A Brief History of Modern Art Lecture II, Part IV: Expressionism through
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• The reaction to Impressionism and the influence of Post- Impressionism were not limited to painting.• Modern sculptors, led by Auguste Rodin (1840-1917), waged a campaign against the idealism of the French Academic style.• Rodin’s sculpture, The Age of Bronze, demonstrates a clear observation from nature infused of expressionism. Auguste Rodin, The Age of Bronze, 1876. Bronze, 71” x 28”. The Minneapolis Museum of Art.
• Stylistically, Rodin looked to sculpture of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance masters of Donatello andDonatello, David, 1440 Michelangelo. Michelangelo Buonarroti, David, . Bronze, 62.2”. 1501–1504. Marble, approx. Borgello 14’. Accademia di Belle Arti, Museum, Florence. Florence.
Schools of Modern Art Post-Impressionism • Rodin’s sculpture, The Age of Bronze, demonstrates clear observation from nature and the raw emotions of expressionism. • Rodin directly quotes the Renaissance master’s Dying Slave. Auguste Rodin, The Age of Michelangelo Buonarroti, Bronze, 1876. Bronze, 71” x The Dying Slave, 1513-28”. The Minneapolis Museum 1516. Marble, 7’6”. of Art. Louvre, Paris.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Rodin is best known for his ability to model the human form with realism.• His Burghers of Calais, demonstrate s his ability to fuse expressionist emotion within three-dimensional media. Auguste Rodin, The Burghers of Calais, modeled 1884– 95; this bronze cast 1985. Bronze 82 1/2”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Burghers has a psychological content that is raw and unprecedented.• The artist’s ability to translate the terror and emotions felt by the six figures makes it an example of expressionist sculpture and contributes to its success. – Notice the elongated limbs, tattered clothing, disheveled condition of the bodies with sunken cheeks and uncoiffed hair, coupled with the animation of the figures. – This is how Rodin expresses the emotion of the piece and communicates that Auguste Rodin, The Burghers of Calais, modeled 1884– emotion to the viewer. 95; this bronze cast 1985. Bronze 82 1/2”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC.
The Modern Condition• La belle époque (1890-1914), which gave rise to a society of great experimentation (as seen in many of the fin de siècle artists), fades. Its vibrant spirit is replaced by the mal de siècle (existence is senseless), a nihilism with reverberating effects.• God is dead! – In 1882, German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, declares God dead. – Although he is not very well known at the time, his pronouncement would characterize the coming mood of the 20th century.• Industrialization of 19th century fuels international capitalism.• National pride reaches new levels leading to world war.• Artists reject the representational convention and pictorial illusionism of artistic tradition in favor of abstraction and spatial distortion.
Schools of Modern Art“Donatello au milieu desfauves!” -Louis Vauxcelles, 1905 – Exhibited at the 1905 Salon dAutomne, also known as the “Fauve Salon”. – It is here, with this work, that the movement gets its name and Matisse is recognized as the leader of the Fauves. Henri Matisse, Woman with a Hat, 1905. Oil on canvas, 31 ¼” x 23 ½”. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.
Schools of Modern ArtFauvism (1900-1910)• Fauvism is born out of the spirit of experimentation within la belle époque.• Movement gets name from quote (insult really).• Artists include: Henri Matisse (1869-1954) considered to be the leader of the Fauves, André Derain (1880-1954), Maurice de Vlaminck (1876-1958), Georges Rouault (1871-1958), and Raol Dufy (1877-1953).• As a style of painting, Fauvism begins roughly around 1900 and continued after 1910.• As a movement, however, Fauvism Henri Matisse, Reclining Nude experienced its highpoint from 1904-1908. I, 1906-1907. Bronze, 13 ½” x 19• Expressed in two and three dimensional ¾” x 11 ¼”. ( In background, Blue media. Nude, 1907. Oil on canvas, 36 ½” x 56 1/8”.) Museum of Art Modern Art.
Schools of Modern ArtFauvism (1900-1910)• Heavily influenced by Gauguin, the Symbolists, and Nabis group.• Fuave’s reclaim Impressionist joyous embrace of nature and combine it with the Post- Impressionist investment in color contrasts and emotionality.• Fauves emancipate color from Henri Matisse, Luxe, Calme, et role in describing reality. Volupté, (Luxury, Calm, and Delight),1904-05. Oil on canvas, 37x46”. Musée National dArt Moderne.
