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Chapter 17: Renaissance and Reformation in 16th Century Europe

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Reformation Art in Northern Europe, 16th century

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Chapter 17: Renaissance and Reformation in 16th Century Europe

  1. 1. Renaissance and Reformation throughout 16th Century Europe Map of Europe in 16th century.
  2. 2. Spain Dates and Places: • 1500 to 1600 • Iberian Peninsula and the Americas People: • Pious, Catholic • Conservative monarchs • Expanding empire • Italian influence Juan de Herrera and Juan Bautista de Toledo, El Escorial, 1563–1584. (Detail of an anonymous 18th century painting).
  3. 3. Domenikos Theotokopoulos (1541- 1614) Themes: • Life of Christ, Virgin Mary and Saints • Portraits Forms: • Selective application of ideas from Italian Renaissance and Mannerism • Exaggeration to support religious content El Greco, The Burial of Count Orgaz, 1586. Oil on canvas, 16’ x 11’10.” Santo Tomé, Toledo, Spain. Fig. 17.3.
  4. 4. Domenikos Theotokopoulos “El Greco” (1541-1614) Example: • Secular and religious image • Venetian training evident in vestments and color • Greek artist travels to Spain via Italy • Expressive exaggeration, unnatural color = Mannerist style • Spiritual and emotional, not physical, properties • Places viewer in scene • Saints Augustine and Stephen El Greco, The Burial of Count Orgaz, 1586. Oil on canvas, 16’ x 11’10.” Santo Tomé, Toledo, Spain. Fig. 17.3.
  5. 5. Domenikos Theotokopoulos “El Greco” (1541-1614) Example: • Influence of Venetian painters Titian and Tintoretto, and Italian masters Michelangelo, Raphael, and Mannerism • Division of worlds— representational (earthly) and abstract (spiritual) • Contemporary clothing and portraits • Aligned with Roman Catholicism “good deeds” El Greco, The Burial of Count Orgaz, 1586. Oil on canvas, 16’ x 11’10.” Santo Tomé, Toledo, Spain. Fig. 17.3.
  6. 6. Holy Roman Empire Example: • Altarpiece for monastery church with hospital • Triptych • Gruesome description of wounds • Emphasize suffering • Catholic inclusion of Lamb, Christ’s blood, plague saints Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, ca. 1510-1515. Oil on panel, main body 9’91/2” x 10’9”; predella 2’51/2” x 11’2.” Musée d’Unterlinden, Colmar, France.
  7. 7. Matthias Grünewald (1470-1528) Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, ca. 1510-1515. Oil on panel, main body 9’91/2” x 10’9”; predella 2’51/2” x 11’2.” Musée d’Unterlinden, Colmar, France. Fig. 17.4
  8. 8. Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, (open) ca. 1510-1515. Oil on panel, central panel 8’ 10” x 11’2”; each wing 8’10” x 4’8.” Musée d’Unterlinden, Colmar, France. Fig. 17.5
  9. 9. Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, ca. 1510-1515. Oil on panel, main body 9’91/2” x 10’9”; predella 2’51/2” x 11’2.” Musée d’Unterlinden, Colmar, France. Fig. 17.4
  10. 10. Holy Roman Empire Dates and Places: • 1500-1600 • Germany People: • Martin Luther • Protestant Reformation • Political change Albrecht Dürer, The Four Apostles, 1526. Oil on panel, each 7’1” x 2’6.” Alte Pinakothek, Munich. Fig. 17-8.
  11. 11. Albrecht Dürer, Self Portrait, 1500. Oil on panel, 26” x 19.” Alte Pinakothek, Munich. Albrecht Dürer, Self Portrait, 1498. Oil on panel, 26” x 19.” Alte Pinakothek, Munich. Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528)
  12. 12. Holy Roman Empire Example: • Woodcut, multiple prints • Not made for patron, sold on open market • Theme reflects millennialism of time • Two sizes available (small and large) • War, Conquest, Feast, and Famine from Book of Revelation Albrecht Dürer, The Four Horseman of the Apocalypse, 1498. Woodcut, 15 ½” x 11 1/8.” Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. Fig. 17-6.
  13. 13. The Spread of the Printing Press
  14. 14. Holy Roman Empire Example: • Engraving • Interest in Renaissance proportion of human body combined with northern European surface description and disguised medieval symbolism (animals and the humors) Albrecht Dürer, Fall of Man (Adam and Eve), 1504.Engraving, 9 7/8” x 7 1/8.” Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Fig. 17-7.
  15. 15. Holy Roman Empire Example: • Dürer under influence of Luther works become more austere • Nuremberg—Lutheran • Represented are Luther’s favorite authors of scripture • Inscriptions warn city about behavior • Raphael-like figures Albrecht Dürer, The Four Apostles, 1526. Oil on panel, each 7’1” x 2’6.” Alte Pinakothek, Munich. Fig. 17-8.
