Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• The reaction to Impressionism andthe influence of Post-Impressionism were not limited topainting.• Modern sculptors, led by AugusteRodin (1840-1917), waged acampaign against the idealism ofthe French Academic style.• Rodin’s sculpture, The Age ofBronze, demonstrates a clearobservation from nature infused ofexpressionism.Auguste Rodin, The Age of Bronze,1876. Bronze, 71” x 28”. TheMinneapolis Museum of Art.
• Stylistically,Rodin lookedto sculptureof the MiddleAges and theRenaissancemasters ofDonatello andMichelangelo. Michelangelo Buonarroti, David,1501–1504. Marble, approx.14’. Accademia di Belle Arti,Florence.Donatello, David,1440. Bronze, 62.2”.Borgello Museum,Florence.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Rodin’s sculpture, TheAge of Bronze,demonstrates clearobservation fromnature and the rawemotions ofexpressionism.• Rodin directly quotesthe Renaissancemaster’s Dying Slave.Auguste Rodin, The Age ofBronze, 1876. Bronze, 71” x28”. The Minneapolis Museumof Art.Michelangelo Buonarroti,The Dying Slave, 1513-1516. Marble, 7’6”.Louvre, Paris.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Rodin is best knownfor his ability tomodel the humanform with realism.• His Burghers ofCalais,demonstrates hisability to fuseexpressionistemotion withinthree-dimensionalmedia.Auguste Rodin, The Burghers of Calais, modeled 1884–95; this bronze cast 1985. Bronze 82 1/2”. MetropolitanMuseum of Art, NYC.
Schools of Modern ArtPost-Impressionism• Burghers has a psychologicalcontent that is raw andunprecedented.• The artist’s ability to translatethe terror and emotions feltby the six figures makes it anexample of expressionistsculpture and contributes toits success.– Notice the elongatedlimbs, tattered clothing,disheveled condition ofthe bodies with sunkencheeks and uncoiffed hair,coupled with theanimation of the figures.– This is how Rodinexpresses the emotion ofthe piece andcommunicates thatemotion to the viewer.Auguste Rodin, The Burghers of Calais, modeled 1884–95; this bronze cast 1985. Bronze 82 1/2”. MetropolitanMuseum of Art, NYC.
The Modern Condition• La belle époque (1890-1914), which gave rise to a society ofgreat experimentation (as seen in many of the fin de siècleartists), fades. Its vibrant spirit is replaced by the mal de siècle(existence is senseless), a nihilism with reverberating effects.• God is dead!– In 1882, German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, declaresGod dead.– Although he is not very well known at the time, hispronouncement would characterize the coming mood of the20th century.• Industrialization of 19th century fuels international capitalism.• National pride reaches new levels leading to world war.• Artists reject the representational convention and pictorialillusionism of artistic tradition in favor of abstraction andspatial distortion.
Schools of Modern Art“Donatello au milieu desfauves!”-Louis Vauxcelles, 1905– Exhibited at the 1905 SalondAutomne, also known as the“Fauve Salon”.– It is here, with this work, thatthe movement gets its nameand Matisse is recognized asthe leader of the Fauves.Henri Matisse, Woman with a Hat,1905. Oil on canvas, 31 ¼” x 23 ½”. SanFrancisco Museum of Modern Art.
Schools of Modern ArtFauvism (1900-1910)• Fauvism is born out of the spirit ofexperimentation within la belle époque.• Movement gets name from quote (insultreally).• Artists include: Henri Matisse (1869-1954)considered to be the leader of the Fauves,André Derain (1880-1954), Maurice deVlaminck (1876-1958), Georges Rouault(1871-1958), and Raol Dufy (1877-1953).• As a style of painting, Fauvism beginsroughly around 1900 and continued after1910.• As a movement, however, Fauvismexperienced its highpoint from 1904-1908.• Expressed in two and three dimensionalmedia.Henri Matisse, Reclining Nude I,1906-1907. Bronze, 13 ½” x 19 ¾”x 11 ¼”. ( In background, BlueNude, 1907. Oil on canvas, 36 ½”x 56 1/8”.) Museum of ArtModern Art.
Schools of Modern ArtFauvism (1900-1910)• Heavily influenced by Gauguin,the Symbolists, and Nabisgroup.• Fuave’s reclaim Impressionistjoyous embrace of nature andcombine it with the Post-Impressionist investment incolor contrasts andemotionality.• Fauves emancipate color fromrole in describing reality.Henri Matisse, Luxe, Calme, etVolupté, (Luxury, Calm, andDelight),1904-05. Oil on canvas,37x46”. Musée National dArtModerne.
Schools of Modern Art• Inspired by Baudelaire’sInvitation to Voyage,1857.• Combines abstraction ofSignac with the figuralorganization of Cezanne.• Presents modern, radicalre-interpretation ofbathers/landscape nudetradition.• Scenes are from theimagination.Henri Matisse, Luxe, Calme,et Volupté, (Luxury, Calm,and Delight),1904-05. Oilon canvas, 37x46”. MuséeNational dArt Moderne.Paul Cézanne, Battle of Love,1880. Oil on canvas 14 7/8” x18 ¼”. National Gallery of Art,Washington, DC.
Schools of Modern ArtFauvism (1900-1910)• In 1908, Matisse writes“Notes of a Painter”– Like Whistler before him,Matisse declares painting tobe autonomous creation, freeof serving any moral orsymbolic ends.– Argues color is arbitrary.Henri Matisse, Portrait of MadameMatisse/The Green Line (or Stripe),1905. Oil and tempera on canvas, 157/8” x 12 7/8”. Statens Museum forKunst, Copenhagen.
Schools of Modern ArtFauvism (1900-1910)• Search for immediacy and clarity.• Desire for personal authenticity keepscohesive movement from forming.• Extend boundaries of representation.• Influenced by non-Western cultures, esp.African.
Schools of Modern ArtFauvism (1900-1910)• African interest andinfluence on Matisse.• Demonstrates Matisse’sfluidity of line, arbitraryuse of color, andexperimentation withtraditional subject matter.• Causes sensation at 1913Armory Show.• Copies burned in effigy atthe Armory Show inChicago in 1913. Henri Matisse, Blue Nude. (Souvenir de Biskra),1907. oil on canvas, 36 ¼” x 56 1/8”. BaltimoreMuseum of Art.
The Modern Condition• Increasing economicinstability, expandingcolonialism, andincreasing nationalismfused with the need forpersonal identity andpurity lead to conflict ona global scale.• People began to questionestablished tradition, law,and the concept of truth.– Some turned back to thechurch and explorednew religions from theEast. Others soughtanswers in science andthe developing fields ofpsychology, sociology,anthropology, and art. World Colonial Empires, c. 1900.
Schools of Modern ArtExpressionism (late 19th- early 20thcentury)– Any art that stresses the artistsemotional and psychologicalexpression, often with bold colorsand distortions of form.– The classic phase of the movementlasted from approximately 1905 to1920.– Specifically an art style of the early20th century followed principallyby certain German artists.– Expressionist painters wereespecially influenced by FriedrichNietzsche, Vincent van Gogh, andSigmund Freud.Edvard Munch, The Scream, 1893. Oiland tempera on board 35 ¾ x 29”. TheNational Gallery, Oslo Norway.
Schools of Modern ArtExpressionism (late 19th- early 20thcentury)• Art becomes a tool for artists tocommunicate the growing angst of ageneration.• Writing about the inspiration for TheScream Munch pens:I went along the road with two friends—The sun setSuddenly the sky became blood—and I feltthe breath of sadnessI stopped—leaned against the fence—deathly tiredClouds over the fjord dripped reeking withbloodMy friends went on but I just stoodtrembling with an open woundin my breast I heard a huge extraordinaryscream pass through nature. Edvard Munch, The Scream, 1893. Oiland tempera on board 35 ¾ x 29”. TheNational Gallery, Oslo Norway.
Schools of Modern ArtGerman Expressionism (Early 20th century)• German Expressionism should be thought ofas the visual transformation of Nietzsche’sstatement, “God is dead!”• It is an explicit movement centered inNorthern Europe prevalent in the earlydecades of 20th century.• The roots of German Expressionism lie inFrench and German Romanticism (in the workof artists Delacroix and Friedrich) whichplaced an emphasis on the exploration of anextremely personal aesthetic.• German Expressionism has a strongrelationship to Fauvism in its eccentric use ofcolor and van Gogh for its emotionallycharged employment of color.• German Expressionism produces two schoolsof art:– Die Brücke “The Bridge”– Der Blaue Reiter “The Blue Rider”• Both schools view modernity-industrialized societywith skepticism, this is often subject of their work.Eugène Delacroix, The Lion Hunt,1861. Oil on canvas, 30 1/8” x 38 ¾”.Art Institute of Chicago.Casper David Friedrich, Monk by theSea,, 1808. Oil on canvas 43.31" x67.52". Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin.
Schools of Modern ArtGerman Expressionism (Early 20th century)• Die Brücke “The Bridge”• Formed in Dresden in 1905, disbands in 1913.• First manifestation of Expressionism in German art.• Founding members include Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938), Erich Heckel (1883-1970), and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff(1884-1976), and Fritz Bleyl (1880-1966).• Major contribution to modern art was its revival ofprintmaking.• Often compared to Fauvism for its use of color, sharedinterest in primitivist art, crude drawing technique, andopposition to total abstraction.
Schools of Modern ArtGerman Expressionism (Early 20thcentury)• Artist , Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938) was one of the foundingmembers of Die Brücke .• Kirchner worked in many mediaincluding paint, print, and sculpture.• Kirchner frequently reworked hiscanvases visiting.• He drew inspiration from theOceanic and African art as well asearly Renaissance masters, mostespecially the prints of AlbrechtDürer (1471-1528).– German Expressionist artistssought to continue their heritageand thus looked for inspiration inthe German Gothic andRenaissance roots.Albrecht Dürer,The FourHorseman of theApocalypse,1498. Woodcut;15 3/8 x 1111/16”. HarvardUniversity ArtMuseum.Portrait of Henryvan de Velde, ErnstLudwig Kirchner,1917; woodcut, 19½” x 15 ¾”. PrivateCollection.
Schools of Modern ArtDie Brücke (1905-1913)• Inspired by contemporary urban life.• Sketched from life and reworked innumerous drawings in studio.• Paints the city dwellers of Dresden andBerlin.• Uses acidic color in arbitrary fashion.• Each figure is individual, floats throughthe picture plane.• Figures move toward and away fromthe viewer, figures are anonymous,alienated.• Work is a condemnation of modernculture and an expression of the artist’spsychological condition.Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Street, Dresden,1907/08. Reworked 1919. Oil oncanvas, 4’11 ¼” x 6’6 7/8”. Museum ofModern Art, NYC.
Schools of Modern Art• Kirchner often found inspiration in the work of his fellow artists.• Here he looks to the work of Norwegian Expressionist, Edvard Munch andhis Evening on Karl Johan Street, 1889.Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Street, Dresden, 1907/08.Reworked 1919. Oil on canvas, 4’11 ¼” x 6’6 7/8”.Museum of Modern Art, NYC.Edvard Munch, Evening on Karl Johan Street,1889. Oil on canvas, 35 3/8" x 55”. RasmusMeyer Collection, Bergen, Norway.