Schools of Modern Art • Inspired by Baudelaire’s Invitation to Voyage, 1857. • Combines abstraction of Signac with the figural organization of Cezanne. • Presents modern, radical re-interpretation of bathers/landscape nude tradition. • Scenes are from the imagination. Henri Matisse, Luxe, Calme, Paul Cézanne, Battle of et Volupté, (Luxury, Calm,Love, 1880. Oil on canvas 14 and Delight),1904-05. Oil7/8” x 18 ¼”. National Gallery on canvas, 37x46”. Musée of Art, Washington, DC. National dArt Moderne.
Schools of Modern ArtFauvism (1900-1910)• In 1908, Matisse writes “Notes of a Painter” – Like Whistler before him, Matisse declares painting to be autonomous creation, free of serving any moral or symbolic ends. Henri Matisse, Portrait of Madame – Argues color is arbitrary. Matisse/The Green Line (or Stripe), 1905. Oil and tempera on canvas, 15 7/8” x 12 7/8”. Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen.
Schools of Modern ArtFauvism (1900-1910)• Search for immediacy and clarity.• Desire for personal authenticity keeps cohesive movement from forming.• Extend boundaries of representation.• Influenced by non-Western cultures, esp. African.
Schools of Modern ArtFauvism (1900-1910)• African interest and influence on Matisse.• Demonstrates Matisse’s fluidity of line, arbitrary use of color, and experimentation with traditional subject matter.• Causes sensation at 1913 Armory Show.• Copies burned in effigy at the Armory Show in Chicago in 1913. Henri Matisse, Blue Nude. (Souvenir de Biskra), 1907. oil on canvas, 36 ¼” x 56 1/8”. Baltimore Museum of Art.
The Modern Condition• Increasing economic instability, expanding colonialism, and increasing nationalism fused with the need for personal identity and purity lead to conflict on a global scale.• People began to question established tradition, law, and the concept of truth. – Some turned back to the church and explored new religions from the East. Others sought answers in science and the developing fields of psychology, sociology, anthropology, and art. World Colonial Empires, c. 1900.
Schools of Modern ArtExpressionism (late 19th- early 20thcentury) – Any art that stresses the artists emotional and psychological expression, often with bold colors and distortions of form. – The classic phase of the movement lasted from approximately 1905 to 1920. – Specifically an art style of the early 20th century followed principally by certain German artists. – Expressionist painters were especially influenced by Friedrich Nietzsche, Vincent van Gogh, and Edvard Munch, The Scream, 1893. Oil Sigmund Freud. and tempera on board 35 ¾ x 29”. The National Gallery, Oslo Norway.
Schools of Modern ArtExpressionism (late 19th- early 20thcentury)• Art becomes a tool for artists to communicate the growing angst of a generation.• Writing about the inspiration for The Scream Munch pens: I went along the road with two friends— The sun set Suddenly the sky became blood—and I felt the breath of sadness I stopped—leaned against the fence— deathly tired Clouds over the fjord dripped reeking with blood My friends went on but I just stood trembling with an open wound in my breast I heard a huge extraordinary scream pass through nature. Edvard Munch, The Scream, 1893. Oil and tempera on board 35 ¾ x 29”. The National Gallery, Oslo Norway.
Schools of Modern ArtGerman Expressionism (Early 20th century)• German Expressionism should be thought of as the visual transformation of Nietzsche’s statement, “God is dead!”• It is an explicit movement centered in Northern Europe prevalent in the early decades of 20th century.• The roots of German Expressionism lie in French and German Romanticism (in the work of artists Delacroix and Friedrich) which Eugène Delacroix, The Lion Hunt, placed an emphasis on the exploration of an 1861. Oil on canvas, 30 1/8” x 38 ¾”. extremely personal aesthetic. Art Institute of Chicago.• German Expressionism has a strong relationship to Fauvism in its eccentric use of color and van Gogh for its emotionally charged employment of color.• German Expressionism produces two schools of art: – Die Brücke “The Bridge” Casper David Friedrich, Monk by the – Der Blaue Reiter “The Blue Rider” • Both schools view modernity-industrialized society Sea,, 1808. Oil on canvas 43.31" x with skepticism, this is often subject of their work. 67.52". Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin.
