Dada and Surrealism


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  • Dada and Surrealism

    1. 1. Dada (1916) • Term applied to international community of artists (visual and literary) beginning in Zurich, Switzerland (1916) • Other branches of Dada – New York – Berlin – Paris (practioners will become associated with Surrealism) • Dada artists particularly affected by WWI (1914-1918), many having lost friends and relatives, or having served themselves – In 1 day Britain lost 20,000 soldiers, by 1915 the French lost 1, 430,000 men within a 3 miles radius • Denounce nationalism and materialistic themes • Unified in shared belief, a common style, and rejection of conventions in art and thought • Aim was to shock society into self-awareness through anti-art, poetry, performance, and other unorthodox techniques
    2. 2. Dada (1916) • Foundations of Dada reside in chance and the absurd • Dada artists are descendants of Romanticism and Symbolism • Reject middle class values • It is a self-defined anti-art anti-movement • Rejects standard convention in exchange for playfulness, chance, improvisation, and intuition
    3. 3. Dada (1916) “…a protest with its whole being engaged in destructive action; it is knowledge of all the means rejected up until now by the shame-faced sex of comfortable logic; which is the dance of those too impotent to create; it is the abolition of memory; it is the abolition of the future; it is the absolute and unquestionable faith in every god that is immediate product of spontaneity; it is freedom; it is an interlacing of opposites and of all contradictions, grotesques, inconsistencies, it is LIFE!” - Dada Manifesto, 1918
    4. 4. Zurich Dada 1916-1919 • Birthplace of Dada – Switzerland neutral – Zurich Dada principally literary with roots in Alfred Jarry’s 1896 play, Ubu Roi • Founding members Hugo Ball, Hans Arp, Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco, Francis Picabia, Christian Schad, and Sophie Taeuber-Arp meet at Café Voltaire • Kandinsky’s writings on abstraction and theory resonate with group • Also influential is Cubist collage; Dada will liberate it from restrictions of convention and premeditation by introducing chance • German Expressionist writing and French poetry illuminate the way for Dada artists to break link between words and conventional meaning
    5. 5. Cabaret Voltaire (1916) Hugo Ball reciting the poem, Karawane at the Cabaret Voltaire, Zurich, 1916. Photograph, 28 ½” x 15 ¾” Hugo Ball, Karawane, c. 1916. Sound poem performed Café Voltaire
    6. 6. Cabaret Voltaire Marcel Janco, Untitled (Mask, Portrait of Tzara), 1919. Paper, cardboard, burlap, ink, string, and gouache, 21 5/8” x 9 13/16” x 2 ¾”
    7. 7. Zurich Dada 1916-1919 • Dada opposes any type of program in the artist however: – Three common denominators in Zurich Dada • Bruitisme -taken from Futurists, it is essentially noise-music • Simultaneity-from both Cubists and Futurists • Chance • These three elements become basis for Dada’s revolutionary approach to the creative act • Zurich Dada concludes with end of WWI
    8. 8. Jean (Hans) Arp (1887-1966) • Primary visual artist amongst Zurich Dada Jean Arp, Untitled (Collage with Squares Arranged according to the Laws of Chance), (1916-17). Torn-andpasted paper and colored paper on colored paper, 19 1/8 x 13 5/8.” Museum of Modern Art, NY.
    9. 9. Jean Arp (1886-1966) • Low relief sculpture • Shapes determined through doodle process • Influenced by Kandinsky and his mystical world view • Wanted to show the abstract life force believed to run through all things • Result looks like abstract mask, animal or plant forms, or cloud formation Jean Arp, The Entombment of the Birds and Butterflied • Title applied last (Head of Tzara), 1916-1917. Painted wooden relief, 15 ¾” x 12 ¾.” Kunsthaus, Zurich. Fig. 27.1.
