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Information and communications technology in south africa slideshare version


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A lecture given to the Global Initiatives in Management (GIM) South Africa program at Northwestern University (Kellogg School of Management), Evanston, IL, USA.

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Information and communications technology in south africa slideshare version

  1. 1. A Presentation by Dibussi Tande February 16, 2011 Information and Communications Technology in South Africa – An Overview Global Initiatives in Management (GIM) South Africa Northwestern University, Evanston, IL
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Overview of the South African Technology Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Growth and Innovation Enablers </li></ul><ul><li>Social Media Space in South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Mobile Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Banking </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Mobiles for Social Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Health </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Broadcasting </li></ul>
  3. 3. Information & Communications Technology Leader in Africa <ul><li>Most developed telecommunications network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecom network 99.9% digital with the latest in wireless and satellite communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South African companies supply most telecoms networks that have been established across the continent in recent years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications/ICT industry contributes about 7% to South Africa's gross domestic product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SA fed by three major international submarine fiber optic cables – Seacom, EASSY and SAT-3/WASC/SAFE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continent’s most advanced IT market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20th largest consumer of IT products and services in the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many IT multinationals have subsidiaries in South Africa, including IBM, Microsoft, Intel, Systems Application Protocol (SAP), Dell, Google, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Information & Communications Technology Leader in Africa (2) <ul><li>Global leader in mobile technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major mobile networks with a global reach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader in electronic banking services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major mobile marketing player </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the forefront of R&D in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotechnology and pharmaceuticals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerospace and Defense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A vibrant automotive industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Car assembly and manufacturing for major players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ford, GM, Mercedez Benz, Toyota, Volkswagen, Renault, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Joule: Africa’s first electric car </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. An Emerging Outsourcing Destination <ul><li>An emerging international location for business process outsourcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business process outsourcing and offshoring is forecast to create 25 000 direct and 75 000 indirect jobs and contribute up to R7.95-billion to the national economy by 2009. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surging IT Outsourcing Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes up more than a third of the R30-billion IT services market, according to a study in 2008 by research and advisory firm IDC, taking up the largest share of all IT service categories. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Leader in Software Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South Africa is one of the top 30 software development outsourcing destinations, with 2007 research putting it on par with Israel in the Europe, Middle East and Africa region, and next to Australia and India globally. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A quality, low-cost call centre destination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The local call-centre industry has grown by about 8% a year since 2003. It directly employs about 54 000 people and contributes 0.92% to South Africa's gross domestic product (GDP). </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. South Africa Joins the BRIC Group of Nations <ul><li>December 2010 – South Africa invited to join the BRIC group of the world's fastest growing economies </li></ul><ul><li>January 2010 – South Africa attends the World Economic Forum in Davos for the first time as a BRIC(s) member </li></ul>Source: Russia and India Report “ We have just joined the BRIC, which is now the BRICS, and I think that's an important statement in its own right. South Africa occupies a pivotal position as an emerging market.&quot; Rob Davies South Africa's Trade and Industry Minister
  7. 7. Agenda <ul><li>Overview of the South African Technology Landscape e </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Growth and Innovation Enablers </li></ul><ul><li>Social Media Space in South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Mobile Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Banking </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Mobiles for Social Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Health </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Broadcasting </li></ul>
  8. 8. A Collaborative Framework for Technology Growth & Innovation Government Academia Industry Community Innovation Partnerships Graphic by Marlon Parker
  9. 9. Partnership for Innovation – Examples <ul><li>Innovation Hub </li></ul><ul><li>Africa's first internationally accredited science and technology park which brings together high-tech industry, academia and entrepreneurs to improve South African technology and productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Meraka Institute (Advanced Institute for Information & Communication Technology) </li></ul><ul><li>Set up as a strategic government initiative to promote ICT skills development, research and innovation, as well as the adoption of free and open source software (FLOSS). </li></ul><ul><li>Joburg Centre for Software Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Aims to strengthen local software industry and grow South Africa's capacity to deliver world-class software. </li></ul>The Innovation Hub at Gauteng