Schools of Modern ArtGerman Expressionism (Early 20th century)Der Blaue Reiter “The Blue Rider”• Operated 1911-1914.• Characterized by free use of color, form, andspace; there is no one single style associatedwith The Blue Rider Group.• Retreat from city life and focus on folk culture,idealized representation of nature, andromanticized views of the past.• German Expressionist movement founded byRussian emigrants Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944), Alexej von Jawlensky (1864-1941),Marianne von Werefkin (1860-1938), andGerman artists Franz Marc (1880-1916), AugustMacke 91887-1914), and Gabriele Münter(1877-1962).• The group was founded in response to therejection of Kandinskys painting LastJudgement (c.1911) from an exhibition.Wassily Kandinsky, Der BlaueReiter (The Blue Rider), 1903.Oil on cardboard, 21.7” x25.6”.The Private Collection,Zurich.
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Street, Berlin, 1913. Oil oncanvas, 47 1/2 x 35 7/8”. Museum of Modern Art, NYC.• Kirchner approached similar subject matterin a different way.• He did not celebrate modernity andindustrialization blindly as theImpressionists once did. He was skeptical.– He communicates that skepticism in colorchoice and angularity of composition.• Angularity produces tension in the work andthe viewer.• Angularity inherited from Gothic roots.Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873. Oil on canvas, 31 ¼” x23 ¼”. Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri.
Expressionism vs. FauvismSimilarities• Like Fauves, German Expressionists usedvigorous color palette.• Both share aesthetic characteristics:– flattening of perspectival plane (taken from Cézanne)– energetic handling of paint and interest in historicaltradition
Expressionism vs. FauvismDifferences• German Expressionists are not academicallytrained so…there is no lingering influence of theacademy.• Both respond to contemporary situation, but verydifferently:– Fauves did not engage in the social issues,Expressionists do!• Expressionists are responding to thinkers likeNietzsche, Fauves (especially Matisse) paint fromthe imagination.
Schools of Modern ArtDevelopments in Modern Sculpture• Sculptor,Constantin Brancusi(1876-1957), continues Rodin’stradition of sculpting humanform.• Style is difficult to categorize.• Exhibits non-Western influencelike contemporaries. Constantin Brancusi, Sleeping Muse,1909-1910. Marble, 7” x 11 1/” x 8”.Hirshorn Museum and SculptureGarden.
Schools of Modern ArtDevelopments in ModernSculpture• Brancusi is best known for pureabstraction in sculpture.• His Bird in Space (one of a seriesof works by this name) causedinternational scandal whenbrought to U.S. by artist MarcelDuchamp in 1926.– U.S. Customs agents did notbelieve the piece to be art soimposed tariff for metal objects.– A court battle ensued.• Captures essence of flight.Constantin Brancusi, Bird inSpace, 1925. Marble, stone, andwood, 71 5/8” x 5 3/8” x 6 3/8”.National Gallery of Art,Washington, D.C.
Schools of Modern ArtConstructs of Cubism• 20th century is plagued by quest formeaning, truth, and reality; humanrace experiencing a type of identitycrisis.• Developed jointly by Pablo Picasso(1881-1973) and Georges Braque(1882-1963.• Picasso and Braque are questioningthe means by which reality isunderstood or represented.• Influenced by Fauves and Einstein’sTheory of Relativity (1905).• Cubism challenges that neitherspace nor time are fixed.Fathers of Cubism, artistsGeorges Braque and PabloPicasso.
Schools of Modern Art• Cubism develops in two phases:Analytic Cubism (1909-1911)Synthetic Cubism (1912-1914)Georges Braque, The Portuguese(The Emigrant), 1911. Oil on canvas,46 1/8” x 32”. ÖffentlicheKunstsammlung Kunstmuseum,Basel.Pablo Picasso, Still Life With Chair Caning, 1912.Oil on oilcloth on canvas framed by rope, 105.8” x 14 5/8”. Musée Picasso
Schools of Modern ArtAnalytic Cubism (1909-1911)• Attempts to reveal objects to theviewer through the mind and notthe eye.– Challenges traditional painting’sprivilege of vision.• Explores the world throughconsciousness and questionsreality.• Gives equal importance to thefigure (forefront) and ground(background) of the painting. Pablo Picasso, Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, Paris, Autumn1910. Oil on canvas, 39 ½ ” x 28 5/8”.Art Institute Chicago.
Analytic Cubism (1909-1911)• In Analytical Cubism, the object issplintered into visual fragments,rearranged, then reassembled sothe viewer does not have to “walkthrough space” to see the object-all sides are seen simultaneously.• The color palette ismonochromatic golden browns.• Typical subject matter:– Portraits (especially women andmusicians)– Still Lifes– LandscapesGeorges Braque, The Portuguese (TheEmigrant), 1911. Oil on canvas, 46 1/8” x32”. Öffentliche KunstsammlungKunstmuseum.Schools of Modern Art
• Old masters are also visitedand translated intoCubism.Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas, (The Maids of Honor)1656. Oil on canvas, 105" x 91”. Museo del Prado inMadridPablo Picasso, Las Meninas (afterVelázquez), 1957. Oil on canvas; 76”x80. Musée Picasso
• Prior to Cubism, Picassoexperiments in the variousstyles of modern art.– He visits the same subjectsas ImpressionistsPablo Picasso, Le Moulin De La Galette, 1900. Oil oncanvas, 35 ½” x 46”. Guggenheim Museum, NYC.Auguste Renoir, Moulin de laGalette, 1876. Oil on canvas,51 ½” x 69”. Musée dOrsay,Paris.
• And the Post-Impressionists, even taking theFauvist use of color.Pablo Picasso, Le Moulin De La Galette, 1900. Oil oncanvas, 35 ½” x 46”. Guggenheim Museum, NYC.Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge, 1892.Oil on canvas, 48.5” x 55.5”. The Art Institute ofChicago.
• Picassoproduced manyworks during thevarious phasesof his career.• His Blue Phasewas triggered bythe death of hissister and lack ofmoney to buryher properly .Pablo Picasso, La Vie, 1903.Oil on canvas, 6’5 3/8” x 4’ 25/8”. Cleveland Museum ofArt.Pablo Picasso, Woman witha Crow, 1904;. Charcoal,pastel, and watercolor.Toledo Museum of Art.
• His Rose period is a precursor to theCubism that would follow.• During this phase he makes study of theoutcasts of society, like the early modernmasters before him.Pablo Picasso, The Family of Saltimbanques, 1905. Oilon canvas, 6’11 ¾” 7’ 6 3/8“. National Gallery of Art,Washington D.C.Honoré Daumier, Wandering Saltimbanques,c. 1847-50; Oil on wood, 12 7/8” x 9 ¾”. Natonal Galleryof Art, Washington D.C.
Schools of Modern Art• He makes study of thefemale form.Pablo Picasso, Two Nudes, Paris, late 1906. Oil on canvas,59 5/8 x 36 5/8”. Museum of Modern Art, NYC.
• Considered by many scholars tobe the defining painting of 20thcentury art, Picasso’s LesDemoiselles d’Avignon was acompilation of his earlier studiesof the female form.• The work signals the beginningof Cubism even though it isconsidered by most scholars tobe proto-Cubist in style becauseof expressionist tendencies.Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles dAvignon,1907. Oil on canvas, 8 x 7 8" . Museum ofModern Art.Pablo Picasso, Two Nudes, Paris, late 1906. Oil on canvas, 59 5/8 x 36 5/8”.Museum of Modern Art, NYC.
• He took inspiration of form from African,Oceanic, and Iberian art.– Picasso visited ethnographic museums duringthe African-influenced phase of his career.– He had several Iberian masks in his studiowhile working on Demoiselles.• He later returned them after finding out theywere stolen.Detail of Les Demoiselles dAvignon and Africanmask used by PicassoAfrican Fang mask similar in style to those Picasso saw in Paris just prior topainting Les Demoiselles dAvignon (southern edge Cameroon)
• With this work,Picasso set out to“blow up” the artworld.– He wanted to undowhat had becomeconvention, toreinventrepresentation.– Still, his subjectmatter is not new.Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles dAvignon, 1907. Oilon canvas, 8 x 7 8" . Museum of Modern Art.
• Images ofprostitutes,brothels, and thenude female formabound.Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles dAvignon, 1907. Oilon canvas, 8 x 7 8" . Museum of Modern Art.
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Salon InThe Rue Des Moulins, 1894. Oil oncanvas, 43.9”x52.2”. Musée Toulouse-Lautrec, AlbiÉdouard Manet,Olympia,1863-65. Oil on canvas,4’3” x 6’2 ¾”. Musée dOrsay, Paris.Edgar Degas, Cabaret, 1877. Pastel on monotypeover paper, 9 ½” x 17 ½”. Corcoran Gallery of Art,Washington
Pablo Picasso, Studies for Les Demoiselles dAvignon, before 1907. Mixed media, various sizes .Museum of Modern Art.
Pablo Picasso, Studies for Les Demoiselles dAvignon, before 1907. Mixed media, various sizes .Museum of Modern Art.
Pablo Picasso, Studies for Les Demoiselles dAvignon, before 1907. Mixed media, various sizes .Museum of Modern Art.
• In its earlierphase,Demoisellesincluded asailor, medicalstudent, andmadam allvisible in thispreparatorysketch.Study for Les Demoiselles d’Avignon which includes studentand sailor, c. 1907
Henri Matisse, Blue Nude. (Souvenir de Biskra),1907. oil on canvas, 36 ¼” x 56 1/8”. BaltimoreMuseum of Art.Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles dAvignon, 1907.Oil on canvas, 8 x 7 8" . Museum of Modern Art.• Some believed it was aresponse to Matisse’sBlue Nude.– The two enjoyed afriendly, yet aggressiverivalry.
Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles dAvignon,1907. Oil on canvas, 8 x 7 8" . Museum ofModern Art.• Still, Picasso’s attack onthe history of art comesfrom within its veryown vocabulary.– He takes as his subjectthe female nude.– He includes a still life inthe work as well.
Schools of Modern ArtSynthetic Cubism (1912-1914)• Still Life With Chair Caning representsthe transition from Analytic toSynthetic Cubism• It is the first piece of Synthetic Cubistwork produced.• Synthetic Cubism embraces thecollage technique.• According to Picasso, art is “a lie thathelps us understand the truth.”• This work allows Picasso to challengebasic artistic convention-like materialsand process, something futuregenerations would take from hisexample.– He integrates unconventionalmaterials like rope and oilclothchallenging the confines of “fineart”.Pablo Picasso, Still Life With Chair Caning,1912. Oil on oilcloth on canvas framed byrope, 10 5/8 x 14 5/8”. Musée Picasso
Schools of Modern Art• Braque came to Cubism after seeingDemoiselles in Picasso’s studio.• He said it was "Like swallowing keroseneand spitting fire."• Braque immediately began working in thestyle that would become Cubism.• After seeing Picasso’sexperimentation with collageBraque introduces papiers collés.– He waited for Picasso to leave forParis before committing to thetechnique.– Once satisfied, he introduced it toPicasso who immediately beganworking in the same style.Georges Braque, Fruit Dish andGlass, 1912. Charcoal and pastedpaper on paper, 24 3/8” x 17 ½”.Private Collection.
Georges Braque, Fruit Dish and Glass, 1912.Charcoal and pasted paper on paper, 24 3/8”x 17 ½”. Private Collection.Pablo Picasso, Guitar, Sheet Music, and WineGlass, Fall 1912. pasted papers, gouache, andcharcoal on paper, 18 7/8” x 14 ¾”. McNay ArtMuseum ,San Antonio.
Pablo Picasso, Glass Bottle of Suze, 1912.Pasted papers, gouache, and charcoal onpaper, 25 ¾” x 19 ¾”. Mildren Lane KemperArt Museum, Washington University, St.Louis.Pablo Picasso, Guitar, Sheet Music, and WineGlass, Fall 1912; pasted papers, gouache, andcharcoal on paper, 18 7/8” x 14 ¾”. McNay ArtMuseum ,San Antonio.
