Introduction: The Proto-Renaissance Style
and International Gothic
Map of Proto-Renaissance Europe, c.1350.
Proto-­‐Renaissance	
  
Dates and Places:
•  1300-1400
•  Northern Italian
Republics (Milan,	
  
Mantua,	
  Bologna,	
  Pa...
Florentine Painting
Example:
•  Fresco program in
family chapel
•  Pioneer of naturalistic
treatment of figures
•  Drapery...
Floren<ne	
  Pain<ng	
  
Example: 	
  
•  Gio8o	
  (1267-­‐1336/7)	
  
•  Private	
  patron	
  
(Scrovegni)	
  
•  Style	
...
Gio8o	
  di	
  Bondone,	
  Arena	
  Chapel	
  leV	
  (exterior)	
  and	
  right	
  (	
  Interior	
  of	
  the	
  Arena	
  ...
Proto-­‐Renaissance	
  
Example:
•  Theotokos= “God-bearer”
•  Marriage of Byzantine and
Gothic elements
•  Figures have w...
Proto-­‐Renaissance	
  
Social/Political/
Economic:
•  Ruling	
  families	
  
compe<ng	
  	
  
•  Black	
  Death	
  
(1348...
Sienese Painting
Duccio di Buoninsegna, Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints, 1308–1311.
Tempera on panel, Museo dell’ O...
Sienese Painting
Example:
•  Altarpiece
•  Theotokos
•  Wood panels
•  Civic pride
•  Cult of the Virgin Mary
•  Shifting ...
Proto-Renaissance
Example:
•  Rivals (Florence vs.
Siena)
•  Italian humanism
•  Increasing interest in
antiquity and stud...
Sienese Painting	
  
Ambrogio	
  Lorenzec,	
  The	
  Allegory	
  of	
  Good	
  and	
  Bad	
  Government,	
  1338-­‐1340.	
...
Sienese Painting	
  
Example:
•  Public
commission
•  Civic content, not
religious
•  Combines color
of Duccio and
natural...
Sienese Painting	
  
Example:
•  Assembly of virtues
rule good government
(present are Justice,
Wisdom, Pax (relaxes)
•  L...
Sienese Painting	
  
Example:
•  Ambrogio Lorenzetti,
The Common Good
of Siena personified
and flanked by the
Classical Vi...
Sienese Painting	
  
Example:	
  
•  Tyranny	
  sits	
  surrounded	
  
by	
  vices	
  (avarice,	
  pride,	
  
and	
  vaing...
Sienese Painting	
  
Example:
•  Combines color of
Duccio and
naturalism of
Giotto
•  Effects of good
government in the
ci...
Sienese Painting	
  
Example:
•  City is shown in disarray
•  Buildings in poor
condition, an
atmosphere of fear and
viole...
Interna<onal	
  Gothic	
  Style	
  
Dates and Places:
•  mid 13th through mid 14th
centuries
•  France, Flanders,
Germany,...
Interna<onal	
  Gothic	
  Style	
  
Example:
•  Developed as a result of
common aesthetic of
courtly elegance
•  Exhibits ...
Interna<onal	
  Gothic	
  Style	
  
Example:
•  Created for Siena Cathedral.
•  Characteristic of artist’s style is
the wo...
Northern Europe
Dates and Places:
•  1400 to 1500
•  Burgundy, Flanders,
France and the Holy
Roman Empire
People:
•  Noble...
Northern Europe
Example:
•  Originally known as The
Great Cross (now lost)
•  Monument in Carthusian
cloister housing rema...
Interna<onal	
  Gothic	
  Style
Themes:
•  Mix of religious and political
•  Personal aggrandizement
•  Feudalism
Forms:
•...
Interna<onal	
  Gothic	
  Style	
  
Example:
•  Extremely	
  detailed	
  
– Possible	
  inspira<on	
  for	
  
Northern	
  ...
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Lecture I:The Proto-Renaissance, A Review

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Brief overview of important works from the Proto-Renaissance and International Gothic

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Lecture I:The Proto-Renaissance, A Review