  10. 10. Enabling Policies & Legislation <ul><li>National System of Innovation ( (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An enabling framework for science & technology that is central to SA’s prospects for continued economic growth and socioeconomic development. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Research and Development Strategy (August 2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting technology innovation, strengthening human capacity in the sciences, and aligning government policies with SA's technological needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electronic Communications Act (2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes the regulatory framework for electronic communications services, electronic communications network services, and broadcasting services. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The National Innovation Plan (2008-2018) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds on the foundation of the NSI, and its multiplicity of institutional structures and relationships to lead SA toward a knowledge-based economy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology Innovation Act (2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To strengthen the infrastructure which facilitates technological development. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Catalyst for Innovation – Technology Incubators <ul><li>Silicon Cape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It aims to promote the Western Cape as a hub for IT innovation and entrepreneurship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cape IT Initiative (CITI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks to create an internationally-recognized ICT cluster that will innovate, generate investment, create jobs and grow revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Bandwidth Barn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most successful IT incubator in South Africa which has morphed into a fully-fledged Business Accelerator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A great track record for incubating companies like Web Africa and </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Catalyst for Technology Empowerment and Innovation – Living Labs <ul><li>A Community-driven open innovation environment in a real-life context to achieve goals and outcomes in support of a specific community. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on co-creation and collaboration between different stakeholders – government, society, industry and academia </li></ul><ul><li>EX: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Siyakhula Living Lab : Facilitate user-driven innovation in the ICTD domain in marginalized communities of Eastern Cape province. Championed by Rhodes University and the University of Fort Hare. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rlabs (Reconstructed Living Labs ): </li></ul></ul>“ Innovation for the man on the street by the man on the street”
  13. 13. 2010 FIFA World Cup – Catalyst for ICT Growth <ul><li>World Cup ICT investment created one of the most developed ICT infrastructures among emerging economies in the world : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R13,6 billion allocated to improve public transportation systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over R300 million to expand and upgrade electricity infrastructure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant upgrades to the South Atlantic 3 (SAT-3) and South Africa Far East (SAFE) undersea fiber optic cables to improve broadcasting, mobile phone access and internet access. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Agenda <ul><li>Overview of the South African Technology Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Growth and Innovation Enablers </li></ul><ul><li>Social Media Space in South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Mobile Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Banking </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Mobiles for Social Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Health </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Broadcasting </li></ul>
  15. 15. Well Connected to Global Social Media Networks <ul><li>Internet Penetration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5.3 million internet users (10.8% internet penetration – expected to reach 20% by 2013) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facebook </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.3 million users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Twitter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>55000 active users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5 million monthly tweets from South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twitter 7th most visited website in South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linked In </li></ul><ul><ul><li>650,000 SA users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 million monthly users in SA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Youtube, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 percent of South Africa's active internet users have uploaded videos to a video sharing site </li></ul></ul>© Picture source: CEOWorld 2 million South Africans have visited at least one social website and 1.4 million have a social network profile.
  16. 16. A Vibrant Local Social Media Scene <ul><li>MXIT: Leading social network platform </li></ul><ul><li>Blueworld: A social community similar to Facebook with a variety of social tools for users. </li></ul><ul><li>MyVideo and Zoopy: Online and mobile video platforms for the South African market. </li></ul><ul><li>The Grid: South Africa's only location-based mobile social network with about 800,000 users </li></ul><ul><li>Motribe: A platform for users, brands, agencies and publishers to build and manage their own mobile social communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Afrigator: Africa’s premier blog aggregator – </li></ul><ul><li>Gatorpeeps: Leading African microblogging platform powered by Afrigator </li></ul>© Picture source: Southafricaweb Creating Social Media for South Africa by South Africans. Africa’s Largest blogosphere with over 10,000 blogs
  17. 17. MXit – A Social Network With A Social Conscience <ul><li>Offers a range of mobile social networking tools, including instant messaging and music downloads </li></ul><ul><li>Mix of civic-minded services, such as low-cost book downloads, education tools for kids, and even real-time drug counseling </li></ul><ul><li>27 million registered users worldwide with 19 million in South Africa </li></ul>MXit, which relies on cell phones rather than computers, is taking on social media like Twitter and Facebook with a mixture of innovation and affordability – Business Daily Africa July 2010 MXit stats: Ten billion messages, 53 million photos sent to mobile phones; more than 710 million logins <ul><li>More popular than Facebook in SA with about 250 million messages per day </li></ul>
  18. 18. Motribe – Building Social Communities <ul><li>A newly launched platform intended to allow users, brands, agencies and publishers across the world to build and manage their own mobile social communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimized for the mobile Internet, with blogs, photo sharing, chatrooms, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Just over 500 000 registered users, over 30 million page impressions per month, 60 000 blog posts and 58% active users since launch. </li></ul>“ Creating mobile social networks easy as pie”
  19. 19. The Grid – Location-based Social Networking Platform <ul><li>South Africa's only location-based mobile social network with about 800,000 users </li></ul><ul><li>It uses cellphone mast triangulation to detect where you and your friends are and helps you leave notes about the places you go to </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Foursquare </li></ul><ul><li>Launched by VODACOM </li></ul>