Schools of Modern ArtCubist Sculpture• Picasso made various earlyattempts to translateCubism into threedimensional media, butfailed miserably because hiswork remained dependentupon conventional materialsand process., Pablo Picasso,Womans Head 1909. Bronze; 16 x 10 ¼”x 10”.Museum of Modern Art, NYC.
• Scholars believe photographslike this one testify to Braquehaving originated Cubistsculpture, not Picasso.• Both artists visited eachothers studios regularly, soPicasso would have hadknowledge of cardboardconstructions like this one inBraque’s studio.• All of Braque’s pieces like thishowever were destroyed(most likely while away atwar). Georges Braque, 1914. Photographof the artists Paris studio withpaper sculpture, now lost.
Schools of Modern Art• Picasso does notrealize Cubism inthree dimensionalmedia until he visitsBraque’s studio andsees his sculptures(all now lost) hangingin the corners of hisroom.• It is believed Braquehung thesecardboard-typeconstructions towork from whilepainting.• Picasso translatesthese to a largerscale for publicconsumptionPablo Picasso, Maquettefor Guitar, October 1912.Constructed cardboard,string, and wire, 25 ¾” x 13x 7 ½”. Museum ofModern Art, NYC.Pablo Picasso, Glass of Absinthe,Spring 1914. Painted bronze withsilver absinthe spoon, 8 ½” x 6 ½”x 33/8”. Museum of Modern Art, NYC.
• After Picasso andBraque others wouldtranslate Cubisminto threedimensional media.Aleksandr Archipenko, MédranoII, 1913. Painted tin, wood,glass, and painted oilcloth,497/8” x 20 ¼” x 20 ½”.Guggenheim, NYC.Aleksandr Archipenko, WalkingWoman, 1918-1919; bronze,26 3/8” high. CollectionFrances Archipenko Gray.
Schools of Modern Art• Some, like RaymondDuchamp-Villon (1876-1918), brother ofMarcel Duchamp,would fuse Cubismwith Futurist ideology.Raymond Duchamp-Villon, The Horse (two views),1914; bronze (cast in 1930-31), 40”x39 ½”x22 3/8”.Museum of Modern Art, NYC.
• Even Marcel Duchampwould attempt, albeit in asarcastic tone, to fuseCubism and Futurism in hisscandalous piece, NudeDescending a Staircase(1912).– Exhibited at the ArmoryShow in NYC in 1913, NudeDescending became thesuccess de scandale.Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase,No.2, 1912. Oil on canvas, 58” x 35”. PhiladelphiaMuseum of Art.
• Critical reaction toMarcel Duchampswork includedcomments that itlooked as if a shinglesfactory blew up andthis cartoon publishedin The New YorkEvening Sun.• Even Cubists rejectedDuchamp’s piece.J. F. Griswold: The Rude descending a staircase(Rush-Hour at the Subway). The New YorkEvening Sun, 20th March 1913
• The rejection was due in part to the factthat Duchamp drew inspiration fromstudies of motion that were forscientific and NOT aesthetic purpose.Marcel Duchamp, Studies fr Nude Descending a Staircase,No.2, 1912. Mixed media, various dimensions. PhiladelphiaMuseum of Art.Edweard Muybridge, Study of Woman Descending a Staircase, 1887.
Schools of Modern Art• Sculptor JacquesLipchitz, however, isviewed by many tohave been mostsuccessful attranslating Cubisminto threedimensional form.• He worked withtraditional subjectmatter in a similarway to Picasso andBraque.Jacques Lipchitz, Man with aGuitar, 1915. Limestone, 38 ¼”x 10 ½” x 7 ¾”. Museum ofModern Art, NYC.Jacques Lipchitz, The Bather,c.1923. Bronze, 78 1/8” x 311/8 x 27 ¾”. Olin LibraryCornell University, NY.
Die Neue SachlichkeitThe New Objectivity(late 1910s/ early1920s-1933)
The New Objectivity• World War I 1914-1918– Britain in 1 day lost 20,000 soldiers– By 1915, the French lost 1,430,000 men within a 3 mile radius• Conclusion of World War I Weimar Republic developed in Germany,1919– Abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II, November 1918– This is the federal republic and parliamentary representativedemocratic government established in Germany– This period of liberal democracy ends by 1930s with the rise of theNazi regime and Adolf Hitler’s appointment as chancellor in 1933.– Hitler transforms Weimar Republic into the Third Reich= singleparty dictatorship based in autocratic and totalitarian ideology ofNazism
The November Group• In the wake of WWI and the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II, a groupof artists gather to create The November Group.• Artists come from German Expressionism and are joined by Dadaartists.• 1919 The Workers’ Council for Art formed to campaign for moregovernment support of the arts.• Group comprised of visual and literary artists, musicians, and critics.• Their agenda would become the basis for Weimar Bauhaus.• November Group was successful in establishing contact with othercountries, especially France• Artists exhibited with Cubists, Expressionists, Constructivists, andDada.
The November GroupKäthe Kollwitz (1867-1945)• Exhibits with November Group.• Subject taken from the GermanPeasants’ War of 1525.• Work is overtly political.• She is a Realist at heart withsubject matter that promotesSocial Realism.• Selects medium because it bestcaptures her subject andcommunicates message.• Her work is expressionist.– She is best at capturing the rawemotion of people. Käthe Kollwitz, Outbreak, 1903. Originaletching, dry point, aquatint, and softground, , 20” x 23 ¼”. Private Collection.
The New Objectivity• The New Objectivity is an art movement located in Germanydating to the early 1920s.• It is a new form of Social Realism.• It is both an product of and opposition to Expressionism.• The New Objectivity ends in 1933 with the fall of the WeimarRepublic and the rise of the Nazis to power.• Among the foremost painters associated with The NewObjectivity were– George Grosz (1893-1959)– Otto Dix (1891-1969)– Max Beckman (1884-1950)
The New ObjectivityGeorge Grosz (1893-1959)• Like many early 20th centurypainters Grosz was deeplyfascinated by the transformation ofthe city into a metropolis.• Here he paints the image of Berlinat the height of WWI.• He paints Berlin in Expressioniststyle utilizing the color red as hisdominant hue to provoke reaction.• He also utilizes Cubist and Futuristdevices including rigid perspectiveand overlapping to communicatethe frenzy of the moment painted.George Grosz, Metropolis (Berlin),1916-17. Oil on canvas, 39.4” x 40.2”.Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid.
The New ObjectivityGeorge Grosz (1893-1959)• Grosz’s work is heavily influencedby the verism of Ancient Romansculpture.• Formally trained in the arts.• Spent time in the war and thentime recovering in an asylum.• At the conclusion of WWI, hefound himself drawn to BerlinDada.• He designed journals andperiodicals and political and socialsatire.George Grosz, The Funeral, Dedication toOskar Panizza, 1917-1918. Oil on canvas,55 1/8” x 43 ¼”. Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart.
George Grosz, Fit for Active Service (The FaithHealers), 1916-17. Pen, brush, and India ink,20” x 14”. Museum of Modern Art, NY.John Heartfield, Cover of Jedermann seineigner Fussball (Everyman His Own SoccerBall), No. 1. Berlin, February 1919.
Cover page Neue Jugend, 1917George Grosz, Der Blutige Ernst: #5, (InBloody Earnest) 1919. Ink on paper,15 3/4 x 10 15/16”.
The New ObjectivityGeorge Grosz (1893-1959)• This is his most Cubist inspiredwork.• Subject matter is a writercensored at the end of the 19thcentury.• Topic is man gone wrong.• Very expressionist in its use ofcolor and line.• The confusion is heightened byconstriction of space.George Grosz, The Funeral, Dedication toOskar Panizza, 1917-1918. Oil on canvas,55 1/8” x 43 ¼”. Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart.
The New ObjectivityGeorge Grosz (1893-1959)• Influence of De Chirico apparent.• Characters are empty-headedmannequins who follow along asinstructed.• Clear affinity to Dada and Surrealists.George Grosz, RepublicanAutomatons, 1920. Watercolorand pencil on paper; 23 5/8” x 185/8”. Museum of Modern Art, NY.
The New ObjectivityOtto Dix (1891-1969)• Working class background helps toground politics.• Work inspired by experience of war,Expressionism, and late medieval andRenaissance German art.• Subject of works is the horrors of war.• Also verist in his depiction of war.• Here the cripples of war who werepieced back together play a cardgame.• Their bodies are a mix match of tubes,wooden legs, and other materials.Otto Dix, The Skat Players-CardPlaying War Invalids, 1920. Oiland collage on canvas, 43 5/16”x 34 ¼”. Staatliche Museen zuBerlin, Preussicher KulturbesitzNationalgalerie.
The New ObjectivityOtto Dix (1891-1969)• His scenes take the rawbrutality of war as subject.• This work traveled in the “NoMore War” exhibition.• Now destroyed, it was oncekept safe by Ernst Barlach-Expressionist sculptor.• Possibly destroyed by theNazis in the gathering ofdegenerate works.Otto Dix, The Trench, 1923. Oil and temperaon canvas. Destroyed c. 1943-45.
The New ObjectivityOtto Dix (1891-1969)• This represents his investment inRealism.• Like Grosz, he was a Verist (truth tonature).• He too saw abstraction as partly toblame for WWI.• Figure is a doctor who specialized inlaryngology disease.Otto Dix, Dr. Mayer-Hermann, 1926.Oil and tempera on wood, 58 ¾” x39”. Museum of Modern Art, NY.
Otto Dix, Dr. Mayer-Hermann, 1926.Oil and tempera on wood, 58 ¾” x 39”.Museum of Modern Art, NY.August Sander, Circus People, from the series“People of the 20th century,” portfolio TravelingPeople-Fair and Circus, Germany; 1926-32. Gelatinsilver-print , 8 ½” x 10”. Museum of Modern Art, NY.
The New ObjectivityAugust Sander (1876-1964)• Sander took to photographingthose people who wereoutcasts and would be huntedby Nazi regime.• Attempt is not to study but tocapture peoples before lost.• Photographs were for hisPeople of the 20th centurycatalog.• His book, Faces of Our Timecensored by Nazi government.August Sander, Circus People, from theseries “People of the 20th century,”portfolio Traveling People-Fair and Circus,Germany; 1926-32. Gelatin silver-print , 8½” x 10”. Museum of Modern Art, NY.
The New ObjectivityMax Beckman (1884-1950)• Considered principle artist of TheNew Objectivity.• Studies at Weimar Academy, thenParis.• In Berlin in 1903 when dominantstyle is Art Nouveau and GermanImpressionism.• Heavily influenced by Delacroixand the German academictradition.• Until 1913 his style is academic.• has nervous breakdown afterwar. Max Beckmann, Self-Portrait with RedScarf, 1917. Oil on canvas, 31 ½” x 235/8”. Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart.
The New ObjectivityMax Beckmann (1884-1950)• Beckmann’s portfolio included over 85self-portraits.• His experience in the war causes himto turn inward.• Self-portraits are an attempt to findidentity.• His paintings travel from the insecureto the self-confident.• There remains the feeling of isolation.Max Beckmann, Self-Portrait inTuxedo, 1927. Oil on canvas, 55½” x 37 ¾”. Busch-ReisingerMuseum, Harvard University ArtMuseums, Cambridge, MA.
Max Beckmann, Departure, 1932-1933. Oil on canvas triptych, center panel 7’ ¾” x 3’9 3/8”, sidepanels each 7’3/4” x 3’ 3 ¼”. Museum of Modern Art, NY.
