Psotka.spring2013 copy


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Psotka.spring2013 copy

  1. 1. Kelly Psotka Behavioral Analysis Final Fiesta Project Psych 1400 A DIVE INTO BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS WITH… BABYMAX
  2. 2.  I wanted to see the effects of behavioral analysis at work  So, I took concepts from the book, “Principles of Behavior”, by Richard W. Malott to expand the repertoire of Max; an 18 month old toddler that I babysit.  What is this repertoire that I speak of?  It’s simply a set of skills  What I had hoped to do was “mold” Max’s playing behavior and to teach him how to ask for something in a non-verbal way (baby sign language)  Just in case you’re a little lost, I’ll go ahead and define behavior  Behavior is a muscle, glandular, or neuro-electrical activity WHAT EXACTLY DID I DO?
  3. 3.  Baseline needed to be taken to observe the details of Max’s inappropriate playing behavior  Baseline  The phase of an experiment or intervention where the behavior is measured in the absence of an intervention  The next step was to establish a variety of effective reinforcers to rotate throughso that I could avoid satiation.  Reinforcera stimulus that increases the frequency of the response that it follows  Satiation consuming a substantial amount of a reinforcer temporarily decreases the relevant learning and performance. FIRST STEPS
  4. 4. REINFORCERS Teddy Bear Pretzels Legos
  5. 5.  To try and prevent the behavior of playing with toys inappropriately I set up a penalty contingency  What is that you ask?  A penalty contingency is the response-contingent removal of a reinforcer (positive reinforcement) resulting in a decreased frequency of that response. PENALTY CONTINGENCY Before: Max has praise, attentio n, or other reinforcement Behavior: Max plays with toy inappropriately After: Max has no praise, attentio n, or other reinforcement
  6. 6.  Another method I used to “mold” Max’s behavior was the pairing procedure  A pairing procedure is the pairing of a neutral stimulus with a reinforcer or aversive stimulus.  By using the pairing procedure I taught Max the word “no” and had him associate that with him doing something he wasn’t supposed to be doing  When Max was playing with his toys inappropriately I would also say “No!” and pull his hands down, away from the toy. PAIRING PROCEDURE “NO!” Lose toy or other reinforcer Has toy or other reinforcer No “NO!” No physical restraint Physical restraint No “NO!” “NO!”
  7. 7.  After the “No!” became a learned aversive stimulus(a stimulus that is aversive because it has been paired with another aversive stimulus), I was able to implement a punishment contingency  Punishment Contingency: the response-contingent presentation of an aversive condition (negative reinforcer) that decreases the frequency of that response PUNISHMENT CONTINGENCY Before: Max hears no aversive “No!” Behavior: Max plays with toys inappropriately After: Max hears aversive “No!”
  8. 8. Next, I taught Max the sign language to ask for more of something by using a behavioral chain a sequence of stimuli and responses; each response produces a stimulus that reinforces the preceding response and is a discriminative stimulus (SD) or operandum for the following response  Discriminative stimulus (SD): a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished  Operandum: the part of the environment that the organism manipulates or operates BEHAVIORAL CHAIN: BABY SIGN LANGUAGE
  9. 9. SD: Command of “say more” Before: Thumbs are not touching other fingers Behavior: aligns hands parallel to one another Before: Hands are not parallel to one another Before: No “more” sign language gesture Behavior: touches thumbs to other fingers After/Sd/ Operandum: Hands are parallel to one another After/Sd/ Operandum: Thumbs are touching other fingers Behavior: Repeatedly touches and pulls tips of fingers from the two different hands After/ Sd/ Operandum: “more” sign language sign
  10. 10.  Once the sign language for “more” was learned, I could use it in a reinforcement contingency  A response-contingent presentation of a reinforcer that increases the frequency of the response it follows REINFORCEMENT CONTINGENCY Before: Has no food or praise Behavior: Max makes “more” sign language gesture After: Max has food and praise