  1. 1. Introduction: The Proto-Renaissance Style and International Gothic Map of Proto-Renaissance Europe, c.1350.
  2. 2. Proto-­‐Renaissance   Dates and Places: •  1300-1400 •  Northern Italian Republics (Milan,   Mantua,  Bologna,  Padua,   etc.  ) People: •  Decline in feudalism •  Social stability •  Little threat of warfare •  Thriving trade market •  Private patrons Gio8o  di  Bondone,  Enrico  Scrovegni  dedica<ng   chapel  (scene  from  Arena  Chapel),  c.  1305.      Fresco,   78”  x  77.”    Padua,  Italy.  
  3. 3. Florentine Painting Example: •  Fresco program in family chapel •  Pioneer of naturalistic treatment of figures •  Drapery reveals body •  Emotional expression •  Shallow, illusionistic space for narrative •  Overlapping used to create illusion of space Gio8o  di  Bondone,  Lamenta(on  (scene   from  Arena  Chapel),  c.  1305.      Fresco,  78”  x   77.”    Padua,  Italy.  
  4. 4. Floren<ne  Pain<ng   Example:   •  Gio8o  (1267-­‐1336/7)   •  Private  patron   (Scrovegni)   •  Style  based  on   Byzan<ne  and  Early   Roman  frescoes,   sculpture  of  Pisano   –  Each  figure  separate   geometric  body  in   three  dimensional   form   –  Naturalis<c  features   –  Expressive  emo<on   Gio8o  di  Bondone,  The  Crucifixion  (scene  from   Arena  Chapel),  c.  1305.      Fresco,  78”  x  77.”    Padua,   Italy.  
  5. 5. Gio8o  di  Bondone,  Arena  Chapel  leV  (exterior)  and  right  (  Interior  of  the  Arena  Chapel,  facing   east.)    Padua,  Italy.  
  6. 6. Proto-­‐Renaissance   Example: •  Theotokos= “God-bearer” •  Marriage of Byzantine and Gothic elements •  Figures have weight •  Division  of  space  symbolically   and  formally   •  Influence  of  Italian  architecture   Gio8o  di  Bondone,  Madonna  Enthroned,   ca.  1310.    Tempera  on  panel,  10’8”  x   6’8”.    Galleria  degli  Uffizi,  Florence.  Fig.   12.10  
  7. 7. Proto-­‐Renaissance   Social/Political/ Economic: •  Ruling  families   compe<ng     •  Black  Death   (1348-­‐1350)   –  Es<mated  75-­‐200   million  dead   –  Spread  through  Silk   Road   Map  of  Silk  Route  via  land  and  water.  
  8. 8. Sienese Painting Duccio di Buoninsegna, Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints, 1308–1311. Tempera on panel, Museo dell’ Opera del Duomo. Fig. 12.11. “Holy  Mother  of  God,  be  the  cause  of  peace  to  Siena,  and  to  the  life  of   Duccio  because  he  has  painted  you  thus.  
  9. 9. Sienese Painting Example: •  Altarpiece •  Theotokos •  Wood panels •  Civic pride •  Cult of the Virgin Mary •  Shifting from Italo- Byzantine to more naturalistic style •  Influence of tapestry industry •  More dynamic posture and fluidity of fabric Duccio di Buoninsegna, Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints, 1308– 1311. Tempera on panel, Museo dell’ Opera del Duomo. Fig. 12.11.
  10. 10. Proto-Renaissance Example: •  Rivals (Florence vs. Siena) •  Italian humanism •  Increasing interest in antiquity and study of Roman sculpture •  Growing naturalism of figures and spaces •  Cimabue = Italo- Byzantine •  Giotto anticipates Renaissance Left: CIMABUE, Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets, ca. 1280–1290. Fig. Right: GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Madonna Enthroned, ca. 1310. Fig. 12.10
  11. 11. Sienese Painting   Ambrogio  Lorenzec,  The  Allegory  of  Good  and  Bad  Government,  1338-­‐1340.    Fresco,  Sale  della   Pace,  Palazzo  Pubblico,  Siena.  Fig.  12.12  
  12. 12. Sienese Painting   Example: •  Public commission •  Civic content, not religious •  Combines color of Duccio and naturalism of Giotto •  Allegory of morality Ambrogio  Lorenzec,   The  Allegory  of  Good  and  Bad  Government,   1338-­‐1340.    Fresco,  Sale  della  Pace,  Palazzo  Pubblico,   Siena.  Fig.  12.12  
  13. 13. Sienese Painting   Example: •  Assembly of virtues rule good government (present are Justice, Wisdom, Pax (relaxes) •  Large, middle figure personification of Siena (hierarchy of images) Ambrogio  Lorenzec,  detail    The  Allegory  of  Good  and  Bad  Government,  1338-­‐1340.    Fresco,  Sale   della  Pace,  Palazzo  Pubblico,  Siena.    
  14. 14. Sienese Painting   Example: •  Ambrogio Lorenzetti, The Common Good of Siena personified and flanked by the Classical Virtues. Romulus and Remus are at his feet. Soldiers lead captive Florentines on the lower right. Ambrogio  Lorenzec,  detail    The  Allegory  of   Good  and  Bad  Government,  1338-­‐1340.     Fresco,  Sale  della  Pace,  Palazzo  Pubblico,   Siena.    