    10. 10. New York Dada 1915-1921 • Marcel Duchamp premiere representative • NY Dada not focused on war like Zurich, its focus is art convention and institutions • Anti-art, anti-establishment • Duchamp rejects emphasis on retinal experience and need of art to be pleasing to the eye
    11. 11. Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968) Marcel Duchamp playing chess in 1952. Photo by Kay Bell Reynal. Rrose Sélavay (Marcel Duchamp). 1921. Photograph by Man Ray. Art Direction by Marcel Duchamp. Silver print. 5-7/8" x 3"-7/8".
    12. 12. Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968) • Duchamp’s reputation arrived in NY two years prior to the artist with his exhibition of Nude Descending a Staircase at the Armory Show (1913) Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase, No.2, 1912. Oil on canvas, 58” x 35.“ Philadelphia Museum of Art.
    13. 13. • Duchamp’s work fuses Cubism and Futurism in his scandalous piece, Nude Descending a Staircase (1912). – Exhibited at the Armory Show in NYC in 1913, Nude Descending became the success de scandale. Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase, No.2, 1912. Oil on canvas, 58” x 35.“ Philadelphia Museum of Art.
    14. 14. • Critical reaction to Marcel Duchamp's work included comments that it looked as if a shingles factory blew up and this cartoon published in The New York Evening Sun. • Even Cubists rejected Duchamp’s piece. J. F. Griswold: The Rude descending a staircase (Rush-Hour at the Subway). The New York Evening Sun, 20th March 1913
    15. 15. Marcel Duchamp, Landscape at Blainville, 1902; oil on canvas. 24” x 19.” Philadelphia Museum of Art. Marcel Duchamp, Paradise, 1910-11. Oil on canvas. 45” x 50.” Philadelphia Museum of Art.
    16. 16. Marcel Duchamp, The King and Queen Surrounded by Swift Nudes, 1912. Pencil on paper, 10 ¾” x 15 3/8.” Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA. Marcel Duchamp, The Passage from Virgin to Bride, 1912. Oil on canvas, 23 3/8” x 21 ¼.” Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA.
    17. 17. Marcel Duchamp, Chocolate Grinder No.2/Broyeuse de chocolat no 2., 1914. Oil and thread on canvas. 25.6 x 21.3.” Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA. Marcel Duchamp, Nine Malic Molds/Neuf moules mâlic,1914-15. Oil, lead wire, lead foil on glass between two glass plates, 25” x 40“ Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA.
    18. 18. Marcel Duchamp, The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass), 1915-23. Oil, lead, water, dust, foil, and varnish, 8’11” x 5’7” As it appears and was placed by Marcel Duchamp to be viewed in the Philadelphia Museum of Art
    19. 19. Marcel in front of The Large Glass The Large Glass in 1936 at the home of Katherine Drier. Another of Duchamp’s works, Tum’ appears in the upper background.
    20. 20. Duchamp’s Readymades Marcel Duchamp, Bicycle Wheel, 1913. Assisted readymade bicycle wheel, diameter 25.5”, mounted on a stool, 23.7”high. Original lost. Marcel Duchamp, Bottle Rack, 1914/64. Bottle rack made of galvanized iron. 59 x 37 cm. Original lost.
    21. 21. Baroness Else von Freytag-Loringhoven (and Morton Schamberg?), God, 1917-18. Metal plumbing pipe, and wood.
    22. 22. Marcel Duchamp, In Advance of the Broken Arm, 1915. Snow shovel, wood and galvanized iron. 47.8 Marcel Duchamp, L.H.O.O.Q. 1919. Rectified readymade from Box in a Valise, pencil on a reproduction of the Mona Lisa. 7.8” x “4.9
    23. 23. Alfred Stieglitz photograph of R. Mutt (Marcel Duchamp), Fountain, 1917/1964. Published The Blind Man 2, eds. Marcel Duchamp, Beatrice Wood, and Henri-Pierre Roché (New York, May 1917). Porcelain urinal, 15” x 19 1/4”x 24 5/8/.” Fig. 27.2.
    24. 24. The R. Mutt Case “Whether Mr. Mutt with his own hands made the fountain or not has no importance. He chose. He took a ordinary article of life, placed it so that its useful significance disappeared under a new title and point of view… [creating a new thought for that object.” The Blind Man 2, eds. Marcel Duchamp, Beatrice Wood, and Henri-Pierre Roché (New York, May 1917), pp. 2–3.