Max Beckmann (1884-1950)• Triptych with heavy use ofsymbolism.• Painted during period inhiding from Nazis.• 1947 comes to the U.S.• 1930s and 1940s spentworking on color.• Takes color from Matisse andPicasso.Max Beckmann, Departure, 1932-1933. Oil oncanvas triptych, center panel 7’ ¾” x 3’9 3/8”,side panels each 7’3/4” x 3’ 3 ¼”. Museum ofModern Art, NY.
The School of Paris• Term used for non-native artists living and working in Paris.– Xenophobic label used to describe outsiders not born in France andnot serving in the war.– School includes Picasso, Modigliani, Soutine, etc.– Time saw general distrust of foreigners.• Jean Cocteau, poet and playwright issues a “Call to Order”encouraging artists to abandon abstraction and return torealism and themes more easily understandable.• Artists working in Paris during the 1920s reject the avant-garde and instead turn to the classical tradition.• Today School of Paris is used to refer to those artists workingin Paris from 1919-1950s.
Nicolas Poussin, Holy Family on theSteps, 1648. Oil on canvas, 28”x44”.Cleveland Museum o Art.Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the Horatii,1784. Oil on canvas 10’10” x 14’. Musée duLouvre, Paris.
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Le Grande Odalisque, 1814. Oil on canvas, 36” x 64”. Louvre,Paris.
The School of Paris• Artists use the body to experiment.• Shared a love of French art.• Enjoyed independence from aesthetic confines.
Henri Matisse, Decorative Figure on anOrnamental Background, 1925-26. Oil oncanvas, 51 1/8 x 38 ½”. National Museumof Modern Art, Georges PompidouCenter, Paris.Pablo Picasso, Portrait of Olga in theArmchair, 1917. Oil on canvas, 51 1/6” x35”. Musée Picasso, Paris.
Georges Braque, Woman with aMandolin, 1937. Oil on canvas, 51 ¼ x 38¼”. Museum of Modern Art, NY.Fernand Léger, Three Women, 1921. Oil oncanvas, 6 ¼ " x 8 3”. Museum of ModernArt, NY.
Chaïm Soutine, Carcass of Beef, 1926. Oilon canvas, 45 ¾ x 31 ¾”. Albright-Knox ArtGallery, Buffalo , NY.Amedeo Modigliani, Portrait of ChaïmSoutine, 1916. Oil on canvas, 36 1/8 x 23 ½”.National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Les Maudits• Les Maudits is a specific term appliedto a select few artists who representthe experimental vibe of Paris at thetime.• Included are Modigliani, Soutine,Utrillo, and Valadon.•Amedeo Modigliani, Portrait ofChaïm Soutine, 1916. Oil on canvas,36 1/8 x 23 ½”. National Gallery ofArt, Washington, D.C.
Les MauditsAmedeo Modigliani (1884-1920)• From wealthy Italian family.• Very sick as a child, recurring illnesseffects his work.• Primarily a painter but also sculptedin style similar to Brancusi.• His work is informed by ancientRoman and Egyptian sculpture.• Also looked toward Europeanmedieval art, non-Western cultures,and the art of the Ancient Greece andIndia.Amedeo Modigliani, Head I, 1911-13.limestone, height 25” x 6” x 8 ½ ”.Guggenheim Museum, NY.
Amedeo Modigliani, Head I, 1911-13.limestone, height 25” x 6” x 8 ½ ”.Guggenheim Museum, NY.Constantin Brancusi, Sleeping Muse I, c. 1909-10. Marble, 6 3/4” X 10 7/8” X 8 3/8”.Hirshorn Museum oand Sculpture Garden,Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Amedeo Modigliani, Head I, 1911-13.limestone, height 25” x 6” x 8 ½ ”.Guggenheim Museum, NY.Kouros, ca. 600BCE. Marble, 6’ ½”.Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
Les MauditsAmedeo Modigliani (1884-1920)• His painting style is expressionist andcaptured the true nature of hissubjects.• His paintings usually feature a singlesitter.• Debt to Symbolists evident in overallcomposition, sculptural detachment offigure, and use of color.• Subjects are fellow artists and models.Amedeo Modigliani, Portrait ofChaïm Soutine, 1916. Oil on canvas,36 1/8 x 23 ½”. National Gallery ofArt, Washington, D.C.
Amedeo Modigliani, Portrait of ChaïmSoutine, 1916. Oil on canvas, 36 1/8 x 23½”. National Gallery of Art, Washington,D.C.Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, À Montrouge-Rosa La Rouge, 1886-87. Oil on canvasm 28½ x 19 ¼”. Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia,PA.
Les MauditsAmedeo Modigliani (1884-1920)• Nudes are most often peoplewho would pose for nomoney-students, models, etc.• There is a general formula tohis nude paintings.• Bodies are long and narrow,arranged on a diagonal, setwithin a narrow space withdramatic use of color.• Clear influence of history ofsubject matter.Amedeo Modigliani, Nude, 1917. Oil oncanvas, 28 ¾ x 45 ¾”. GuggenheimMuseum, NY.
Amedeo Modigliani, Reclining Nude, 1917.Oil on canvas 23 7/8” x 36 ½”. MetropolitanMuseum of Art, NY.Amedeo Modigliani, Reclining Nude, 1919.Oil on canvas, 28 1/2 x 45 7/8”. Museum ofModern Art, NY.
Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538. Oil on canvas46.9 x 65”. Uffizi, Florence.Amedeo Modigliani, Nude, 1917. Oil oncanvas, 28 ¾ x 45 ¾”. GuggenheimMuseum, NY.
Édouard Manet,Olympia,1863-65. Oilon canvas, 4’3” x 6’2 ¾”. Musée dOrsay,Paris.Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538. Oil on canvas46.9 x 65”. Uffizi, Florence.
Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538. Oil oncanvas 47” x 65”. Uffizi, Florence.Giorgione, Sleeping Venus, c.1510. Oil on canvas, 42.5” x68.9”. Gemäldegalerie AlteMeister, DresdenFrancisco Goya, The Nude Majas, 1792.Oil on canvas, 38.6” x 75.2”. PradoMuseum, Spain.Édouard Manet,Olympia,1863-65. Oilon canvas, 4’3” x 6’2 ¾”. MuséedOrsay, Paris.
Les MauditsChaim Soutine (1894-1943)• Born of poor Lithuanian parents.• Attends classes in Minsk and Vilnius andthe Ecole des Beaux-Arts.• Bulk of education from his association withParisian-based artists.• Credits Modigliani with helping him purifyhis style.• His painting style is expressionist as well astraditional.• He looks to artists as diverse as Courbet,Rembrandt, and Chardin.• He would influence artists including deKooning.Chaim Soutine, Woman in Red,c.1924-1925. Oil on canvas, 36”x 25”. Private Collection.
Chaim Soutine, Caracss of Beef, c. 1925.Oil on canvas, 55 ¼” x 42 3/8”.Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY.Rembrandt van Rijn, Butchered, 1655.Oil on panel, 37”x 27”. Louvre Museum,Paris, France
Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin,TheSilver Tureen, c. 1728. Oil on canvas,30” x 42 ½”. Metropolitan Museumof Art, NY.Gustave Courbet, The Trout, 1872. Oilon canvas, 21 5/8” x 35”. MuséedOrsay
Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin,TheSilver Tureen, c. 1728. Oil on canvas,30” x 42 ½”. Metropolitan Museumof Art, NY.Chaim Soutine, Hare with Forks, 1921-22. Oil oncanvas, 26” x 25.2”. Private Collection.
Chaim Soutine, Trees at Ceret, 1920-21. Oil oncanvas, 28” x 25”. Philadelphia Museum of Art.Vincent van Gogh, Olive Trees with theAlpilles in the Background, 1889. Oil oncanvas, 28 ¾” x 36 ¼”. Museum of ModernArt, NY.
El Greco, The Burial of Count Orgaz,1586. Oil on canvas, 189” x 142”. SantoTomé, Toledo, SpainChaim Soutine, Trees at Ceret, 1920-21.Oil on canvas, 28” x 25”. PhiladelphiaMuseum of Art.
Chaim Soutine, Woman in Red, c.1924-1925. Oil on canvas, 36” x 25”. PrivateCollection.Chaim Soutine, Caracss of Beef, c. 1925. Oilon canvas, 55 ¼” x 42 3/8”. Albright-KnoxArt Gallery, Buffalo, NY.
Chaim Soutine, Woman in Red, c.1924-1925. Oil on canvas, 36” x 25”. PrivateCollection.Willem de Kooning, Woman I, c. 1950-52.Oil on canvas, 6’3 7/8 x 4’10”. Museum ofModern Art, NY.
Les MauditsMaurice Utrillo, Street in Asnières, c. 1913-15. Oil on canvas, 29” x 36 ¼”. Private Collection.
Suzanne Valadon, The Blue Room, 1923.Oil on canvas, 35 3/8 x 45 5/8”.National Museum of Modern Art,Georges Pompidou Center, Paris.Puvis de Chavannes,Summer, 1891. Oilon canvas, 4’11” x 7’ 7 ½”. ClevelandMuseum of Art.
Henri Rousseau, The Carnival Evening,1886. Oil on canvas, 46 x 35 1/8”.Philadelphia Museum of Art.Maurice Utrillo, Street in Asnières, c.1913-15. Oil on canvas, 29” x 36 ¼”.Private Collection.
Camille Pissarro, The Hermitage atPontoise (Les côteaux de l‘Hermitage,Pontoise), ca. 1867. Oil on canvas, 59 5/8”x 79”. Guggenheim Museum, NY.Alfred Sisley, Street in Moret(Porte deBourgogne from across the Bridge), c.1886.Oil on canvas, 28 ¾” x 24”. Art Institute ofChicago.
Camille Pissarro, The Hermitage at Pontoise (Les côteauxde l‘Hermitage, Pontoise), ca. 1867. Oil on canvas, 59 5/8”x 79”. Guggenheim Museum, NY.Maurice Utrillo, Street inAsnières, c. 1913-15. Oil oncanvas, 29” x 36 ¼”. PrivateCollection.Alfred Sisley, Street in Moret(Porte de Bourgogne from acrossthe Bridge), c.1886. Oil on canvas, 28 ¾” x 24”. Art Institute ofChicago.
Henri Matisse (1869-1954)• Sums up his work prior tooutbreak of WWI.• Returns to the reliance onone color to dominatescene.• Very little differentiation ofspace.• Objects dematerialized andhover.Henri Matisse, Red Studio, 1911. Oil on canvas,71 ¼ " x 86 ¼ ”. Museum of Modern Art, NY.
Henri Matisse, Red Studio, 1911. Oil oncanvas, 71 ¼ " x 86 ¼ ”. Museum ofModern Art, NY.Gustave Courbet, The Painter‘s Studio: Areal allegory summing up seven years ofmy artistic and moral life, 1855. Oil oncanvas, 11’ 10 ¼ x 19‘ 7 ½ “. MuséedOrsay, Paris.
Henri Matisse, Red Studio, 1911. Oil oncanvas, 71 ¼ " x 86 ¼ ”. Museum of ModernArt, NY.Frederic Bazille, Bazille‘s Studio; 9 rue de laCondamine, 1870. Oil on canvas, 38 ½ x 50 ½”.Musee dOrsay, Paris.
Georges Braque, Still Life with a Pair ofBanderillas, 1911. Oil on canvas 25 ¾” x 215/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.Pablo Picasso, Still Life with a Bottle ofRum,1911. Oil on canvas, 24 1/8” x 197/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art,NY.