Schools of Modern ArtGerman Expressionism (Early 20th century)• Die Brücke “The Bridge” • Formed in Dresden in 1905, disbands in 1913. • First manifestation of Expressionism in German art. • Founding members include Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880- 1938), Erich Heckel (1883-1970), and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (1884-1976), and Fritz Bleyl(1880-1966). • Major contribution to modern art was its revival of printmaking. • Often compared to Fauvism for its use of color, shared interest in primitivist art, crude drawing technique, and opposition to total abstraction.
Schools of Modern ArtGerman Expressionism (Early 20thcentury)• Artist , Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880- 1938) was one of the founding members of Die Brücke .• Kirchner worked in many media including paint, print, and sculpture.• Kirchner frequently reworked his canvases visiting.• He drew inspiration from the Oceanic and African art as well as early Renaissance masters, most Albrecht Dürer, especially the prints of Albrecht The Four Dürer (1471-1528). Horseman of the Portrait of Henry – German Expressionist artists van de Velde, Ernst Apocalypse, sought to continue their heritage 1498. Woodcut; Ludwig 15 3/8 x 11 and thus looked for inspiration in Kirchner, 1917; the German Gothic and 11/16”. Harvard woodcut, 19 ½” x University Art Renaissance roots. 15 ¾”. Private Museum.
Schools of Modern ArtDie Brücke (1905-1913)• Inspired by contemporary urban life.• Sketched from life and reworked in numerous drawings in studio.• Paints the city dwellers of Dresden and Berlin.• Uses acidic color in arbitrary fashion.• Each figure is individual, floats through the picture plane.• Figures move toward and away from the viewer, figures are anonymous, alienated.• Work is a condemnation of modern Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Street, Dresden, culture and an expression of the artist’s 1907/08. Reworked 1919. Oil on psychological condition. canvas, 4’11 ¼” x 6’6 7/8”. Museum of Modern Art, NYC.
Schools of Modern Art • Kirchner often found inspiration in the work of his fellow artists. • Here he looks to the work of Norwegian Expressionist, Edvard Munch and his Evening on Karl Johan Street, 1889.Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Street, Dresden, 1907/08. Edvard Munch, Evening on Karl JohanReworked 1919. Oil on canvas, 4’11 ¼” x 6’6 7/8”. Street, 1889. Oil on canvas, 35 3/8" x 55”. Museum of Modern Art, NYC. Rasmus Meyer Collection, Bergen, Norway.
Schools of Modern ArtGerman Expressionism (Early 20th century)Der Blaue Reiter “The Blue Rider”• Operated 1911-1914.• Characterized by free use of color, form, and space; there is no one single style associated with The Blue Rider Group.• Retreat from city life and focus on folk culture, idealized representation of nature, and romanticized views of the past.• German Expressionist movement founded by Russian emigrants Wassily Kandinsky (1866- 1944), Alexej von Jawlensky (1864-1941), Marianne von Werefkin (1860-1938), and German artists Franz Marc (1880-1916), August Macke 91887-1914), and Gabriele Münter Wassily Kandinsky, Der Blaue (1877-1962). Reiter (The Blue Rider), 1903.• The group was founded in response to the Oil on cardboard, 21.7” x rejection of Kandinskys painting Last 25.6”.The Private Judgement (c.1911) from an exhibition. Collection, Zurich.
Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873. Oil on canvas, 31 ¼” x 23 ¼”. Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri. • Kirchner approached similar subject matter in a different way. • He did not celebrate modernity and industrialization blindly as the Impressionists once did. He was skeptical. – He communicates that skepticism in color choice and angularity of composition. • Angularity produces tension in the work and the viewer. • Angularity inherited from Gothic roots. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Street, Berlin, 1913. Oil oncanvas, 47 1/2 x 35 7/8”. Museum of Modern Art, NYC.
Expressionism vs. FauvismSimilarities• Like Fauves, German Expressionists used vigorous color palette.• Both share aesthetic characteristics: – flattening of perspectival plane (taken from Cézanne) – energetic handling of paint and interest in historical tradition
Expressionism vs. FauvismDifferences• German Expressionists are not academically trained so…there is no lingering influence of the academy.• Both respond to contemporary situation, but very differently: – Fauves did not engage in the social issues, Expressionists do!• Expressionists are responding to thinkers like Nietzsche, Fauves (especially Matisse) paint from the imagination.
Schools of Modern ArtDevelopments in Modern Sculpture• Sculptor,Constantin Brancusi (1876-1957), continues Rodin’s tradition of sculpting human form.• Style is difficult to categorize.• Exhibits non-Western influence like contemporaries. Constantin Brancusi, Sleeping Muse, 1909-1910. Marble, 7” x 11 1/” x 8”. Hirshorn Museum and Sculpture Garden.