    25. 25. Marcel Duchamp, Parisian Air, 1920. Glass bottle with air (gift for Walter Arensberg). Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA. Rrose Sélavay (Marcel Duchamp). 1921. Photograph by Man Ray. Art Direction by Marcel Duchamp. Silver print. 5-7/8" x 3"-7/8.”
    26. 26. Étant Donnés, Marcel Duchamp, 1946-1966; mixed-media assemblage including Spanish wooden door, bricks, velvet, twigs, pig skin, aluminum, glass, Plexiglas, cotton, linoleum, electric lights, and gas lamp; assembled posthumously by artist’s wife and stepson
    27. 27. Étant Donnés, Marcel Duchamp, 19461966; mixed-media assemblage including Spanish wooden door, bricks, velvet, twigs, pig skin, aluminum, glass, Plexiglas, cotton, linoleum, eclectic lights, and gas lamp; assembled posthumously by artist’s wife and stepson
    28. 28. Berlin Dada (1917-1922) • Most political of groups • Branch of Dada instigated by Richard Huelsenbeck’s return from Zurich (he too had helped being the movement there) • May 1917 writes “Der neue Mensch” or “The New Jugend” where he rejects all forms of convention in art-including Cubism, Futurism, and Expressionism – Calls for an art “which in its conscious content presents the thousandfold problems of the day, the art which has been visibly shattered by the explosions of the last week, which is forever trying to collect its limbs after yesterday’s crash” -Richard Huelsenbeck, Dada Manifesto, Berlin 1918
    29. 29. Raoul Hausmann (1886-1971) • Considered the theoretical mind behind Berlin Dada • Referred to as the Dadasoph • Closest collaborator with Huelsenbeck • Art is response to Huelsenbeck’s writings • Works across media, best known for phoentic poems • Here he presents the image of modern man whose loss of personal identity was a usual topic for the artist • Condemns modernism Raoul Hausmann, The Spirit of Our Time (Mechanical Head), 1919. Wood, leather, aluminum, brass, and cardboard, 12 5/8” x 9.” Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. Fig. 27.3.
    30. 30. Hannah Höch (1889-1978) • Weimar Republic (1918-1933) born out of military defeat and social revolution • Develops technique known as photocollage • Inspired by Germany army’s practice of appropriating photographs • Attacks corruption of government and prejudice of male Dada artists • References machine aesthetic Cut with a Kitchen (Cake) Knife Dada through the last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch of • Dada through a woman’s eye Germany, Hannah Höch, c. 1919; photomontage, 44 7/8” x 35 ½.” Staatliche Museen, Berlin. Fig. 27.4.
    31. 31. Cologne Dada (1919-1922) • Enjoys autonomous position amongst Dada Schools • Inspired by graphic styles of Klee and alienation felt in De Chirico • Reaction to artificial calmness maintained by British troops in area • Interest in Freudian theory – Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
    32. 32. Paul Klee, Hammamet mit der Moschee (Hammamet with the Mosque), 1914. Watercolor and pencil on cardboard, 8 1/8” x 7 ½.” Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. Giorgio De Chirico, The Great Metaphysician, 1917. Oil on canvas, 41 1/8 x 27 ½.“ Museum of Modern Art, NY.
    33. 33. Max Ernst (1891-1976) • Inspired to take up art after seeing Cezanne • Work rooted in Late Gothic and Renaissance artists Dürer, Grünewald, and Bosch Max Ernst, Ambiguous Figures 1. Copper Plate 1 Zince Plate 1. Rubber Cloth 1. Draining Telescope 1. Pipe Man, 1920. Collage, gouache, India ink, pencil and painting over a print, 10” x 7 3/8.” Estate of the artist. Fig. 27.5.
    34. 34. Albrecht Dürer, The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, 1498. Woodcut, 15 3/8” x 11.” Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. Matthias Grünewald, The Isenheim Altarpiece, (piece of center panel) 1512-1516. Oil on panel, main body 9’91/2” x 10’9”; predella 2’51/2” x 11’2.” Musée d’Unterlinden, Colmar, France.