Henri Matisse, The Piano Lesson, 1916. Oil oncanvas, 8 ½ " x 6 11 ¾ ”. Museum of ModernArt, NY.Henri Matisse, Decorative Figure, 1908. Bronze, 29½” x 20 x 11 ¾”. Hirshorn Museum and SculptureGarden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Henri Matisse, The Piano Lesson, 1916. Oil on canvas,8 ½ " x 6 11 ¾ ”. Museum of Modern Art, NY.Henri Matisse, Woman on aHigh Stool, 1914. Oil oncanvas, 57 7/8 x 37 5/8”.Museum of Modern Art, NY.
Henri Matisse, Music Lesson, 1917. Oil oncanvas, 8’ 1/8” x 6’7”. Barnes Foundation,Philadelphia.Henri Matisse, Reclining Nude I (Aurora), 1907.Bronze, 13 9/16” x 19 5/8” x 11”. BaltimoreMuseum of Art.
Henri Matisse, Decorative Figure on an OrnamentalBackground, 1925-26. Oil on canvas, 51 1/8 x 38 ½”.National Museum of Modern Art, Georges PompidouCenter, Paris.Henri Matisse, Large RecliningNude (The Pink Nude), 1935. Oilon canvas, 26 x 36 ½”.Baltimore Museum of Art.
Henri Matisse, Open Window, 1905. Oilon canvas, 21 ¾” x 18 1/8”. NationalGallery of Art, Washington, D.C.Henri Matisse, Interior with a Phonograph,1924. Oil on canvas, 39 3/8” x 32”. PrivateCollection.
Henri Matisse, The Blue Nude, 1907. Oil on canvas,36 x 55”. Baltimore Museum of Art.Henri Matisse, Large RecliningNude (The Pink Nude), 1935.Oil on canvas, 26 x 36 ½”.Baltimore Museum of Art.
Henri Matisse, The DanceII. 1932. Oil on canvas,center panel ~11’ x 11’.Barnes Foundation, Merion,PA..Henri Matisse, Merion DanceMural, 1932-33. Oil on canvas,center panel 11’8 1/8” x 16’ 61/8”. Barnes Foundation, Merion,PA.
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)• Like many others, Picasso heeds thecall to order.• His work during and after WWI is areturn to traditional styles.• This return is aided by a trip to Romeand the experience of ancient sites.– He paints Olga during a trip to Italy.• His work also shows an influence ofClassicism in Ingres.Pablo Picasso, Portrait of Olga in theArmchair, 1917. Oil on canvas, 511/6” x 35”. Musée Picasso, Paris.
Pablo Picasso, Portrait of Olga in theArmchair, 1917. Oil on canvas, 51 1/6”x 35”. Musée Picasso, Paris.Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Louise deBroglie, Countesse dHaussonville, 1845. Oilon canvas, 51 7/8” x 36 ¼”. The FrickCollection, NY.
Pablo Picasso, The American Manager, 1917;(reconstruction by Kermit Love for the MoMA 1979),paint on cardboard, fabric, paper, leather, metal, andwood, 11’ 2 ¼” x 8’ x 3’ 8 ½”Pablo Picasso, The French andAmerican Managers, costumedesigns, c. 1917. Mixed media, 11’ 2¼” x 8’ x 3’ 8 ½”. Museum of ModernArt, NY.
Pablo Picasso, The Family of Saltimbanques, 1905, oilon canvas, 6’11 ¾” 7’ 6 3/8”.Pablo Picasso, Curtain from Parade, c. 1917.Painted fabric, 52.5 ‘x 33.8’. Pompidou Center,Metz.One of the costumes designed byPicasso, c. 1917.
Nessus and Dejanira, Pablo Picasso, 1920; pencilon paper, 8 ¼” x 10 ¼”. Museum of Modern Art,NY.Heracles, Dejanira, and Nessus,artists unknown, black figureshydria, c. 550 BCE.
Pablo Picasso, Two WomenRunning on the Beach (TheRace), 1922. Gouache onplywood, 13 3/8” x 16 ¾”.Musée PicassoMichelangelo, Libyan Sibyl, 1508-12. Fresco (from theSistine Ceiling), Vatican City, Italy.
Pablo Picasso, Two WomenRunning on the Beach (TheRace), 1922. Gouache onplywood, 13 3/8” x 16 ¾”.Musée PicassoPablo Picasso, Two Nudes, Paris, late 1906. Oil on canvas, 59 5/8x 36 5/8”. Museum of Modern Art, NYC.
Pablo Picasso, Green Still Life, 1914. Oilon canvas, 23 ½ x 31 ¼”. Museum ofModern Art, NY.Pablo Picasso, Harlequin with Violin,1918. Oil on canvas, 56” x 39 ½”.Cleveland Art Museum.
Pablo Picasso, Three Musicians, 1921.Oil on canvas, 6 7" x 7 3 ¾” Museumof Modern A rt.Pablo Picasso, Three Musicians,1921. Oil on canvas, ~6’7” x 6’2”.Philadelphia Museum of Art.
Pablo Picasso, Mandolin and Guitar (Mandoline et guitare), 1924. Oil with sand oncanvas, 55 3/8” x 78 7/8”. Guggenheim Museum, NY.
Georges Braque, Café-Bar, 1919. Oil oncanvas, 63 ¼” x 31 7/8”. ÖffentlicheKunstsammulung Basel, Kunstmuseum.Georges Braque, Violin and Palette, 1909.Oil on canvas, 36 1/8” x 16 7/8”.Guggenheim Museum, NY.
Georges Braque (1882-1963)• 1914 Braque and Picasso part waysas Braque goes off to war.• Serves in military and is wounded.• Returns to Paris in 1917-by thenCubism has moved on without him.• By 1918/1919 he is finding his wayback to painting and Cubism.• His work from the 1930sdemonstrates the influence of Greekvase painting.– He paints heavily in contours.Georges Braque, Woman with aMandolin, 1937. Oil on canvas, 51 ¼ x38 ¼”. Museum of Modern Art, NY.
De Stijl• Dutch for “The Style”• Founded by Theo van Doesburg in collaboration with artist Piet Mondrian in 1917• The concept of the movement is idealistic; it sought to express a new utopian ideal of spiritualharmony and order• The idea behind the movement was to create a universal aesthetic that would unify all areas ofthe visual arts along with humanity• It was conceived at a time when most of Europe was involved in the preparations of war• Saw style not just as surface ornament, but as an essential ordering structure which wouldfunction as a sign for an ethical view of society• De Stijl was realized in part due to the neutrality of the Dutch during World War I• Because of its neutrality, de Stijl was able to prosper and its concept spread throughout all ofEurope• De Stijl embraced geometric abstraction and Constructivist ideas, however, it was free of therenewed interest in classicism that characterized the work of French avant-garde artists as aresult of the “call to order”• de Stijl is related to Russian Constructivism but is not identical
De Stijl• Related to but not identical with Russian Constructivism• De Stijl followed the more universal concept of an abstraction thathad as its foundation a geometric base as its defining characteristic• De Stijl strove to avoid any sense of narrative or emotional content• Also strove to play down any evidence of the artist’s hand eitherthrough the manipulation of the medium (represented thru thebrushstrokes in painting) or in hand-modeling in sculpture• The hope was that having a scientific base would transcend cultural,economic, and political differences• Utopian in ideal=The single compositional element and the overallconfiguration of elements symbolized the relationship between theindividual and the collective
Theo van Doesburg (1883-1931)Theo van Doesburg as Sergeant Küpper. c1915Theo van Doesburg, Self-Portrait,1906. Oil on canvas, 12.6 x 9.4”.Leiden, Stedelijk Museum De
de Stijl• Van Doesburg is credited as the founder of the de Stijlmovement• He was heavily influenced by the work of Piet Mondrian,• De Stijl was used to propagate the movements theories ofpure abstraction and simplicity-this included advocateduncomplicated line and forms like the rectangle and othergeometric shapes as well as limiting oneself to using primarycolors, along with black and white• For van Doesburg, this simplicity had symbolic significancethat was based on Eastern philosophy and Theosophy;something that was known to de Stijl artists primarily throughKandinsky’s book, Concerning the Spiritual in Art
Neoplasticism• Particular to the work of Piet Mondrian• It refers to the new plastic art• It is the belief that art should not be the reproduction of real objects butthe expression of the absolutes of life• For artists who followed this, the only absolutes were vertical andhorizontal lines and the primary colors• Artists use planar elements and the colors red, yellow, and blue and blackand white• The “Neoplastic” aesthetic advocated severe precision of line and shape,austerely pristine surfaces, a Spartan economy of form, and purity of color.• Neoplasticism strove to avoid emotional content and any sense of realism• The Neo-plastic style is characterized by a reversion to the basicfundamentals of art: color, form, level, and line
The Hague School (1860-1890)Anton Mauve, Morning Ride on the Beach, 1876; oil on canvas, 17.7 x 27.6”.Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
Piet Mondrian, Avond (Evening) Red Tree,1908. Oil on canvas, 27 ½ x 39”. HaagsGemeentemuseum, The Hague.Piet Mondrian, The Mill Underthe Sun, 1908. Oil on canvas,dimensions unpublished. HaagsGemeentemuseum, The Hague.
Piet Mondrian, Still Life with Gingerpot I, 1911. Oil on canvas, 25 ¾ x 29 ½”.Guggenheim Museum, NY.
NeoplasticismPiet Mondrian (1872-1944)• Mondrian is the most importantfigure in the evolution ofabstraction during WWI• Influenced by the Hague Schoolof artists (Barbizon inspired)• Mondrian’s influence allowed forabstraction to slowly but surelygain momentum even in the faceof war, depression, and the “callto order” and its return to thefigure• Influenced by exposure in Paris toPicasso and Braque’s Cubist work Piet Mondrian, Tableau No.2/Composition No. VII, 1913; oil oncanvas, 41 1/8 x 44 ¾”. GuggenheimMuseum, NY.
Piet Mondrian, Church Façade,1915. Charcoal drawing on paper,39” high. Private Collection.Piet Mondrian, The Sea, 1914-1915.Charcoal and gouache on paper, 34 ½” x 473/8”. Guggenheim Museum, NY.
Piet Mondrian, Composition in Color A , 1917. Oil on canvas. 19.7 x17.3”. Kröller-MüellerMuseum Otterlo, the Netherlands.
Piet Mondrian, Composition: Light Color Planes with Grey Contours, 1919. Oil on canvas, 19.3” x19.3”. Kunstmuseum Basel, Switzerland.
Piet Mondrian, Composition A, 1920. Oil on canvas, 35.4” x 35.8”. Museum of Modern Art,NY.
Piet Mondrian, Composition, 1921 or Tableau No. II with Red, Blue, Black, Yellow, and Gray,1921-1925. Oil on canvas, 29 5/8” x 25 5/8”. Private Collection, Zurich.
Piet Mondrian. Composition with Yellow Lines, 1933. Oil on canvas, diagonal 52.4”.Gemeentemuseum, the Hague, Netherlands.
Piet Mondrian, Broadway Boogie-Woogie, 1942/43. Oil on canvas, 50” x 50”. Museum ofModern Art, NY.