Schools of Modern ArtDevelopments in ModernSculpture• Brancusi is best known for pure abstraction in sculpture.• His Bird in Space (one of a series of works by this name) caused international scandal when brought to U.S. by artist Marcel Duchamp in 1926. – U.S. Customs agents did not believe the piece to be art so imposed tariff for metal objects. Constantin Brancusi, Bird in – A court battle ensued. Space, 1925. Marble, stone, and wood, 71 5/8” x 5 3/8” x 6 3/8”.• Captures essence of flight. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Schools of Modern ArtConstructs of Cubism• 20th century is plagued by quest for meaning, truth, and reality; human race experiencing a type of identity crisis.• Developed jointly by Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) and Georges Braque (1882-1963.• Picasso and Braque are questioning the means by which reality is understood or represented.• Influenced by Fauves and Einstein’s Theory of Relativity (1905).• Cubism challenges that neither Fathers of Cubism, artists Georges Braque and Pablo space nor time are fixed. Picasso.
Schools of Modern Art • Cubism develops in two phases: Analytic Cubism (1909-1911) Synthetic Cubism (1912-1914) Georges Braque, The Portuguese (The Emigrant), 1911. Oil on canvas,Pablo Picasso, Still Life With Chair Caning, 1912. 46 1/8” x 32”. Öffentliche Oil on oilcloth on canvas framed by rope, 10 Kunstsammlung Kunstmuseum, 5.8” x 14 5/8”. Musée Picasso Basel.
Schools of Modern ArtAnalytic Cubism (1909-1911)• Attempts to reveal objects to the viewer through the mind and not the eye. – Challenges traditional painting’s privilege of vision.• Explores the world through consciousness and questions reality.• Gives equal importance to the figure (forefront) and ground (background) of the painting. Pablo Picasso, Portrait of Daniel- Henry Kahnweiler, Paris, Autumn 1910. Oil on canvas, 39 ½ ” x 28 5/8”. Art Institute Chicago.
Schools of Modern ArtAnalytic Cubism (1909-1911)• In Analytical Cubism, the object is splintered into visual fragments, rearranged, then reassembled so the viewer does not have to “walk through space” to see the object- all sides are seen simultaneously.• The color palette is monochromatic golden browns.• Typical subject matter: – Portraits (especially women and musicians) – Still Lifes Georges Braque, The Portuguese (The Emigrant), 1911. Oil on canvas, 46 1/8” x – Landscapes 32”. Öffentliche Kunstsammlung Kunstmuseum.
Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas, (The Maids of Honor) 1656. Oil on canvas, 105" x 91”. Museo del Prado in Madrid • Old masters are also visited and translated into Cubism. Pablo Picasso, Las Meninas (afterVelázquez), 1957. Oil on canvas; 76”x 80. Musée Picasso
Pablo Picasso, Le Moulin De La Galette, 1900. Oil on canvas, 35 ½” x 46”. Guggenheim Museum, NYC.• Prior to Cubism, Picasso experiments in the various styles of modern art. – He visits the same subjects as Impressionists Auguste Renoir, Moulin de la Galette, 1876. Oil on canvas, 51 ½” x 69”. Musée dOrsay, Paris.
Pablo Picasso, Le Moulin De La Galette, 1900. Oil on canvas, 35 ½” x 46”. Guggenheim Museum, NYC. • And the Post-Impressionists, even taking the Fauvist use of color.Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge, 1892. Oil on canvas, 48.5” x 55.5”. The Art Institute of Chicago.
• Picasso produced many works during the various phases of his career. • His Blue Phase was triggered by the death of his sister and lack of money to bury her properly .Pablo Picasso, La Vie, 1903. Pablo Picasso, Woman withOil on canvas, 6’5 3/8” x 4’ 2 a Crow, 1904;. Charcoal,5/8”. Cleveland Museum of pastel, and watercolor. Art. Toledo Museum of Art.
Pablo Picasso, The Family of Saltimbanques, 1905. Oil on canvas, 6’11 ¾” 7’ 6 3/8“. National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. • His Rose period is a precursor to the Cubism that would follow. • During this phase he makes study of the outcasts of society, like the early modern masters before him. Honoré Daumier, Wandering Saltimbanques,c. 1847-50; Oil on wood, 12 7/8” x 9 ¾”. Natonal Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
Schools of Modern Art • He makes study of the female form. Pablo Picasso, Two Nudes, Paris, late 1906. Oil oncanvas, 59 5/8 x 36 5/8”. Museum of Modern Art, NYC.
