Chapter 6 Continued


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Chapter 6 Continued

  1. 1. Chapter 6 continuedSentence structure & punctuation<br />Avoiding these Common Errors<br />
  2. 2. The four types of errors in Sentence structure<br />Sentence fragments<br />Run-ons and comma splices<br />Misplaced modifiers<br />Non-parallel construction<br />All these errors are the result of incorrect placement of the building blocks that make up sentences<br />Sentence structure on the ACT is closely tied to punctuation<br />Sentence structure errors can often be fixed by using the correct punctuation<br />
  3. 3. ERROR #1: Sentence Fragments<br />A complete sentence must have a subject and a verb<br />It must be able to stand alone<br />In other words, it must contain an independent clause<br />The ACT always contains.<br />A few sentences fragments.<br />Like these.<br />
  4. 4. There are Two Types of Sentence Fragments<br />The first is a dependent clause waiting for a second half that isn’t there. (see handout)<br />In the second type, you are asked to incorporate the sentence fragment into the complete sentence coming immediately before or after the fragment through the use of different punctuation marks. (see handout)<br />
  5. 5. How Do You Spot Sentence Fragments?<br />You will often spot this type of error as you read the passage<br />You can also spot the error in the answer choices<br />Sometimes there will be no need to change the sentence at all<br />Remember the answer choice NO CHANGE is correct slightly less than ¼ of the time<br />The answer choices contain valuable clues<br />
  6. 6. ERROR #2: Splices and Run-ons<br />In a comma splice, two independent clauses are jammed together into one sentence with only a comma to try and hold them together<br />There are several ways to fix this<br />Break it up into two sentences<br />By putting a conjunction between between the two thought<br />You could break up the thoughts with a semicolon<br />See hand out<br />
  7. 7. ERROR #3: Misplaced Modifiers<br />A modifying phrase needs to be near what it is modifying. If it gets too far away, it can get misplaced. For example:<br />Sweeping up the shards of glass, the missing key to the jewelry box was found by Aunt Sally.<br />Who was sweeping up the shards of glass?<br />As written the sentence gives the impression that the key was.<br />Sweeping up the shards of glass, Aunt Sally found the missing key to her jewelry box.<br />
  8. 8. A more Subtle version of the same error<br />Ecstatic and happy, Aunt Sally’s keys opened the jewelry box for the first time in weeks.<br />What is the modifying phrase?<br />What does it modify?<br />At first glance, it looks like the subject of the modifying phrase is Aunt Sally<br />But, what is the real subject of this sentence?<br />Aunt Sally’s is actually modifying the keys.<br />Ecstatic and happy, Aunt Sally used her key to open the jewelry box for the first time.<br />(see handout)<br />
  9. 9. How Do We Spot Misplaced Modifiers<br />If the underlined portion is part of a modifying phrase, check to make sure it modifies he correct noun<br />If the underlined portion includes the noun, check to make sure it is the correct noun<br />Look out for modifying phrases followed by commas. Do the nouns being modified appear right after the modifiers?<br />
  10. 10. Construction Shifts<br />These resemble misplaced modifiers, in that the modifier is in the wrong place.<br />
  11. 11. For Example<br />Stepping to avoid the large puddle I carefully tripped and fell.<br />F. NO CHANGE<br />G. (Place after stepping)<br />H. (Place after and)<br />I. (Place after fell)<br />
  12. 12. Here’s How To Crack It<br />“Carefully” is an adverb. It must modify a verb. The only question for us is which verb.<br />Only a stunt man trips or falls “carefully” so that eliminates choices (F) and (H) and (J)<br />If we put “carefully” after “stepping” does it make sense?<br />Yes, so the answer is (G)<br />
  13. 13. How Do You Spot Construction Shifts?<br />They are either presented as in the previous slide <br />Or as follows:<br />NO CHANGE<br />Stepping carefully over the puddle, I tripped and fell.<br />Stepping over the puddle, I tripped and carefully fell<br />Stepping over the puddle, I tripped and fell carefully.<br />Stepping to avoid a large puddle, I carefully tripped and fell.<br />
  14. 14. ERROR #4: Non-Parallel Construction<br />There are two major types of construction errors tested on the ACT<br />You might see a list of verbs<br />You might see a list of nouns<br />The list could have as few as two items. <br />
  15. 15. Examples<br />When Tom finally came home, Aunt Sally kissed him, hugged him, and gives him his favorite dessert after dinner.<br />Three explanations for Sid’s locking himself in his room were a desire to do his homework, a sense that he needed to hone his college essays, and disliking his brother Tom, who always got away with murder.<br />A list of verbs<br />A list of nouns<br />The sentence above has an error because all the items on the list must be in the same tense<br />The sentence above is wrong. While the first two are both nouns, “disliking”<br />is a gerund, a verb functioning as a noun<br />
  16. 16. How Do You Spot Parallel-Construction Problems?<br />First, read the passage<br />Be on the lookout for a series of actions or nouns<br />Look for changes in verb tense or the way in which nouns are set up among the answer choices<br />
  17. 17. PUNCTUATION<br />The ACT also likes to test one kind of punctuation all by itself: the APOSTROPHE<br />An Apostrophe is used either to indicate possession,<br />Or to mark missing letters in a word<br />
  18. 18. Examples<br />When it is used to indicate possession, it appears either right before or right after the s at the end of the possessive noun.<br />ACT wants to know when apostrophes are unnecessary; some apostrophe questions require you to drop an apostrophe<br />Remember for an apostrophe to be correct, the noun containing it must be followed by another noun or an adjective and a noun<br />POSSESSION<br />UNNECESSARY POSSESSION<br /><ul><li>Peter’s new car is extremely </li></ul>expensive.<br /><ul><li>Women’s issues will be important </li></ul>In the next election.<br /><ul><li>The girls’ room will be renovated</li></ul>This summer<br />