Theo van Doesburg (1883-1931)Theo van Doesburg as Sergeant Küpper. c1915Theo van Doesburg, Self-Portrait,1906. Oil on canvas, 12.6 x 9.4”.Leiden, Stedelijk Museum De
Paul Cézanne, Card Players, 1890-1892.Oil on canvas, 52.8” high. BarnesFoundation, PhiladelphiaTheo van Doesburg, Card Players, 1916-1917. Tempera on canvas, 46 ½” x 58”.Private Collection
Theo van Doesburg, Composition IX, TheCard Players, 1917. Oil on canvas, 45 5/8” x41 ¾”. Gemeentemuseum, the Hague,Netherlands.Paul Cézanne, Card Players, 1890-1892. Oilon canvas, 53” x 71”. Barnes Foundation,Philadelphia
Theo van Doesburg, Composition IX,The Card Players, 1917. Oil on canvas,45 5/8” x 41 ¾”. Gemeentemuseum,the Hague, Netherlands.Card Players, Theo van Doesburg,1916-1917; tempera on canvas, 46 ½”x 58”
Café l’AubetteTheo van Doesburg, Sophie Taueber, and Jean Arp, Café l’Aubette, 1926-1928.Interior, Strasbourg, destroyed 1940
Theo van Doesburg, Sophie Taueber, and Jean Arp, Café l’Aubette, 1926-1928. Interior,Strasbourg, destroyed 1940
Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater,, 1934; MillRun PA (outside Pittsburg) exterior shotover Bear Run waterfall.Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater, 1934;Mill Run PA (outside Pittsburg) interiorshot featuring Wright’s design
• De Stijl architects were heavilyinfluenced by Frank LLoyedWright (Wright was heavilyinfluenced by Louis Sullivan andbelieved that functionality wasmost important in design; helooked to the architecture ofancient cultures-the Egyptians,Mayans, etc and sought tomarry the organic space with hisdesign; he also believed indesigning aspects of a building-even furniture)Gerrit Rietveld, Model of SchröderHouse, 1923-24, Utrecht.
Gerrit Rietveld (1888-1964)• Commissioned by TruusSchröder-Schräder for her 3kids and herself• The house is one of the bestknown examples of de Stijlarchitecture and arguablythe only true De Stijl building• She lived there until 1985Gerrit Rietveld, Schröder House, 1923-24;Utrecht
Rietveld Schröder HousePortraits of Gerrit Thomas Rietveld and Truus Schröder-Schräder.
Gerrit Rietveld, Red and Blue Chair, 1917/1923. Wood, 34 ½” high. Museum of ModernArt, NY.
Theo van Doesburg, Composition IX, TheCard Players, 1917. Oil on canvas, 45 5/8” x41 ¾”. Gemeentemuseum, the Hague,Netherlands.Piet Mondrian, Composition with Red, Blue,Black, Yellow, and Gray, 1921. Oil on canvas, 297/8” x 20 5/8”. Museum of Modern Art, NY.Gerrit Rietveld, Redand Blue Chair,1917/1923. Wood, 34½” high. Museum ofModern Art, NY.
Gerrit Rietveld, Van Gogh Museum, 1964. Opened 1974, Amsterdam
Dada (1916)• “…a protest with its whole being engaged in destructiveaction; it is knowledge of all the means rejected up untilnow by the shame-faced sex of comfortable logic; whichis the dance of those too impotent to create; it is theabolition of memory; it is the abolition of the future; it isthe absolute and unquestionable faith in every god thatis immediate product of spontaneity; it is freedom; it is aninterlacing of opposites and of all contradictions,grotesques, inconsistencies, it is LIFE!”- Dada Manifesto, 1918
Dada (1916)• Term applied to international community of artists (visual andliterary) beginning in Zurich, Switzerland (1916)• Other branches of Dada– New York– Berlin– Paris (practioners will become associated with Surrealism)• Dada artists particularly affected by WWI, many having lost friendsand relatives, or having served themselves– In 1 day Britain lost 20,000 soldiers, by 1915 the French lost 1,430,000 men within a 3 miles radius• Denounce nationalism and materialistic themes• Unified in shared belief, a common style, and rejection ofconventions in art and thought• Aim was to shock society into self-awareness through anti-art,poetry, performance, and other unorthodox techniques
Dada (1916)• Dada artists re descendants of Romanticismand Symbolism• Reject middle class values• It is a self-defined anti-art anti-movement• Rejects standard convention in exchange forplayfulness, chance, improvisation, andintuition
Zurich Dada1916-1919• Birthplace of Dada– Switzerland neutral– Zurich Dada principally literary with roots in AlfredJarry’s 1896 play, Ubu Roi• Founding members Hugo Ball, Hans Arp,Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco, Francis Picabia,Christian Schad, and Sophie Taeuber-Arp meetat Café Voltaire
Cabaret VoltaireHugo Ball reciting the poem, Karawane at theCabaret Voltaire, Zurich, 1916. Photograph, 28 ½” x15 ¾”Untitled (Mask, Portrait of Tzara), MarcelJanco, 1919. Paper, cardboard, burlap, ink,string, and gouache, 21 5/8” x 9 13/16” x 2¾”
Mask, Marcel Janco, 1919; paper, cardboard, string, gouache, and pastel, 17 ¾” x 8 5/8”
Jean (Hans) Arp (1887-1966)Untitled (Collage with Squares Arranged according to the Laws of Chance), Jean Arp, (1916-17).Torn-and-pasted paper and colored paper on colored paper, 19 1/8 x 13 5/8"
Sophie Taeuber-Arp (1889-1943)Vertical-Horizontal Free Rhythms, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, 1919; gouache, 12.1” x 9.1
Sophie Taeuber-Arp (1889-1943)Blanket, Sonia Delaunay, 1911; appliquédfabric, 42 7/8” x 31 7/8”Vertical-Horizontal Free Rhythms, SophieTaeuber-Arp, 1919; gouache, 12.1” x 9.1
Dada HeadsDada Head, Sophie Taeuber-Arp1920. Painted wood with glassbeads on wire, 9 1/4”Dada Head, Sophie Taeuber-Arp 1920. Painted wood, 133/8Dada Head, Portrait of Jean Arp, Sophie Taeuber-Arp1918. oil on wood 10” high
Hammer Flower, Jean Arp, 1916; oil on wood, 24 3/8” x 19 5/8”
Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968)Nude Descending a Staircase, No.2, Marcel Duchamp, 1912; oil on canvas
New York Dada1915-1921• Francis Picabia and Marcel Duchamprepresentatives• NY Dada not focused on war like Zurich, itsfocus is art convention and institutions• Anti-art, anti-establishment• Duchamp rejects emphasis on retinalexperience and need of art to be pleasing tothe eye
Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968)Rrose Sélavay (Marcel Duchamp). 1921. Photograph byMan Ray. Art Direction by Marcel Duchamp. Silverprint. 5-7/8" x 3"-7/8".Marcel Duchamp playing chess in1952. Photo by Kay Bell Reynal
Landscape at Blainville, Marcel Duchamp, 1902;oil on canvas. 24 x 19.7”Paradise, Marcel Duchamp,1910-11. Oilon canvas. 45.1 x 50.6”
Nude Descending a Staircase, No.2, Marcel Duchamp, 1912; oil on canvas, 58” x 35”
The Passage from Virgin to Bride, MarcelDuchamp, 1912; oil on canvas, 23 3/8” x 21¼”The King and Queen Surrounded bySwift Nudes, Marcel Duchamp,1912; pencil on paper
Chocolate Grinder No.2/Broyeuse de chocolatno 2., Marcel Duchamp, 1914; oil and thread oncanvas. 25.6 x 21.3”Nine Malic Molds/Neuf moules mâlic,Marcel Duchamp,1914-15; Oil, lead wire,lead foil on glass between two glass plates,25.2” x 40.2“
Les Machines célibataires, Harald SzeemanNine Malic Molds/Neuf moules mâlic,Marcel Duchamp,1914-15; Oil, lead wire,lead foil on glass between two glass plates,25.2” x 40.2“
Duchamp’s ReadymadesBicycle Wheel, Marcel Duchamp, 1913; Assistedreadymade bicycle wheel, diameter 25.5”,mounted on a stool, 23.7”high. Original lost.Bottle Rack, Marcel Duchamp, 1914/64;bottle rack made of galvanized iron. 59 x 37cm. Original lost.
In Advance of the Broken Arm, MarcelDuchamp,1915; show shovel, wood andgalvanized iron. 47.8L.H.O.O.Q. Marcel Duchamp, 1919.Rectifiedreadymade from Box in a Valise, pencil on areproduction of the Mona Lisa. 7.8” x “4.9
Three Standard Stoppages, Marcel Duchamp,1913-14; assemblage of three threads glued tothree painted canvas strips, each mounted onglass panel; three wood slats, shaped along oneedge to match the curves of the threads; all fittedinto a wooden box, three painted canvas strips,each 5 ½” s 47 ¼”Tu m’, Marcel Duchamp, 1918; oil on canvas withbottle brush, three safety pins, and one bolt, 2’3½” x 10’ 2 ¾”
Parisian Air, Marcel Duchamp, 1920; glass bottlewith air (gift for Walter Arensberg)Rrose Sélavay (Marcel Duchamp). 1921.Photograph by Man Ray. Art Direction by MarcelDuchamp. Silver print. 5-7/8" x 3"-7/8".
The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors,Even (The Large Glass), Marcel Duchamp,1915-23; oil, lead, water, dust, foil, andvarnish, 8’11” x 5’7” As it appears and wasplaced by Marcel Duchamp to be viewedin the Philadelphia Museum of Art
The Green Box, Marcel Duchamp, 1941; leather valise containing notes,drawings, photographs, and replicas of Duchamp’s work spanning most of hiscareer
Étant Donnés, Marcel Duchamp, 1946-1966; mixed-media assemblage including Spanishwooden door, bricks, velvet, twigs, pig skin, aluminum, glass, Plexiglas, cotton, linoleum,electric lights, and gas lamp; assembled posthumously by artist’s wife and stepson
Étant Donnés, Marcel Duchamp, 1946-1966; mixed-media assemblageincluding Spanish wooden door, bricks,velvet, twigs, pig skin, aluminum, glass,Plexiglas, cotton, linoleum, eclecticlights, and gas lamp; assembledposthumously by artist’s wife andstepson
Marcel in front of The Large GlassThe Large Glass in 1936 at the home of KatherineDrier, Tum’ appears in the background
Francis Picabia (1879-1953)Amorous Procession (Parade),Francis Picabia, 1917; oil onboardThe Rope Dancer Accompanies Herself withHer Shadows, Man Ray 1916. Oil on Canvas,52” x73.4”
Portrait de Marie Laurencin. Four in Hand, ink,pencil, gouache and watercolor on cardboard,~22” x 18”, c. 1916–7Here, This is Stieglitz (Ideal ), Francis Picabia,1915; pen and red and black ink on paper,28 7/8” x 20”
The Rope Dancer Accompanies Herselfwith Her Shadows, Man Ray 1916. Oil onCanvas, 52” x73.4”The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors,Even (The Large Glass), Marcel Duchamp,1915-23; oil, lead, water, dust, foil, andvarnish, 8’11” x 5’7”
The Rope Dancer Accompanies Herselfwith Her Shadows, Man Ray 1916. Oilon Canvas, 52” x73.4”Study of The Bachelors from The Large Glass,Marcel Duchamp, 1915-23; oil, lead, water,dust, foil, and varnish,
Sotileza [Subtlety] Francis Picabia, c. 1928gouache on paper, 29.8” x21.9”Portrait of a Couple, Francis Picabiaca. 1942-43; oil on board, 41 ¼” x 30”
God, Else von Freytag-Loringhoven (and Morton Schamberg?), 1917-18; metal plumbing pipe,and wood
Man Ray (1890-1976)Gift, Man Ray, 1921 (replication of theoriginal); flatiron with nails, 6 ½” x 3 5/8”x 3 ¾”Untitled (Rayograph), Man Ray, 1922; Gelatinsilver print, 9 3/8 x 7 1/16"
Raoul Hausmann (1886-1971)The Spirit of Our Time (Mechanical Head),Raoul Hausmann, 1919; wood, leather,aluminum, brass, and cardboard, 12 5/8” xTatlin at Home, Raoul Hausmann, 1920;photomontage (pasted paper gouache)
Hannah Höch (1889-1978)Cut with a Kitchen (Cake) Knife Dadathrough the last Weimar Beer-Belly CulturalEpoch of Germany, Hannah Höch, c. 1919;photomontage, 44 7/8” x 35 ½”
John Heartfield (1891-1968)Little German Christmas Tree John Heartfield, 1934; photomontage, 10 ¼” x 7 7/8”
Kurt Schwitters (1887-1948)Bild mit heller Mitte (Picture with Light Center),Kurt Schwitters, 1919; Painted collage, 33 ¼ “x 257/8”Merzbild 25 A, Das Sternenbild(Stars Picture), Kurt Schwitters, 1920;assemblage, 41” x31 1/8”
Merzbild 25 A, Das Sternenbild(Stars Picture), Kurt Schwitters, 1920;assemblage, 41” x31 1/8”Still Life With Chair Caning, Pablo Picasso,1912; oil on oilcloth on canvas framed byrope, 10 5/8” x 14 5/8“
Opened by Customs, Kurt Schwitters,1937–8; collage, 331×253 mmHanover Merzbau, Kurt Schwitters,destroyed. This photograph taken c. 1931
City on the High Mountain, LouiseNevelson, 1983; steel painted black20 6" x 23 x 13 6"Maman or Spider, Louise Bourgeois, 1996;painted steel, Washington, DC, @30 ft. high
Max Ernst (1891-1976)Ambiguous Figures 1. Copper Plate 1 ZincePlate 1. Rubber Cloth 1. Draining Telescope1. Pipe Man, Max Ernst, 1920; Collage,gouache, India ink, pencil and painting overa print; 10 x 7 3/8 in.