  16. 16. Holy Roman Empire Themes: • Life of Christ, Virgin Mary, Saints • Portraits • Momento mori Forms: • Renaissance illusionism (anamorphosis) • Surface description • Naturalism Hans Holbein, The French Ambassadors, 1533. Oil on panel, 81” 82 ½.” National Gallery, London.
  17. 17. England Example: • Tudor court emphasizes portraiture • Dürer major influence • Combines Italian composition with Netherlandish realism • Self-confidence of by then an old, ill, and overweight monarch • Public image conveyed, not truthful Hans Holbein, Henry VIII, 1540. Oil on panel, 32 ½” x 29.” Galleria Nazionalw d’Arte, Rome. Fig. 17.11.
  18. 18. The Netherlands Dates and Places: • 1500 to 1600 • Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg • Northern Netherlands declares independence 1579 People: • Protestants • Merchant class and peasants • Seek independence from Spain • Center for international trade • Developing art market Pieter Aersten, The Meat Stall/Butcher’s Stall, 1551. Oil on panel, 48 ½” x 59.” University Art Collection, Uppsala University, Sweden. Fig. 17-13.
  19. 19. The Netherlands Example: • Protestant scene • Moralizing lesson for greedy • Subtle religious symbols • Study of domestic interiors and daily life • Replaces art in churches to instruct faithful Quinten Massys,The Moneylender and His Wife, 1514. Oil on panel, 28” x 27.” Musée du Louvre, Paris.
  20. 20. Quinten Massys, details The Moneylender and His Wife, 1514. Oil on panel, 28” x 27.” Musée du Louvre, Paris.
  21. 21. Pieter Aersten (1507/08-1575) Themes: • Scenes of everyday with subtle religious content • Peasant life • Fewer altarpieces • Genre Forms: • Naturalism • Surface description • Illusionistic space Pieter Aersten, The Meat Stall/Butcher’s Stall, 1551. Oil on panel, 48 ½” x 59.” University Art Collection, Uppsala University, Sweden. Fig. 17-13.
  22. 22. The Netherlands Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Hunters in the Snow, 1565. Oil on panel, 46 ½” x 63 ¾.” Kunsthistoriches Museum, Vienna, Austria. Fig. 17-14.
  23. 23. Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525/30- 1569) Example: • Secular subject • Netherlandish tradition despite Italian introduction • Especially influenced by Bosch • Artist interested in relation of man and nature • Illusionistic rendering of genre scene from daily life Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Hunters in the Snow, 1565. Oil on panel, 46 ½” x 63 ¾.” Kunsthistoriches Museum, Vienna, Austria. Fig. 17-14.
  24. 24. Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525/30- 1569) Example: • Clients were educated, wealthy class • Series of landscapes symbolizing the months • Dynamic designs often with secretive criticism of Phillip II • People in communion with nature Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Hunters in the Snow, 1565. Oil on panel, 46 ½” x 63 ¾.” Kunsthistoriches Museum, Vienna, Austria. Fig. 17-14.
  25. 25. Limbourg Brothers, Les Trés Riches Heires du Duc de Berry, calendar miniature for July, 1413-1416. Illumination on vellum, 8 7/8” x 5 3/8.” Musée Condé, Chantilly, France. Fig. 13.2 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Hunters in the Snow, 1565. Oil on panel, 46 ½” x 63 ¾.” Kunsthistoriches Museum, Vienna, Austria. Fig. 17-14.
  26. 26. The Netherlands Pieter Bruegel the Elder, details Hunters in the Snow, 1565. Oil on panel, 46 ½” x 63 ¾.” Kunsthistoriches Museum, Vienna, Austria. Fig. 17-14.
  27. 27. The Netherlands Example: • Focus on simple people—barn wedding • All walks represented with dignity, all men important • Interest in folk customs and humility • Mastery of Italian linear perspective and detail of Flemish precursors Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Peasant Wedding, 1568. Oil on panel, 44 7/8” x 64.” Kunsthistoriches Museum, Vienna, Austria. Fig. 17-15.
  28. 28. The Netherlands Example: • Dutch proverbs – Popular in Flemish “Books of Hours” • Original title The Blue Cloak or The Folly of the World – Aim is to capture human behavior – “world turned upside down” Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Netherlandish/Dutch Proverbs, 1559. Oil on oak, 46” x 64.” Gemäldegalerie, Berlin.

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