  20. 20. Twangoo – Collective Buying Website <ul><li>South Africa's premier online social media group buying website launched in June 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>100,000 users and revenue in excess of R1 million by December 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusive deals for a variety of products and services discounted by up to 70% </li></ul><ul><li>Purchased on Jan 11 2011 by the Chicago-based Groupon , the world's leading collective buying website – will become Groupon South Africa </li></ul>
  21. 21. Agenda <ul><li>Overview of the South African Technology Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Growth and Innovation Enablers </li></ul><ul><li>Social Media Space in South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Mobile Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Banking </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile for Social Activism Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Health </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Broadcasting </li></ul>
  22. 22. South African Mobile Market Overview <ul><li>Mobile market penetration around 100% in 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>More cell phone subscribers in South Africa than there are inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>Four network operators – Vodacom, MTN, Cell C and Telkom SA </li></ul><ul><li>Virgin has entered the market as a Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO) </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed-line incumbent Telkom SA has launched its own 3G mobile network </li></ul>
  23. 23. South African Mobile Market Overview (2) <ul><li>3G/HSPA mobile broadband services now available </li></ul><ul><li>First trials of the next generation of mobile technology, LTE (“4G”), carried out in 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>24 million SMSes sent every day across Vodacom, MTN and Cell C </li></ul><ul><li>39% of urban South Africans and 27% of rural users now browse the Internet on their phones </li></ul>
  24. 24. Agenda <ul><li>Overview of the South African Technology Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Growth and Innovation Enablers </li></ul><ul><li>Social Media Space in South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Mobile Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Banking </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile for Social Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Health </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Broadcasting </li></ul>
  25. 25. Mobile Banking Through Formal Banking System <ul><li>More than a quarter of bank customers in South use their cell phones for a variety of banking financial transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Most banks now offer standard online banking services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First National Bank (FNB): 2.6 million customers bank by their cellphones. eWallet service has seen 239% growth in its subscriber base since 2009 (?), and processes R1 million a day in virtual money transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Bank: Offers MiMone y, whereby cash can be sent via a mobile phone and redeemed at a point-of-sale or ATM. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absa Bank : Just under two million cell phone banking customers and R8 billion in mobile transactions in 2009. CashSen d enables a banked customer to transfer cash to anyone, including the unbanked. </li></ul></ul>“ Anywhere, Anytime Banking” on the rise.
  26. 26. Banking the Unbanked – Mobile Banking Through a Mobile Network Operator <ul><li>A mobile phone‐based payment and money transfer service that allows individuals to deposit, send, and withdraw funds using their cell phone </li></ul><ul><li>A valuable service in emerging economies where there is little or no existing banking infrastructure beyond the urban areas </li></ul>More than 13 million economically active South Africans do not have a bank account Picture © mobileactive
  27. 27. Benefits of Mobile Money <ul><li>Facilitates trade , making it easier for people to pay for, and to receive payment for, goods and services. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces transaction on costs in undertaking social and economic activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Increases productivity in areas of traditional agriculture or in remote regions through just-in-time payments </li></ul><ul><li>Increases household savings by providing a safe storage mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Improves financial security for women by giving them an independent place to store and manage funds </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to higher personal security as it reduces the need to carry large amounts of cash </li></ul>
  28. 28. Banking the Unbanked (1) M-Pesa <ul><li>First established in Kenya by mobile operator Safaricom where it now has nearly 12 million customers </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced in South Africa in August 2010 by mobile operator Vodacom </li></ul><ul><li>Vodacom M-PESA allows subscribers to convert real money into electronic money at any authorized M-PESA Outlet </li></ul><ul><li>They can then transfer this e-money to others, pay for goods and services as well as settle accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Vodacom M-PESA allows the unbanked to deposit cash into their M-PESA account and send e-money to other mobile users who can then convert the e-money back into cash </li></ul>
  29. 29. Banking the Unbanked (1) M-Pesa
  30. 30. Banking the Unbanked (2) – WIZZIT <ul><li>South Africa’s first mobile banking service </li></ul><ul><li>Does not require users to have a bank account </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible with early generation cell phones popular in low-income communities </li></ul><ul><li>Account holders issued Maestro debit cards that can be used at any ATM or retailer </li></ul><ul><li>Employs over 2000 &quot;Wizz Kids&quot; to promote the product and help unbanked customers open accounts </li></ul>
  31. 31. Banking the Unbanked (2) – WIZZIT
  32. 32. Agenda <ul><li>Overview of the South African Technology Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Growth and Innovation Enablers </li></ul><ul><li>Social Media Space in South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Mobile Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Banking </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile for Social Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Health </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Broadcasting </li></ul>
  33. 33. Mobile Marketing Overview Interactive advertisement and promotion of brands, products or services through a mobile device. “ Africans are among the most progressive in the world when it comes to mobile advertising, and clearly ahead of consumers in Europe and the US when it comes to adoption” James Lamberti, VP, global research & marketing at InMobi Photo source: Harp Social
  34. 34. South African Mobile Marketing Stats <ul><li>SA ranked the 3 rd largest global mobile market </li></ul><ul><li>The SA mobile traffic grew by 18% with more than 700 million impressions for Q3 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>The average response rate for mobile advertising campaigns in South Africa is anywhere from 10% to 25%, far above the average </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile marketing is an effective digital marketing strategy for many small businesses because of its cost-effectiveness, convenience, immediacy and ability to reach large numbers of consumers </li></ul>Mobile marketing is a widely-used & efficient advertising medium in South Africa.