Pablo Picasso, Two Nudes, Paris, late 1906. Oil on canvas, 59 5/8 x 36 5/8”. Museum of Modern Art, NYC.• Considered by many scholars to be the defining painting of 20th century art, Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon was a compilation of his earlier studies of the female form.• The work signals the beginning of Cubism even though it is considered by most scholars to be proto-Cubist in style because Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles dAvignon, of expressionist tendencies. 1907. Oil on canvas, 8 x 7 8" . Museum of Modern Art.
Detail of Les Demoiselles dAvignon and African mask used by Picasso • He took inspiration of form from African, Oceanic, and Iberian art. – Picasso visited ethnographic museums during the African-influenced phase of his career. – He had several Iberian masks in his studio while working on Demoiselles. • He later returned them after finding out they were stolen.African Fang mask similar in style to those Picasso saw in Paris just prior to painting Les Demoiselles dAvignon (southern edge Cameroon)
• With this work, Picasso set out to “blow up” the art world. – He wanted to undo what had become convention, to reinvent representation. – Still, his subject matter is not new. Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles dAvignon, 1907. Oil on canvas, 8 x 7 8" . Museum of Modern Art.
• Images of prostitutes, brothels, and the nude female form abound. Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles dAvignon, 1907. Oil on canvas, 8 x 7 8" . Museum of Modern Art.
Édouard Manet,Olympia,1863-65. Oil on canvas, 4’3” x 6’2 ¾”. Musée dOrsay, Paris. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Salon InEdgar Degas, Cabaret, 1877. Pastel on monotype The Rue Des Moulins, 1894. Oil onover paper, 9 ½” x 17 ½”. Corcoran Gallery of Art, canvas, 43.9”x52.2”. Musée Toulouse- Washington Lautrec, Albi
Pablo Picasso, Studies for Les Demoiselles dAvignon, before 1907. Mixed media, various sizes . Museum of Modern Art.
Pablo Picasso, Studies for Les Demoiselles dAvignon, before 1907. Mixed media, various sizes . Museum of Modern Art.
Pablo Picasso, Studies for Les Demoiselles dAvignon, before 1907. Mixed media, various sizes . Museum of Modern Art.
• In its earlier phase, Demoisel les included a sailor, medical student, and madam all visible in this preparatory sketch. Study for Les Demoiselles d’Avignon which includes student and sailor, c. 1907
Henri Matisse, Blue Nude. (Souvenir de Biskra), 1907. oil on canvas, 36 ¼” x 56 1/8”. Baltimore Museum of Art. • Some believed it was a response to Matisse’s Blue Nude. – The two enjoyed a friendly, yet aggressive rivalry. Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles dAvignon, 1907.Oil on canvas, 8 x 7 8" . Museum of Modern Art.
• Still, Picasso’s attack on the history of art comes from within its very own vocabulary. – He takes as his subject the female nude. – He includes a still life in the work as well. Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles dAvignon, 1907. Oil on canvas, 8 x 7 8" . Museum of Modern Art.
Schools of Modern ArtSynthetic Cubism (1912-1914)• Still Life With Chair Caning represents the transition from Analytic to Synthetic Cubism• It is the first piece of Synthetic Cubist work produced.• Synthetic Cubism embraces the collage technique.• According to Picasso, art is “a lie that helps us understand the truth.”• This work allows Picasso to challenge basic artistic convention-like materials and process, something future generations would take from his example. – He integrates unconventional materials like rope and oilcloth challenging the confines of “fine Pablo Picasso, Still Life With Chair art”. Caning, 1912. Oil on oilcloth on canvas framed by rope, 10 5/8 x 14 5/8”. Musée
Schools of Modern Art• Braque came to Cubism after seeing Demoiselles in Picasso’s studio. • He said it was "Like swallowing kerosene and spitting fire." • Braque immediately began working in the style that would become Cubism.• After seeing Picasso’s experimentation with collage Braque introduces papiers collés. – He waited for Picasso to leave for Paris before committing to the technique. – Once satisfied, he introduced it to Picasso who immediately began Georges Braque, Fruit Dish and working in the same style. Glass, 1912. Charcoal and pasted paper on paper, 24 3/8” x 17 ½”. Private Collection.
Pablo Picasso, Guitar, Sheet Music, and WineGeorges Braque, Fruit Dish and Glass, 1912. Glass, Fall 1912. pasted papers, gouache, andCharcoal and pasted paper on paper, 24 3/8” charcoal on paper, 18 7/8” x 14 ¾”. McNay Art x 17 ½”. Private Collection. Museum ,San Antonio.
Pablo Picasso, Glass Bottle of Suze, 1912. Pablo Picasso, Guitar, Sheet Music, and Wine Pasted papers, gouache, and charcoal on Glass, Fall 1912; pasted papers, gouache, and paper, 25 ¾” x 19 ¾”. Mildren Lane Kempercharcoal on paper, 18 7/8” x 14 ¾”. McNay Art Art Museum, Washington University, St. Museum ,San Antonio. Louis.
Schools of Modern Art Cubist Sculpture • Picasso made various early attempts to translate Cubism into three dimensional media, but failed miserably because his work remained dependent upon conventional materials and process., Pablo Picasso,Womans Head 1909. Bronze; 16 x 10 ¼” x 10”.Museum of Modern Art, NYC.
• Scholars believe photographs like this one testify to Braque having originated Cubist sculpture, not Picasso.• Both artists visited each others studios regularly, so Picasso would have had knowledge of cardboard constructions like this one in Braque’s studio.• All of Braque’s pieces like this however were destroyed (most likely while away at war). Georges Braque, 1914. Photograph of the artists Paris studio with paper sculpture, now lost.
Schools of Modern Art • Picasso does not realize Cubism in three dimensional media until he visits Braque’s studio and sees his sculptures (all now lost) hanging in the corners of his room. • It is believed Braque hung these cardboard-type constructions to work from while painting. Pablo Picasso, Maquette for Guitar, October 1912. • Picasso translates Pablo Picasso, Glass of Constructed cardboard, these to a larger Absinthe, Spring 1914. Paintedstring, and wire, 25 ¾” x 13 scale for public bronze with silver absinthe spoon, 8 x 7 ½”. Museum of consumption ½” x 6 ½”x 3 3/8”. Museum of Modern Art, NYC. Modern Art, NYC.
• After Picasso and Braque others would translate Cubism into three dimensional media.Aleksandr Archipenko, Médrano Aleksandr Archipenko, Walking II, 1913. Painted Woman, 1918-1919; bronze, tin, wood, glass, and painted 26 3/8” high. Collectionoilcloth, 497/8” x 20 ¼” x 20 ½”. Frances Archipenko Gray. Guggenheim, NYC.
Schools of Modern Art• Some, like Raymond Duchamp-Villon (1876- 1918), brother of Marcel Duchamp, would fuse Cubism with Futurist ideology. Raymond Duchamp-Villon, The Horse (twoviews), 1914; bronze (cast in 1930-31), 40”x39 ½”x22 3/8”. Museum of Modern Art, NYC.
• Even Marcel Duchamp would attempt, albeit in a sarcastic tone, to fuse Cubism and Futurism in his scandalous piece, Nude Descending a Staircase (1912). – Exhibited at the Armory Show in NYC in 1913, Nude Descending became the success de scandale. Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase,No.2, 1912. Oil on canvas, 58” x 35”. Philadelphia Museum of Art.
• Critical reaction to Marcel Duchamps work included comments that it looked as if a shingles factory blew up and this cartoon published in The New York Evening Sun.• Even Cubists rejected Duchamp’s piece. J. F. Griswold: The Rude descending a staircase (Rush-Hour at the Subway). The New York Evening Sun, 20th March 1913
Edweard Muybridge, Study of Woman Descending a Staircase, 1887. • The rejection was due in part to the fact that Duchamp drew inspiration from studies of motion that were for scientific and NOT aesthetic purpose. Marcel Duchamp, Studies fr Nude Descending aStaircase, No.2, 1912. Mixed media, various dimensions. Philadelphia Museum of Art.
Schools of Modern Art • Sculptor Jacques Lipchitz, however, is viewed by many to have been most successful at translating Cubism into three dimensional form. • He worked with traditional subject matter in a similar way to Picasso and Jacques Lipchitz, Man with a Braque. Jacques Lipchitz, The Bather,Guitar, 1915. Limestone, 38 ¼” c.1923. Bronze, 78 1/8” x 31 x 10 ½” x 7 ¾”. Museum of 1/8 x 27 ¾”. Olin Library Modern Art, NYC. Cornell University, NY.