km in Italy – 9.46 m diameter in hard shale Congrès AFTES 2011 15
  16. 16. Frejus Tunnel Grout feasability study • Feasability study performed at LERM (Arles) • Based on the following specifications Slump > 20 cm after 3 – 5 hours Fluidity 12 - 20 s Settling < 5 % after 3 hours Compressive Strength > 1 MPa after 28 days Congrès AFTES 2011 16
  17. 17. Frejus Tunnel Grout possible design F1 F2 F3 F4 0/4 Sand kg/m3 1,255 1,170 1,170 1,255 Fly Ash 1 kg/m3 230 230 230 Fly Ash 2 kg/m3 230 Prov. SP kg/m3 50 50 50 50 Air ent. l/m3 2.8 2.8 4.2 2.8 Superpl. l/m3 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 Water kg/m3 257 250 250 190 Congrès AFTES 2011 17
  18. 18. Frejus Tunnel Grout results F1 Slump F2 F3 F4 26.5 0h cm 23.5 25.5 24.5 5h cm 20.3 21.4 21.1 7h cm 24h cm 13.1 16.3 17.0 19.4 t/m3 2.01 1.99 1.97 2.05 Air volume % 8.7 7.3 7.8 9.8 Fluidity s 13.1 16.4 16.0 11.0 Density Compres. Strength 21.5 5j MPa 0.6* 6j MPa 8j MPa 1.9 14j MPa 3.3 1.9 1.7 3.5 2.7 Congrès AFTES 2011 18
  19. 19. Frejus Tunnel Grout • High Surface area Slaked Lime currently in use for the Frejus tunnel Fresh mortar manufactured in plant Fresh mortar transported to TBM Congrès AFTES 2011 with permission of RAZEL BILFINGER 19
  20. 20. Frejus Tunnel Grout • High Surface area Slaked Lime currently in use for the Frejus tunnel Mortar pumping unit TBM speed of 475m per month Pompe d’injection du mortier Congrès AFTES 2011 with permission of RAZEL BILFINGER 20
  21. 21. Outline • Back Grouting Mortars • High Surface area Slaked Lime (HSSL) • First use of HSSL in tunnel grout: The Groene-Hart tunnel • Latest use of HSSL in tunnel grout: The security gallery of the Frejus tunnel • Conclusions Congrès AFTES 2011 21
  22. 22. Conclusions • High Surface area Slaked Lime (Proviacal® SP) is a promising ingredient for grouting mortars • Validated in prestigious projects – Groene Hart tunnel, Frejus tunnel • Pozzolanic ingredient and rheology stabilizer for active and semi-inert grouts • Cost effective (less lime, less additives) Congrès AFTES 2011 22
  23. 23. Thank you for your attention Congrès AFTES 2011 23

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