    35. 35. Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1480-1515. Oil on panel, center panel 7’ 2 ½” x 6’ 4 ½,” wings each 7’ 2 ½” x 3’ 2.” Museo del Prado. Fig. 13.9.
    36. 36. Max Ernst, Ambiguous Figures 1. Copper Plate 1 Zince Plate 1. Rubber Cloth 1. Draining Telescope 1. Pipe Man, 1920. Collage, gouache, India ink, pencil and painting over a print, 10” x 7 3/8.” Estate of the artist. Fig. 27.5. Francis Picabia, Amorous Procession (Parade), 1917. Oil on board, 29” x 30.”
    37. 37. Hanover, Dada 1918-1920s
    38. 38. Kurt Schwitters (1887-1948) Kurt Schwitters, Bild mit heller Mitte (Picture with Light Center), 1919. Painted collage, 33 ¼ “x 25 7/8.” Museum of Modern Art, NY. Kurt Schwitters, Merzbild 25 A, Das Sternenbild (Stars Picture), 1920. Assemblage, 41” x 31 1/8.” Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    39. 39. • Schwitters best known for his Merzbau • Created 3: Hanover (c. 1923), Norway (1937), and in England while in exile (1947) • “Merz stands for freedom from all fetters, for the sake of artistic creation. Freedom is not lack of restraint, but the product of strict artistic discipline.” -Kurt Schwitters Kurt Schwitters, Hanover Merzbau, destroyed. This photograph taken c. 1931.
    40. 40. Louise Nevelson, City on the High Mountain, 1983. Steel painted black 20' 6" x 23' x 13' 6" Louise Bourgeois, Maman or Spider, 1996. Painted steel, @30 ft. high. Washington, DC.
    41. 41. Paris Dada c. 1919-1924
    42. 42. Man Ray (1890-1976) Man Ray, Gift, 1921 (replication of the original). Flatiron with nails, 6 ½” x 3 5/8” x 3 ¾.” Museum of Modern Art, NY. Man Ray, Untitled (Rayograph), 1922. Gelatin silver print, 9 3/8 x 7 1/16”.
    43. 43. • Man Ray important link between NY and Parisian Dada and Surrealism • Creates camera-less photography dubbed “rayograph” • Accidental discovery resulting in Dada still lifes • Influenced by Stieglitz Man Ray, Champs délicieux, 1922. Rayograph gelatin silver print. Man Ray Trust. Fig. 27.6
    44. 44. Surrealism (1924-1950s) “…pure psychic automatism by which it is intended to express, either verbally or in writing, the true function of thought. Thought dictated by the absence of all control exerted by reason, and outside all aesthetic or moral preoccupations…” -1924, André Breton
    45. 45. Surrealism • International intellectual movement centered mainly in Paris • term was used as early as 1917 when Apollinaire described Parade as “surrealist” • Born out of Paris Dada, lead by André Breton Surrealist artists perceived a deep crisis in Western culture and responded with a revision of values at every level • first generation Surrealists include: Jean Arp, *Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, Paul Klee, Man Ray, Andre Masson, Joan Miró, *Pablo Picasso • Later practioners include Marcel Duchamp, Yves Tanguy, Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia, Rene Magritte, and Salvador Dali
    46. 46. Surrealism Two branches of Surrealism 1. Biomorphic (Arp, Ernst, Miro, Masson, Matta) 2. Representational (Dali, Tanguy, Magritte)
    47. 47. René Magritte (1898-1976) René Magritte, Treachery (Perfidy) of Images, 1928-29; oil on canvas, 23 ¼ x 31 ½.”Los Angeles County Museum of Art, LA.
    48. 48. Surrealism • Occupied with the problems of thought and expression in all their forms. • In both poetry and the visual arts this revision was undertaken through the development of unconventional techniques, of which automatism was paramount. • Artists regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. • Found inspiration by the psychoanalytical discoveries of Freud and the political ideology of Karl Marx • Henri Matisse, Vasily Kandinsky, and Andre Derain associated but not practicing members
    49. 49. Surrealism • From the Comte de Lautrémont and Rimbaud, the Surrealists took the idea of revolt-the rejected and revolted against most everything; against tradition, against family, society, and God • Works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitor • Surrealist artists tended to be communist sympathizers
    50. 50. Surrealism vs. Parisian Dada • Parisian Dada, rejected the institutionalization of Dada Breton led a revolt that resulted in the break-up of the group • Surrealists did not reject Western aesthetics in entirety; it did not promise to solve society’s problems • Surrealism differs from Dada in its Romantic emphasis on the unconscious • Surrealism reacted to the moment by reasserting artistic genius as a male trait • Like Dada, it did however explore untraditional ways of creating embracing chance, randomness, and coincidence
    51. 51. Exquisite Corpse The exquisite corpse will drink the young wine André Breton, Valentine Hugo, Greta Knustin, and Tristan Tzara, Exquisite Corpse, c. 1930. Ink on paper, 9 ¼” x 12¼”
    52. 52. Max Ernst, The Horde, 1927. Oil on canvas, 44 ⅞ x 57 ½.” Collection Würth, Künzelsau (Germany).
    53. 53. Max Ernst, Surrealism and Painting, 1942. Oil on canvas, 77” x 92.” Menil Collection, Houston Jackson Pollock painting, photograph by Hans Namuth, c. 1950
    54. 54. Joan Miró (1893-1983) • Represents biomorphic Surrealism (also known as organic-abstract) • Privileges automatic process often resulting in abstract and enigmatic works • Influenced by Cézanne Joan Miro,Composition, 1933. Oil on canvas, 51 3/8” by 64 1/8”. Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, CT. Fig. 27.7
    55. 55. Salvador Dalí (1904-1989) • Poster boy of Surrealism • Style characterized as naturalist Surrealism • Much of his imagery taken from childhood in Spain • Familiar with modern masters (Impressionism through Futurists) • Develops own paranoiac-critical method to channel unconscious • Wants to create world that reflects Freudian theory • Works often deny abstraction v=iXT2E9Ccc8A Photograph of Salvador Dalí
    56. 56. Salvador Dalí, The Persistence of Memory, 1931. Oil on canvas, 89 ½ x 13.” Museum of Modern Art, NY.
    57. 57. Surrealism • Women in Surrealism served more as a muse • Surrealist men were especially fearful of women and renewed Symbolist images of the vagina dentate and femme fatale • The emphasis on dreams, automatic writing, and the unconscious reveal the misogynist ideals that were rampant in not only Surrealism, but the earlier movements many of these men were associated with like Futurism, Expressionism, Dada, etc. René Magritte, Surrealists around a painting by René Magritte. Published in La Révolution surréaliste, 1929
    58. 58. Alberto Giacometti, Woman with her Throat Cut, 1932 (cast 1949), bronze, 8 x 34 ½ x 25.” Museum of Modern Art, NY.
    59. 59. Méret Oppenheim (1913-1985) Red Head, Blue Body, Méret Oppenheim, 1936; oil on canvas, 31 5/8 x 31 5/8"
    60. 60. Man Ray, Erotigue Voilee (Veiled Erotic), 1933. Photograph, 4 ½” x 3 1/3.“ Man Ray, Portrait of Méret Oppenheim, 1933. Photograph, 4 ½” x 3 1/3.”
    61. 61. Méret Oppenheim, Object or Luncheon in Fur, 1936; fur (Chinese gazelle fur)-covered tea cup, 4 ⅜” in diameter, saucer 9 ⅜ “, spoon 8” in length; overall height 2 ⅞.” Fig. 27.9. Museum of Modern Art, NY.
    62. 62. Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937. Oil on canvas, 11’6” x 25’ 8.” Museo Reina Sofia, Madrid, Spain
    63. 63. Roberto Matta, Disasters of Mysticism, 1942; oil on canvas, 38 ¼ x 51 ¾”