Lecture I" The Proto-Renaissance (review)

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Lecture I" The Proto-Renaissance (review)

  1. 1. Introduction: The Proto-Renaissance Style and International Gothic Map of Proto-Renaissance Europe, c.1350.
  2. 2. Proto-Renaissance Dates and Places: • 1300-1400 • Northern Italian Republics (Milan, Mantua, Bologna, Padua, etc. ) People: • Decline in feudalism • Social stability • Little threat of warfare • Thriving trade market • Private patrons Giotto di Bondone, Enrico Scrovegni dedicating chapel (scene from Arena Chapel), c. 1305. Fresco, 78” x 77.” Padua, Italy.
  3. 3. Florentine Painting Example: • Fresco program in family chapel • Pioneer of naturalistic treatment of figures • Drapery reveals body • Emotional expression • Shallow, illusionistic space for narrative • Overlapping used to create illusion of space Giotto di Bondone, Lamentation (scene from Arena Chapel), c. 1305. Fresco, 78” x 77.” Padua, Italy.
  4. 4. Florentine Painting Example: • Giotto (1267-1336/7) • Private patron (Scrovegni) • Style based on Byzantine and Early Roman frescoes, sculpture of Pisano – Each figure separate geometric body in three dimensional form – Naturalistic features – Expressive emotion Giotto di Bondone, The Crucifixion (scene from Arena Chapel), c. 1305. Fresco, 78” x 77.” Padua, Italy.
  5. 5. Giotto di Bondone, Arena Chapel left (exterior) and right ( Interior of the Arena Chapel, facing east.) Padua, Italy.
  6. 6. Proto-Renaissance Example: • Theotokos= “God-bearer” • Marriage of Byzantine and Gothic elements • Figures have weight • Division of space symbolically and formally • Influence of Italian architecture Giotto di Bondone, Madonna Enthroned, ca. 1310. Tempera on panel, 10’8” x 6’8”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Fig. 12.10
  7. 7. Proto-Renaissance Social/Political/Econ omic: • Ruling families competing • Black Death (1348- 1350) – Estimated 75-200 million dead – Spread through Silk Road Map of Silk Route via land and water.
  8. 8. Sienese Painting Duccio di Buoninsegna, Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints, 1308–1311. Tempera on panel, Museo dell’ Opera del Duomo. Fig. 12.11. “Holy Mother of God, be the cause of peace to Siena, and to the life of Duccio because he has painted you thus.
  9. 9. Sienese Painting Example: • Altarpiece • Theotokos • Wood panels • Civic pride • Cult of the Virgin Mary • Shifting from Italo- Byzantine to more naturalistic style • Influence of tapestry industry • More dynamic posture and fluidity of fabric Duccio di Buoninsegna, Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints, 1308– 1311. Tempera on panel, Museo dell’ Opera del Duomo. Fig. 12.11.
  10. 10. Proto-Renaissance Example: • Rivals (Florence vs. Siena) • Italian humanism • Increasing interest in antiquity and study of Roman sculpture • Growing naturalism of figures and spaces • Cimabue = Italo- Byzantine • Giotto anticipates Renaissance Left: CIMABUE, Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets, ca. 1280–1290. Fig. Right: GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Madonna Enthroned, ca. 1310. Fig. 12.10
  11. 11. Sienese Painting Ambrogio Lorenzetti, The Allegory of Good and Bad Government, 1338-1340. Fresco, Sale della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena. Fig. 12.12
  12. 12. Sienese Painting Example: • Public commission • Civic content, not religious • Combines color of Duccio and naturalism of Giotto • Allegory of morality Ambrogio Lorenzetti, The Allegory of Good and Bad Government, 1338-1340. Fresco, Sale della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena. Fig. 12.12
  13. 13. Sienese Painting Example: • Assembly of virtues rule good government (present are Justice, Wisdom, Pax (relaxes) • Large, middle figure personification of Siena (hierarchy of images) Ambrogio Lorenzetti, detail The Allegory of Good and Bad Government, 1338-1340. Fresco, Sale della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena.
  14. 14. Sienese Painting Example: • Ambrogio Lorenzetti, The Common Good of Siena personified and flanked by the Classical Virtues. Romulus and Remus are at his feet. Soldiers lead captive Florentines on the lower right. Ambrogio Lorenzetti, detail The Allegory of Good and Bad Government, 1338-1340. Fresco, Sale della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena.