Hammamet mit der Moschee (Hammametwith the Mosque), Paul Klee, 1914;Watercolor and pencil on cardboard, 8 1/8” x7 ½”The Great Metaphysician, Giorgio DeChirico,1917; oil on canvas, 41 1/8 x 27 ½ “
The Four Horsemen of theApocalypse, Albrecht Durer, 1498;woodcutThe Isenheim Altarpiece,(piece of center panel)Matthias Grünewald, 1512-1516, oil on panel
The Garden of Earthly Delights, Hieronymus Bosch, 1505-1512; oil on panel,86.61” × 153.15”
Ambiguous Figures 1. Copper Plate 1 Zince Plate1. Rubber Cloth 1. Draining Telescope 1. PipeMan, Max Ernst, 1920; Collage, gouache, Indiaink, pencil and painting over a print; 10 x 7 3/8“Amorous Procession (Parade),Francis Picabia, 1917; oil onboard
Here Everything is still Floating, Max Ernst, 1928; photomontage-Cut-and-pasted halftone reliefand pencil on halftone relief on paper, 4 1/8” x 4 7/8" (fatagagas)
Celebes, Max Ernst, 1921; oil oncanvas; 49 ¼” x 42 ½”Der Elefant von CelebesHat hinten etwas gelebesDer Elefant von SumatraDer vögelt seine GrossmamaDer Elefant von IndienDer kann das Loch nicht findenThe elephant from [C]elebeshas sticky, yellow bottom greaseThe elephant from Sumatraalways fucks his grandmammaThe elephant from Indiacan never find the hole ha-ha
Surrealism(1924-1950s)André Breton, Valentine Hugo, Greta Knustin, and Tristan Tzara, Exquisite Corpse, c. 1930. Ink onpaper, 9 ¼” x 12¼”.
Surrealism• International art and intellectual movement centered primarily inParis which begins first as a literary movement under leadership ofBreton– Breton rejected Dada’s institutionalization.• Surrealist artists were concerned with the problems of the time andinvested in how to best communicate thought and expression invarious forms-literature, poetry, and the visual arts.• Surrealism is born of Parisian Dada and is thus influenced by it andutilizes many of its techniques- paramount is the automaticmethod.• It is heavily influenced by the teachings of Freud, especially hiswritings on dreams and the unconscious and Karl Marx.
Surrealism• The First Surrealist Exhibition was held in 1925 at the Galerie Pierre andincluded the first generation of Surrealists as well as Marcel Duchamp(1887-1968), Francis Picabia (1879-1953), Yves Tanguy (1900-1955),René Magritte (1898-1976), and Salvador Dalí (1904-1989).• The first generation of Surrealist artists includes:– André Breton (1896-1966)– Jean Arp (1896-1966)– Giorgio de Chirico– Max Ernst (1891-1976)– Paul Klee (1879-1940)– Man Ray (1890-1976)– André Masson (1896-1987)– Joan Miró (1893-1983)– Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)
Surrealism• Like their contemporaries, Surrealists are heavily impacted bythe events of WWI, they seek a new aesthetic that reflectedthe non-rational.• Writers including Arthur Rimbaud (the Comte de Lautrémont),Alfred Jarry, and Apollinaire would serve as inspiration.• From the Comte and Rimbaud Surrealists take the concept oftotal rejection-of tradition, God, religion, family, and society.• Surrealism was a very political movement (Breton writesalongside Trotsky); Surrealists tended to be Communistsympathizers.
Surrealism• Surrealism’s roots lie in Romanticism’semphasis on artistic genius.• Surrealists appeal to Freud for hisguidance on tapping into this genius;because of the heavy influence ofFreud, it is particularly masculine.• Women in Surrealism serve as muse.• There are female Surrealist artistshowever it is a movement dominatedby men.Surrealists around a painting by RenéMagritte. Published in La Révolutionsurréaliste, 1929
Alberto Giacometti, Woman with her Throat Cut, 1932 (cast 1949). Bronze, 8” x 34 ½” x 25”.
PsychoanalysisSigmund Freud (1856-1939)• Founding father ofpsychoanalysis.• Interpretation of Dreamspublished in 1899.• By 1920s, his writings had beentranslated and publicizedthroughout European and NorthAmerica.Photograph of Sigmund Freud taken 1914by Max Halberstadt.
Surrealism• There are 2 schools of Surrealism:– Biomorphic or abstract realism• Heavily invested in automatic process, abandons control over the mind in creation• Designs are usually loose, somewhat abstract but maintain familiar andrecognizable elements, embraces experimental techniques that reveal image.• Origins lie within Dada experimentations with chance (many abstract realists wereassociated with Dada before Surrealism)– Jean Arp, Max Ernst, Joan Miró, André Masson, and Roberto Matta– Naturalism• Pays strict attention to detail, uses recognizable images in a 3 dimensional way,creates scenes taken out of natural context and distorts them in some fantasticalway.• Predecessors are De Chirico, Henri Rousseau, Marc Chagall, James Ensor, and late19th century Romanticism– Rene Magritte, Salvador Dalí and Yves Tanguy
Exquisite CorpseAndré Breton, Valentine Hugo, Greta Knustin, and Tristan Tzara, Exquisite Corpse, c. 1930. Ink onpaper, 9 ¼” x 12¼”.
SurrealismJean Arp (1896-1966)• Associated with Zurich dada, comesto Surrealism via Parisian Dada.• Maintains relationships withConstructivists and the de Stijl artists.• Art from 1910s-1930s experimentswith different techniques, all ofwhich embrace chance.Jean Arp, Untitled (Collage with SquaresArranged according to the Laws ofChance), (1916-17). Torn-and-pastedpaper and colored paper on coloredpaper, 19 1/8 x 13 5/8"
Jean Arp (1896-1966)• 1930s, his forms are more organic inshape.• The navel represents to Arp theuniversal symbol for human life.Jean Arp, Objects Arranged According tothe Laws of Chance, (Navels) 1930.Varnished wood relief.Surrealism
Three Standard Stoppages, Marcel Duchamp, 1913-14; assemblage of three threads glued to threepainted canvas strips, each mounted on glass panel;three wood slats, shaped along one edge to matchthe curves of the threads; all fitted into a woodenbox, three painted canvas strips, each 5 ½” x 47 ¼”Jean Arp, Head and Vase, c. 1929; string and oil oncanvas.
Max Ernst, Celebes, 1921. Oil on canvas; 49 ¼” x 42 ½”Der Elefant von CelebesHat hinten etwas gelebesDer Elefant von SumatraDer vögelt seine GrossmamaDer Elefant von IndienDer kann das Loch nicht findenThe elephant from [C]elebeshas sticky, yellow bottom greaseThe elephant from Sumatraalways fucks his grandmammaThe elephant from Indiacan never find the hole ha-ha
Max Ernst (1891-1976)• Returns to art in 1921 afterserving in German army.• Moves to Paris in 1922.• His style from pre-Paris years is adominant influence onSurrealists.• Two Children combines his pre-Paris style with his interest inDada assemblage.• Title developed before the actualwork. Max Ernst, Two Children areThreatened by a Nightingale, 1924. Oilon wood with construction 27 ½ x 22½” x 4 ½”.
SurrealismMax Ernst (1891-1976)• 1925 commits to Surrealism.• Utilizes experimental techniquesof frottage and grattage.• His work at this time is a directcommentary on the nature ofwar, is effects on humanity andthe earth.• This work is thought to predictWWII.Max Ernst, The Horde, 1927. Oil oncanvas, 44 ⅞ x 57 ½”
Max Ernst (1891-1976)• Subject is the objection towar.• Technique used isdecalcomania.• Painted is the landscape ofa war torn Europe.Max Ernst, Europe after the Rain, 1940-42. Oilon canvas, 21 ½ x 58⅛”.
Max Ernst, Surrealism and Painting,1942. Oil on canvas, 77 x 92”Jackson Pollock painting, photograph by Hans Namuth,c. 1950http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CrVE-WQBcYQ
SurrealismJoan Miró (1893-1983)• Demonstrates Miró’s ability tofuse Cubism with the sculptedfigure.• Body is rendered in Cubist planes.• Background makes use of Cubistcolor palette.• Works from live model.Joan Miró, Nude with Mirror, 1919. Oilon canvas, 44 ½ x 40 ⅛
SurrealismJoan Miró (1893-1983)• 1920s were spent with Dadaartists in Paris.• He befriends Breton and othersthat would become theSurrealist group.• Especially drawn to the work ofPaul Klee.• By 1923, his work is highlyimaginative and Surreal in style.• Harlequins Carnival is his firstSurrealist masterpiece.Joan Miró, Harlequins Carnival, 1924-25.Oil on canvas, 26” x 36 ⅝”.
Joan Miró, Painting, Barcelona, June 13, 1933.Oil on canvas, 68 ½ x 6 5 ¼”Joan Miró, Dog Barking at the Moon, 1926. Oilon canvas, 28 ¾ x 36 ¼”
Joan Miró, Painting, Barcelona, June 13,1933. Oil on canvas, 68 ½ x 6 5 ¼”Jean Arp,Hammer Flower, 1916. oilon wood, 24 ⅜” x 19 ⅝”.
SurrealismJoan Miró (1893-1983)• Gouache-pigment suspended inwater with white substance, usuallychalk which helps to give off a morereflective surface.• WWII leads Miró to retreat to Spainwhere he lives for years in isolationstudying the migration and flightpatterns of birds, listening toMozart and Bach, and readingmystic literature.• His work seem preoccupied withescape.Joan Miró, The Poetess from theConstellation Series, December 31,1940.Gouache and oil wash on paper, 15”x 18”.
SurrealismAndré Masson (1896-1987)• Masson is the mostrevolutionary of the Surrealists,he was a committed anarchist.• Position against war shaped byown experience.• Joins movement in 1924, isexiled by Breton in 1929, rejoinsin 1930s and leaves in 1943.• Fishes uses his technique ofthrowing sand at gessoedcanvas.André Masson, Battle of Fishes, 1926; sand,gesso, oil, pencil, and charcoal on canvas, 14¼” x 28 ¾”.
• Masson is influenced by Picassoand Dalí.• Moves to NY in 1940s, fleeingEurope.• In NY his work has a particularinfluence on Pollock.André Masson, Pasiphaë, 1943.Oil and tempera on canvas, 39 ¾”x 50”.Jackson Pollock, Pasiphaë, 1943. Oil on canvas,27 ½ x 48”• In Pollock, Masson findsautomatism carried to itsfullest potential.
SurrealismYves Tanguy (1900-1955)• Tanguy creates from the mind.• Becomes a painter after seeing DeChirico’s work.• Destroys most of his naïve stylepredating 1926.• Adopted into Surrealism after meetingBreton.• Mama, Papa is Wounded representsheight of early Surrealist work.• 1920s discovers Picasso, De Chirico andthe Italian Metaphysical School.Yves Tanguy, Mama, Papa isWounded, 1927. Oil on canvas, 3614 x 28 ¾”
SurrealismSalvador Dalí (1904-1989)• Dalí has become the epitomeof the Surreal artist.• Catalan in heritage his Spanishroots will be presentthroughout his career.• Before attending art schoolfamiliarizes himself withmodern artists from Realismthrough Futurists.
SurrealismSalvador Dalí (1904-1989)• Dalí employs own methoddescribed as paranoaic-critical.• Miniaturist technique taken fromFlemish Renaissance masters.• Works are highly enigmatic anduse personal symbolism.– Although stated primary imagerywas blood, decay and excrement.• Landscapes are usuallyCatalonian.• Goal was to paint like a madman.Salvador Dalí, Accommodations of Desire,1929. Oil on canvas, 8 ⅝ x 13 ¾”
• Insects (ants) make areturn in The Persistence ofMemory.Salvador Dalí, Accommodations of Desire,1929. Oil on canvas, 8 ⅝ x 13 ¾”Salvador Dalí, The Persistence ofMemory, 1931. Oil on canvas, 89 ½” x13”.
SurrealismSalvador Dalí (1904-1989)• By 1930s, he is on path ofpersonal style and vision.• He wanted to create a worldthat reflected Freudian theory.• His method is akin to reeassociation, a visual Mad Libs.• The work is a denial of the 20thcentury’s experimentation withabstraction.Salvador Dalí, The Persistence of Memory, 1931.Oil on canvas, 89 ½” x 13”.
Yves Tanguy, Mama, Papa is Wounded, 1927. Oil oncanvas, 36 14 x 28 ¾”Salvador Dalí, The Persistence ofMemory, 1931. Oil on canvas, 89 ½”x 13”.
SurrealismSalvador Dalí (1904-1989)• 1930s his work is characterizedby a shift between extremefantasy and calm.• This work is ultimately enigmaticbut some elements are telling:– Millet’s The Angelus resides abovethe doorway– The 2 figures resemble RussianMaxim Gorky (with lobster) andVladimir Lenin. Salvador Dalí, Gala and The Angelusof Millet Before the Imminent Arrivalof the Conical Anamorphoses, 1933.Oil on wood, 9⅜ x 7⅜.
• 1929, Dalí is introduced toSurrealism and Breton throughis association with Miró .Salvador Dalí, Gala and The Angelus of Millet Beforethe Imminent Arrival of the Conical Anamorphoses,1933. Oil on wood, 9⅜ x 7⅜Jean-François Millet, The Angelus, 1857-59. Oil on canvas,21 ½” x 25 ⅞”
Photograph of MaximGorky, date unknownPhotograph ofVladimir Lenin takenc. 1920Salvador Dalí, Gala and The Angelus of Millet Before the Imminent Arrival of the ConicalAnamorphoses, 1933. Oil on wood, 9⅜ x 7⅜
SurrealismSalvador Dalí (1904-1989)• Possibly one of the easiest of Dalí’sworks to interpret-although notcompletely.• Painted prior to the outbreak ofCivil War in Spain, painted while theartist was in Paris.• He faces politics in a very personalway.• In opposition to most Surrealists, hedid not initially condemn Hitler. Salvador Dalí, Soft Construction withBoiled Beans, (Premonitions of CivilWar), 1936. Oil on canvas, 39 ½” x39”
• 1940s, Dalí moves to U.S.and paints societyportraits while alsobecoming the poster boyfor Surrealism.• 1941 moves into Classicalphase.• 1945-1946 working onDisney animation movie.• 1950s on mark extremedevotion to Catholicism.Salvador Dalí, The Christ of St. John of the Cross, 1951. Oil oncanvas, 81” x 46”Salvador Dalí, Crucifixion or Corpus Hypercubicus, (HypercubicBody), 1954. Oil on canvas, 76” x 50”.
SurrealismRené Magritte (1898-1976)• Personality exact opposite ofDalí.• Known as the invisible man ofSurrealism.• Academic training in Brussels.• First Surrealist works date to1926 after exposure to deChirico and Ernst.• Before moving to Paris in 1927,he and other Belgians form ownSurrealist group.René Magritte, Treachery (Perfidy) ofImages, 1928-29. Oil on canvas, 23 ¼” x 31½”.
Giorgio de Chirico, The Song of Love, 1914.Oil on canvas, 28 ¾” x 23 3/8”.Max Ernst, Celebes, 1921. Oil on canvas; 49¼” x 42 ½”.
Surrealism• Mother’s illness and deathleave indelible mark onhis life and work.• Many works, like this takevocabulary from hismother’s suicide.• Little is actually confirmedhowever of his young life.René Magritte, Les Amants, 1928. Oil on canvas, 21⅜” x 28 ⅞”.René Magritte (1898-1976)
SurrealismRené Magritte (1898-1976)• Magritte’s work is a visualmanifestation of Ferdinand deSaussure’s study of linguistics.• At the heart of work is achallenge of conventionalideas of representation.• Subject is the relationshipbetween the painted imageand language.René Magritte, Treachery (Perfidy) of Images,1928-29. Oil on canvas, 23 ¼” x 31 ½”.
René Magritte, The Human Condition, 1933. Oil on canvas, 39 ⅜” x 31 ⅞”.
SurrealismRené Magritte (1898-1976)• Inspired by writings of Freud.• Piece capitalizes on the fears andsexual anxieties made public throughFreud’s writings and theories.• Substitution of pubis for mouth echoesSurrealisms fascination with the vaginadentate.• Title pronounces violence of act mostoften enacted upon women and issymptomatic of masculine fears of 20thcentury.René Magritte, The Rape, 1934. Oil oncanvas, 28 ¾ x 21 ¼”.
René Magritte, The Rape, 1934. Oil on canvas,28 ¾ x 21 ¼”.Venus de Milo, possibly Alexandros ofAntioch, 130-100 BCE. Marble, 6’8”
SurrealismHans Bellmer (1902-1975)• German artist, studied underGrosz.• Through Grosz he establishedconnection with German Dada.• 1930s begins to make Poupéedolls.• Dolls have been thought to rejectHitler’s ideal beauty.• Photographs of dolls appear in1935 issue of Minotaure.Hans Bellmer, La Poupée (The Doll), 1935.Wood, metal, and papier mâché, 5.4” x 5.5”
Hans Bellmer, Sketch fromLa Poupée series, 1932.Hans Bellmer, Games of the Doll, Part VIII,1939 (published 1949). Hand coloredphotograph, 5 ⅞” x 5 9/16” .
Cindy Sherman, Untitled #250, 1992. Colorphotograph, 50” x 75”.Cindy Sherman, Untitled #255, 1992. Colorphotograph, @ 50” x 75”.Hans Bellmer, The Doll, 1934.Gelatin silver print, 10” x12.9”
SurrealismRoberto Matta (1911-2002)• Comes later to Surrealism but is amajor influence on the New YorkSchool.• Studies architecture under LeCorbusier.• 1937, shows drawings to Bretonand is immediately invited intocircle.• 1940 solo show at Julian LevyGallery of extreme importance asit introduced the NY School toSurrealism and the automaticprocess.Roberto Matta, Disasters of Mysticism,1942. oil on canvas, 38 ¼ x 51 ¾”
Robert Motherwell, Poncho Villa Dead andAlive, 1943. Gouache and oil, with collage,on cardboard, 28 x 3.6”Roberto Matta, Disasters of Mysticism, 1942.oil on canvas, 38 ¼ x 51 ¾”
SurrealismWilfredo Lam (1902-1982)• Together with Matta, took part in ParisSurrealism.• Both artists serve as important linksbetween NY School and Surrealism.• Also represent Latino sensibility toSurrealism.• Born in Cuba, to a Chinese father andEuropean-African mother.• Work is a fusion of all his culturalancestors.• Has special relationship with Picassowho, along with African art, plays aheavy influence on his style.Wilfredo Lam, The Jungle, 1943.Gouache on paper mounted oncanvas , 7’10 ¼” x 7’ 6 ½”
SurrealismMéret Oppenheim (1913-1985)• Associated with German DadaSchool.– She is not Dada because she caresabout the aesthetic of the work.• One of few female artistsinvested in Surrealism.• Moves to Paris and befriends Arp,Giacometti, and Man Ray.• Was both artist and model,especially for Man Ray.• She and others combat themisogyny of the movement. Méret Oppenheim, Red Head, Blue Body,1936. Oil on canvas, 31 5/8 x 31 5/8”.
Man Ray, Erotigue Voilee (Veiled Erotic),1933; photograph, 4.5” x 3.3”Man Ray, Portrait of Méret Oppenheim,1933. Photograph, 4.5 x 3.3”
Surrealism• Although she worked inmany media, she is bestknown for Object.• Object is thequintessentialrepresentation of theSurrealist object.• Picasso challenges herwhile out to lunch.• It symbolizes domesticityand femininityinterrupted. Méret Oppenheim, Object or Luncheon in Fur,1936. Fur (Chinese gazelle fur)-covered tea cup, 4⅜” in diameter, saucer 9 ⅜ “, spoon 8” in length;overall height 2 ⅞”Méret Oppenheim (1913-1985)
SurrealismMéret Oppenheim, Le Couple,1956. Leather bootsVincent van Gogh, One Pair of Shoes, 1886. Oilon canvas, 14.8 x 17.9
• Mixed media artist married toErnst.• Attended Art Institute ofChicago.• Meaningful educationreceived from NYC galleriesand museums.• Topics dominated by younggirls and sexual fears.• Paints in a hyper-realistic stylewith bold colors.Photograph of Dorothea Tanning and huband, Max Ernst, taken by RobertBruce Inverarity 1948; 11 x 13”Dorothea Tanning, Little Night Music, 1943. Oilon canvas, 16 x 24”Dorothea Tanning (1910-2012)
• Here Tanning focuses onthe bizarre.• Her style is meticulous,much like Dali and Tanguy.Dorothea Tanning, Some Roses and TheirPhantoms, 1952. Oil on canvas, 29 ⅞” x 40”.Dorothea Tanning (1910-2012)
Surrealism• Raised by Irish nanny, herimagery is particular to Gaelictradition.• World devastated after heraffair with Ernst ends.• Images and objects arepersonally significant and mayrepresent latent sexual desires.Leonora Carrington, Self-Portrait, c. 1936-1938. Oil on canvas, 25 ½” x 32 ⅛”.Leonora Carrington (1917-2011)
Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937. Oil on canvas, 11’6” x 25’ 8”