  15. 15. Sienese Painting   Example:   •  Tyranny  sits  surrounded   by  vices  (avarice,  pride,   and  vainglory)  in  an   inversion  of  the  Allegory  of   Good  Government.   •  Joining  Tyranny  in  an   architecture  of  war  are   personifica<ons  of   treason,  cruelty,  fraud,   fury,  war,  and  divisiveness     •  At  Tyranny’s  feet  Jus<ce  is   shown  bound   Ambrogio  Lorenzec,  detail    The  Allegory  of  Good  and  Bad  Government,  1338-­‐1340.    Fresco,  Sale   della  Pace,  Palazzo  Pubblico,  Siena.    
  16. 16. Sienese Painting   Example: •  Combines color of Duccio and naturalism of Giotto •  Effects of good government in the city shows people happy, dancing, a good economy Ambrogio  Lorenzec,  detail  The  Effects  of  Good   Government  in  the  city,  from  the  Siena  frescoes   1338-­‐1340.    Fresco,  Sale  della  Pace,  Palazzo  Pubblico,   Siena.    
  17. 17. Sienese Painting   Example: •  City is shown in disarray •  Buildings in poor condition, an atmosphere of fear and violence rules •  Violent acts dominate the scene Ambrogio  Lorenzec,  detail  The  Effects  of  Bad   Government  in  the  city,  from  the  Siena  frescoes   1338-­‐1340.    Fresco,  Sale  della  Pace,  Palazzo   Pubblico,  Siena.    
  18. 18. Interna<onal  Gothic  Style   Dates and Places: •  mid 13th through mid 14th centuries •  France, Flanders, Germany, Spain, Bohemia, Austria, England, etc. •  Flourishes within the Proto-Renaissance period People: •  Nobles and merchants •  Pious and prosperous •  Interested in visible world Gen<le  da  Fabriano  ,  The  Adora(on  of  the   Magi,  1423.   Tempera  on  wood,  80”  x  111.”    Galleria  degli   Uffizi,  Florence.  
  19. 19. Interna<onal  Gothic  Style   Example: •  Developed as a result of common aesthetic of courtly elegance •  Exhibits Gothic influence. •  Simone Martini major contributor to development of style •  Words from Gabriel’s mouth, “Hail favored one! The Lord is with you •  Epitomizes period through lavish costumes, brilliant color, intricate detail and ornamentation Simone  Mar<ni  and  Lippo  Menni,   The  Annuncia(on,  1333.   Tempera  on  panel,  72  ½”  x  82  5/8.”    Galleria   degli  Uffizi,  Florence.  
  20. 20. Interna<onal  Gothic  Style   Example: •  Created for Siena Cathedral. •  Characteristic of artist’s style is the work’s elegant shapes, rich color, weightless figures, use of gold and punchwork technique, and fluttering line. •  Simone Martini adapts French Gothic style with Sienese and fuses these with influences from Northern Europe. •  Arch and delicate filigree  recall   Gothic  architecture. •  Themes and decoration appeal to royal courts. •  Use of symbolism –  Gold = divinity –  Lilies=Mary’s purity Simone  Mar<ni  and  Lippo  Menni,   The  Annuncia(on,  1333.   Tempera  on  panel,  72  ½”  x  82  5/8.”    Galleria   degli  Uffizi,  Florence.  
  21. 21. Northern Europe Dates and Places: •  1400 to 1500 •  Burgundy, Flanders, France and the Holy Roman Empire People: •  Nobles and merchants •  Pious and prosperous •  Interested in visible world Claus Sluter, Well of Moses, from the Chartreuse de Champmol, 1395–1406. Stone, height of figures approx. 6’. Fig. 13.1.
  22. 22. Northern Europe Example: •  Originally known as The Great Cross (now lost) •  Monument in Carthusian cloister housing remains of Philip the Bold and family •  Old Testament Prophets •  New Testament •  Naturalistic style break with medieval style •  Expressionistic angels Claus Sluter, Well of Moses, from the Chartreuse de Champmol, 1395–1406. Stone, height of figures approx. 6’. Fig. 13.1.
  23. 23. Interna<onal  Gothic  Style Themes: •  Mix of religious and political •  Personal aggrandizement •  Feudalism Forms: •  Joins French Gothic with 14th century Italian naturalism •  Book of Prayers= private, devotional use •  Mix of religious piety with astronomy and astrology •  Division of classes Limbourg Brothers, Les Trés Riches Heires du Duc de Berry, calendar miniature for July, 1413-1416. Illumination on vellum, 8 7/8” x 5 3/8.” Musée Condé, Chantilly, France. Fig. 13.2
  24. 24. Interna<onal  Gothic  Style   Example: •  Extremely  detailed   – Possible  inspira<on  for   Northern  Renaissance   (especially  Flemish)   •  Observed  from  nature   •  Caricature  of  poor   Limbourg  Brothers,  Les  Trés  Riches  Heires  du   Duc  de  Berry,  calendar  miniature  for  February,   1413-­‐1416.  Illumina<on  on  vellum,  8  7/8”  x  5   3/8.”    Musée    Condé,  Chan<lly,  France.    

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