  15. 15. Sienese Painting Example: • Tyranny sits surrounded by vices (avarice, pride, and vainglory) in an inversion of the Allegory of Good Government. • Joining Tyranny in an architecture of war are personifications of treason, cruelty, fraud, fury, war, and divisiveness • At Tyranny’s feet Justice is shown bound Ambrogio Lorenzetti, detail The Allegory of Good and Bad Government, 1338-1340. Fresco, Sale della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena.
  16. 16. Sienese Painting Example: • Combines color of Duccio and naturalism of Giotto • Effects of good government in the city shows people happy, dancing, a good economy Ambrogio Lorenzetti, detail The Effects of Good Government in the city, from the Siena frescoes 1338- 1340. Fresco, Sale della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena.
  17. 17. Sienese Painting Example: • City is shown in disarray • Buildings in poor condition, an atmosphere of fear and violence rules • Violent acts dominate the scene Ambrogio Lorenzetti, detail The Effects of Bad Government in the city, from the Siena frescoes 1338-1340. Fresco, Sale della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena.
  18. 18. International Gothic Style Dates and Places: • mid 13th through mid 14th centuries • France, Flanders, Germany, Spain, Bohemia, Austria, England, etc. • Flourishes within the Proto-Renaissance period People: • Nobles and merchants • Pious and prosperous • Interested in visible world Gentile da Fabriano , The Adoration of the Magi, 1423. Tempera on wood, 80” x 111.” Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
  19. 19. International Gothic Style Example: • Developed as a result of common aesthetic of courtly elegance • Exhibits Gothic influence. • Simone Martini major contributor to development of style • Words from Gabriel’s mouth, “Hail favored one! The Lord is with you • Epitomizes period through lavish costumes, brilliant color, intricate detail and ornamentation Simone Martini and Lippo Menni, The Annunciation, 1333. Tempera on panel, 72 ½” x 82 5/8.” Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
  20. 20. International Gothic Style Example: • Created for Siena Cathedral. • Characteristic of artist’s style is the work’s elegant shapes, rich color, weightless figures, use of gold and punchwork technique, and fluttering line. • Simone Martini adapts French Gothic style with Sienese and fuses these with influences from Northern Europe. • Arch and delicate filigree recall Gothic architecture. • Themes and decoration appeal to royal courts. • Use of symbolism – Gold = divinity – Lilies=Mary’s purity Simone Martini and Lippo Menni, The Annunciation, 1333. Tempera on panel, 72 ½” x 82 5/8.” Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
  21. 21. Northern Europe Dates and Places: • 1400 to 1500 • Burgundy, Flanders, France and the Holy Roman Empire People: • Nobles and merchants • Pious and prosperous • Interested in visible world Claus Sluter, Well of Moses, from the Chartreuse de Champmol, 1395–1406. Stone, height of figures approx. 6’. Fig. 13.1.
  22. 22. Northern Europe Example: • Originally known as The Great Cross (now lost) • Monument in Carthusian cloister housing remains of Philip the Bold and family • Old Testament Prophets • New Testament • Naturalistic style break with medieval style • Expressionistic angels Claus Sluter, Well of Moses, from the Chartreuse de Champmol, 1395–1406. Stone, height of figures approx. 6’. Fig. 13.1.
  23. 23. International Gothic Style Themes: • Mix of religious and political • Personal aggrandizement • Feudalism Forms: • Joins French Gothic with 14th century Italian naturalism • Book of Prayers= private, devotional use • Mix of religious piety with astronomy and astrology • Division of classes Limbourg Brothers, Les Trés Riches Heires du Duc de Berry, calendar miniature for July, 1413-1416. Illumination on vellum, 8 7/8” x 5 3/8.” Musée Condé, Chantilly, France. Fig. 13.2
  24. 24. International Gothic Style Example: • Extremely detailed – Possible inspiration for Northern Renaissance (especially Flemish) • Observed from nature • Caricature of poor Limbourg Brothers, Les Trés Riches Heires du Duc de Berry, calendar miniature for February, 1413-1416. Illumination on vellum, 8 7/8” x 5 3/8.” Musée Condé, Chantilly, France.

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