  35. 35. MXit Mobile Advertising Splashscreens Tradeposts Wallpapers Brand Portals Skinz Classifieds Copyright MXit Lifestyle (Pty) Ltd
  36. 36. Agenda <ul><li>Overview of the South African Technology Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Growth and Innovation Enablers </li></ul><ul><li>Social Media Space in South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Mobile Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Banking </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Mobiles for Social Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Health </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Broadcasting </li></ul>
  37. 37. Mobiles For Social Activism
  38. 38. RLABs – Reconstructed Living Labs <ul><li>Angel Mobile Counseling Service Currently reaches more than 250,000 users across South Africa addressing issues such as Substance Abuse, HIV/AIDS, Depression, Abuse, Suicide and other emotional support services. </li></ul><ul><li>Uusi A mobile social network that provides its community members access to employment and educational opportunities through its networks. </li></ul><ul><li>National AIDS Helpline In collaboration with Cell-Life. Real-time support through Mobile phones </li></ul>Reconstructing Communities Through Innovation
  39. 39. Jamiix Social eXchange <ul><li>It brings social media and instant messaging functionality into a single application </li></ul><ul><li>Provides single interface that organizations and businesses in regions with high telephony cost can use to manage different conversations that they have on more affordable platforms such as text messages, instant messaging and social networking sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to provide disaster-related information in Indonesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Health Organization (WHO) uses Jamiix along with MXit to provide information on disaster preparedness - What to do in disasters like tsunamis and cyclones, as well as how to prepare for evacuation. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Agenda <ul><li>Overview of the South African Technology Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Growth and Innovation Enablers </li></ul><ul><li>Social Media Space in South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Mobile Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Banking </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Mobiles for Social Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Health </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Broadcasting </li></ul>
  41. 41. M-Health Overview <ul><li>The combination of a poor health infrastructure , high rates of infectious diseases, and high usage of mobile phones makes SA a prime candidate for M-Health initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>M-Health helps overcome reluctance to getting tested for HIV/AIDS or pursuing treatment due to the huge social stigma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 5 million people in SA living with HIV (national prevalence rate of 11% and up to 40% in some provinces) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer than 25% of South Africans have tested for HIV and know their status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 10% of those who qualify for anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment are currently receiving treatment </li></ul></ul>“ M-Health is the practice of medical and public health, supported by mobile devices” – Wikipedia
  42. 42. Project Masiluleke ( Project M) <ul><li>Three main three services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TxtAlert: Reminders for HIV clinic appointments are sent to patients’ mobile phones via SMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Missed appointments have fallen from 30% to 4% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SocialTxt: A mass mobile messaging campaign to raise HIV awareness and direct people to the National AIDS Helpline for counseling and information support. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 685 million PCM (please call me) messages sent to AIDS Helpline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV self-test kit: A home-based HIV test kit which includes the option of calling the National AIDS Helpline for assistance </li></ul></ul>Harnesses the power of mobile technology to help fight the SA’s crippling HIV/AIDS and TB epidemic.
  43. 43. Cell-Life - Cellphones for HIV <ul><li>Cellphones for HIV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass communication for prevention with over 2,500,000 messages sent; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking patients and clinics (adherence and appointment reminders) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV info available via MXit, with over 1 million mobile page views </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program (Sending HIV-positive mothers SMSs for 10 weeks after birth on various topics): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reminders to give babies HIV-prevention medication; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointment reminders; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New motherhood tips; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optional SMSs with encouragement and info for people newly diagnosed with HIV </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Agenda <ul><li>Overview of the South African Technology Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Growth and Innovation Enablers </li></ul><ul><li>Social Media Space in South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Mobile Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Banking </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Mobiles for Social Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Health </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Broadcasting </li></ul>
  45. 45. DSTV Mobile <ul><li>First commercial digital video broadcasting handheld service in SA </li></ul><ul><li>Users can access DStv mobile through cellphones enabled for the DVB-H ( Digital Video Broadcasting – Handheld ) broadcasting format </li></ul><ul><li>Cellphones that are not enabled use a mobile decoder called the Drifta </li></ul><ul><li>The Drifta receives the DStv Mobile broadcast signal and relays it over WiFi to a range of WiFi-capable laptops, PC's, tablets and smartphones </li></ul>SA playing a lead role in the convergence of telecommunication and information technologies with the media and entertainment sector.
  46. 46. Thank you for your attention… Skype ID: Dibussi Email: [email_address] Blog: Twitter: Linkedin: Slideshare: Facebook: