CREATIVE
CONSTRUCTION
FROM ELIZA TO SIRI AND BEYOND:
Promise and Challenges of Intelligent, Language-controlled
Assistants...
CHATBOT ARMS RACE
3
CHATBOTS: UNANIMOUSLY THE NEW USER INTERFACE
October	2011:	Siri
4
CHATBOTS: UNANIMOUSLY THE NEW USER INTERFACE
November	2014:	Amazon	Echo
5
CHATBOTS: UNANIMOUSLY THE NEW USER INTERFACE
October	2015:	Facebook	M
6
CHATBOTS: UNANIMOUSLY THE NEW USER INTERFACE
December	2015:	Microso?	Cortana
7
CHATBOTS: UNANIMOUSLY THE NEW USER INTERFACE
May	2016:	Google	Assistant
8
CHATBOTS: UNANIMOUSLY THE NEW USER INTERFACE
July	2016:	IBM	Watson	ConversaKon
9
CHATBOT REVOLUTION?
The sky is the limit
10
CHATBOT REVOLUTION?
The sky is the limit
11
CHATBOT REVOLUTION?
The sky is the limit
12
CHATBOT REVOLUTION?
The sky is the limit
13
CHATBOT REVOLUTION?
14
CHATBOT REVOLUTION?
Maybe...
15
CHATBOT REVOLUTION?
Maybe...
16
CHATBOT REVOLUTION?
Maybe...
17
CHATBOT REVOLUTION?
Maybe...
18
CHATBOT REVOLUTION?
Maybe...
19
CHATBOT REVOLUTION?
Maybe...
20
CHATBOT REVOLUTION?
Maybe...
03.11.16	 21
CLIPPY OR SAMANTHA?
03.11.16	 22
CLIPPY OR SAMANTHA?
03.11.16	 23
CLIPPY OR SAMANTHA?
HISTORY AND MOTIVATION
25
CHATBOTS NOT REALLY NEW...
Published	in	2003	
	
hPps://www.amazon.com/Chatbots-KundenkommunikaKon-
Xpert-press-German-A...
26
CHATBOTS NOT REALLY NEW...
1966: ELIZA by Joseph Weizenbaum
27
MOTIVATION: REDUCE FRICTION, IMPROVE USABILITY
From command line to GUI to natural language interface + no app-switching
28
MOTIVATION: IN SEARCH FOR A NEW RUNTIME
Breaking the app-install threshold
CHALLENGES TODAY
30
BOT TYPES
Bot depends on database with finite information coded and curated by humans.
Rules-based Bots (-> IVR?)
Passi...
31
PROBLEMS TODAY: DESIGN FLAWS
Identifying common commands
32
PROBLEMS TODAY: DESIGN FLAWS
Executing identified commands
33
PROBLEMS TODAY: DESIGN FLAWS
Personality getting in the way
34
PROBLEMS TODAY: MAINTENANCE
Keeping database up-to-date
35
PROBLEMS TODAY: MAINTENANCE
Keeping database up-to-date
36
PROBLEMS TODAY: COMMON SENSE
Ambiguity
User: Siri, call me an ambulance.
Siri: Okay, from now on I’ll call you “an ambu...
37
PROBLEMS TODAY: COMMON SENSE
Ambiguity
“The city councilmen refused the demonstrators a permit
because they feared viol...
38
PROBLEMS TODAY: COMMON SENSE
Ambiguity
In shopping, if I say, ‘I want to get a case for my guitar; it should be strong....
39
PROBLEMS TODAY: COMMON SENSE
Ambiguity: Chatbots barely better than chance
40
TEACHING COMPUTERS COMMON SENSE
•  OpenCyc (http://opencyc.org/)
•  Microsoft Concept Graph (https://concept.research.m...
41
STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION
As opaque as a DOS prompt
No UI -> completely transparent to the user
Vision
Voice look...
42
STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION
Where Siri went wrong
•  Expectations: Can answer anything – unlimited, general purpose...
43
STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION
Where Siri went wrong
•  Expectations: Can answer anything – unlimited, general purpose...
44
STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION
Where Siri went wrong
•  Expectations: Can answer anything – unlimited, general purpose...
45
STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION
Where Siri went wrong
•  Expectations: Can answer anything – unlimited, general purpose...
46
STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION
Alexa‘s learnings – and challenges
•  Expectations: Set to narrow scope of domains.
Sir...
47
STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION
Alexa‘s learnings – and challenges
•  Expectations: Set to narrow scope of domains.
•  ...
48
STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION
Alexa‘s learnings – and challenges
•  Expectations: Set to narrow scope of domains.
•  ...
49
STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION
Efficiency and discoverability
WHERE BOTS WORK
51
USAGE SCENARIOS
Architecture: Thread-centric UI paradigm
52
USAGE SCENARIOS
Architecture: Horizontal AI with API access to other services
53
USAGE SCENARIOS
Where bots work
•  Quick interactions: The fewer number of required back-and-forth
54
USAGE SCENARIOS
Where bots work
•  Quick interactions: The fewer number of required back-and-forth
•  Simple interactio...
55
USAGE SCENARIOS
Where bots work
•  Quick interactions: The fewer number of required back-and-forth
•  Simple interactio...
56
USAGE SCENARIOS
Where bots work
•  Quick interactions: The fewer number of required back-and-forth
•  Simple interactio...
57
USAGE SCENARIOS
Where bots work
•  Quick interactions: The fewer number of required back-and-forth
•  Simple interactio...
THANK YOU!
Phone: +49 (0)30 / 4004 1922
www.creativeconstruction.de
ALEXANDER BRAUN
@almarrone | alexander@creativeconstru...
APPENDIX
60
BOT PLATFORMS
•  Facebook Bot Engine (https://wit.ai/)
•  API.ai: Web-base bot framework (https://docs.api.ai/)
•  Micr...
61
LINKS & THANKS
http://allthingsd.com/20111011/the-iphone-finds-its-voice/
http://thenextweb.com/insider/2014/11/06/amaz...
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“From Eliza to Siri and beyond: Promise and challenges of intelligent, language-controlled assistants/chatbots.“ - Alexander Braun, founder of Creative Construction Heroes presented as part of the Cognitive Systems Institute Speaker Series on Nov. 3, 2016.

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“From Eliza to Siri and beyond: Promise and challenges of intelligent, language-controlled assistants/chatbots.“

  1. 1. CREATIVE CONSTRUCTION FROM ELIZA TO SIRI AND BEYOND: Promise and Challenges of Intelligent, Language-controlled Assistants (Chatbots) Alexander Braun (@almarrone) November 3rd, 2016
  2. 2. CHATBOT ARMS RACE
  3. 3. 3 CHATBOTS: UNANIMOUSLY THE NEW USER INTERFACE October 2011: Siri
  4. 4. 4 CHATBOTS: UNANIMOUSLY THE NEW USER INTERFACE November 2014: Amazon Echo
  5. 5. 5 CHATBOTS: UNANIMOUSLY THE NEW USER INTERFACE October 2015: Facebook M
  6. 6. 6 CHATBOTS: UNANIMOUSLY THE NEW USER INTERFACE December 2015: Microso? Cortana
  7. 7. 7 CHATBOTS: UNANIMOUSLY THE NEW USER INTERFACE May 2016: Google Assistant
  8. 8. 8 CHATBOTS: UNANIMOUSLY THE NEW USER INTERFACE July 2016: IBM Watson ConversaKon
  9. 9. 9 CHATBOT REVOLUTION? The sky is the limit
  10. 10. 10 CHATBOT REVOLUTION? The sky is the limit
  11. 11. 11 CHATBOT REVOLUTION? The sky is the limit
  12. 12. 12 CHATBOT REVOLUTION? The sky is the limit
  13. 13. 13 CHATBOT REVOLUTION?
  14. 14. 14 CHATBOT REVOLUTION? Maybe...
  15. 15. 15 CHATBOT REVOLUTION? Maybe...
  16. 16. 16 CHATBOT REVOLUTION? Maybe...
  17. 17. 17 CHATBOT REVOLUTION? Maybe...
  18. 18. 18 CHATBOT REVOLUTION? Maybe...
  19. 19. 19 CHATBOT REVOLUTION? Maybe...
  20. 20. 20 CHATBOT REVOLUTION? Maybe...
  21. 21. 03.11.16 21 CLIPPY OR SAMANTHA?
  22. 22. 03.11.16 22 CLIPPY OR SAMANTHA?
  23. 23. 03.11.16 23 CLIPPY OR SAMANTHA?
  24. 24. HISTORY AND MOTIVATION
  25. 25. 25 CHATBOTS NOT REALLY NEW... Published in 2003 hPps://www.amazon.com/Chatbots-KundenkommunikaKon- Xpert-press-German-Alexander/dp/3642624111/
  26. 26. 26 CHATBOTS NOT REALLY NEW... 1966: ELIZA by Joseph Weizenbaum
  27. 27. 27 MOTIVATION: REDUCE FRICTION, IMPROVE USABILITY From command line to GUI to natural language interface + no app-switching
  28. 28. 28 MOTIVATION: IN SEARCH FOR A NEW RUNTIME Breaking the app-install threshold
  29. 29. CHALLENGES TODAY
  30. 30. 30 BOT TYPES Bot depends on database with finite information coded and curated by humans. Rules-based Bots (-> IVR?) Passing on message to customer service agent when stuck. Curated Bots (-> Ticketing system?)
  31. 31. 31 PROBLEMS TODAY: DESIGN FLAWS Identifying common commands
  32. 32. 32 PROBLEMS TODAY: DESIGN FLAWS Executing identified commands
  33. 33. 33 PROBLEMS TODAY: DESIGN FLAWS Personality getting in the way
  34. 34. 34 PROBLEMS TODAY: MAINTENANCE Keeping database up-to-date
  35. 35. 35 PROBLEMS TODAY: MAINTENANCE Keeping database up-to-date
  36. 36. 36 PROBLEMS TODAY: COMMON SENSE Ambiguity User: Siri, call me an ambulance. Siri: Okay, from now on I’ll call you “an ambulance.” I want to listen to Led Zeppelin. Play Stairway to Heaven. I’d like to listen to reggae. I like No woman no cry.
  37. 37. 37 PROBLEMS TODAY: COMMON SENSE Ambiguity “The city councilmen refused the demonstrators a permit because they feared violence.” Who does ‘they’ refer to?
  38. 38. 38 PROBLEMS TODAY: COMMON SENSE Ambiguity In shopping, if I say, ‘I want to get a case for my guitar; it should be strong.’ So does ‘it’ refer to the case or the guitar?
  39. 39. 39 PROBLEMS TODAY: COMMON SENSE Ambiguity: Chatbots barely better than chance
  40. 40. 40 TEACHING COMPUTERS COMMON SENSE •  OpenCyc (http://opencyc.org/) •  Microsoft Concept Graph (https://concept.research.microsoft.com/)
  41. 41. 41 STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION As opaque as a DOS prompt No UI -> completely transparent to the user Vision Voice looks like the ultimate unlimited, general purpose UI, but actually only works if you can narrow the domain. Reality today
  42. 42. 42 STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION Where Siri went wrong •  Expectations: Can answer anything – unlimited, general purpose UI. Siri vs. Alexa
  43. 43. 43 STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION Where Siri went wrong •  Expectations: Can answer anything – unlimited, general purpose UI. •  Reality: Limited to certain, not clearly defined domains. Siri vs. Alexa
  44. 44. 44 STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION Where Siri went wrong •  Expectations: Can answer anything – unlimited, general purpose UI. •  Reality: Limited to certain, not clearly defined domains. •  Problem: User has to find out via trial and error. Siri vs. Alexa
  45. 45. 45 STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION Where Siri went wrong •  Expectations: Can answer anything – unlimited, general purpose UI. •  Reality: Limited to certain, not clearly defined domains. •  Problem: User has to find out via trial and error. •  Result: Once users find out, they stop exploring. Assistant gets better, user stays ignorant. Huge promise shrunk to just making voice calls and sending messages to contacts, maybe getting the weather. Siri vs. Alexa
  46. 46. 46 STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION Alexa‘s learnings – and challenges •  Expectations: Set to narrow scope of domains. Siri vs. Alexa
  47. 47. 47 STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION Alexa‘s learnings – and challenges •  Expectations: Set to narrow scope of domains. •  Result: Less opaque – less disappointment. Siri vs. Alexa
  48. 48. 48 STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION Alexa‘s learnings – and challenges •  Expectations: Set to narrow scope of domains. •  Result: Less opaque – less disappointment. •  Problem: Efficiency/Effectiveness... 1.  "Alexa, add sponges to my shopping list.“ 2.  Open Alexa app. 3.  Select "Shopping and To-Do Lists" from the sandwich menu. 4.  Select "Sponges" from the list. 5.  Select "Search Amazon for sponges" from pop-up list. 6.  Wait for iOS to open the Amazon app (separate app from the Alexa app). 7.  Scroll down and select the brand I like. 8.  Check out. Siri vs. Alexa
  49. 49. 49 STATUS: MORE, NOT LESS FRICTION Efficiency and discoverability
  50. 50. WHERE BOTS WORK
  51. 51. 51 USAGE SCENARIOS Architecture: Thread-centric UI paradigm
  52. 52. 52 USAGE SCENARIOS Architecture: Horizontal AI with API access to other services
  53. 53. 53 USAGE SCENARIOS Where bots work •  Quick interactions: The fewer number of required back-and-forth
  54. 54. 54 USAGE SCENARIOS Where bots work •  Quick interactions: The fewer number of required back-and-forth •  Simple interactions: Not many options to choose from (shoe shopping...)
  55. 55. 55 USAGE SCENARIOS Where bots work •  Quick interactions: The fewer number of required back-and-forth •  Simple interactions: Not many options to choose from (shoe shopping...) •  Context available to bot: Reducing load on user by pulling relevant cues and context to make interations efficient
  56. 56. 56 USAGE SCENARIOS Where bots work •  Quick interactions: The fewer number of required back-and-forth •  Simple interactions: Not many options to choose from (shoe shopping...) •  Context available to bot: Reducing load on user by pulling relevant cues and context to make interations efficient •  Users maintain control: Clear permissions – not just „on“ and „blocked“
  57. 57. 57 USAGE SCENARIOS Where bots work •  Quick interactions: The fewer number of required back-and-forth •  Simple interactions: Not many options to choose from (shoe shopping...) •  Context available to bot: Reducing load on user by pulling relevant cues and context to make interations efficient •  Users maintain control: Clear permissions – not just „on“ and „blocked“ •  Users don‘t have investments in existing apps: New or temporary interactions
  58. 58. THANK YOU! Phone: +49 (0)30 / 4004 1922 www.creativeconstruction.de ALEXANDER BRAUN @almarrone | alexander@creativeconstruction.de
  59. 59. APPENDIX
  60. 60. 60 BOT PLATFORMS •  Facebook Bot Engine (https://wit.ai/) •  API.ai: Web-base bot framework (https://docs.api.ai/) •  Microsoft Bot Framework (https://dev.botframework.com/) •  Viv (http://viv.ai/) -> acquired by Samsung
  61. 61. 61 LINKS & THANKS http://allthingsd.com/20111011/the-iphone-finds-its-voice/ http://thenextweb.com/insider/2014/11/06/amazon-introduces-echo-voice-controlled-assistant-home/ https://www.wired.com/2015/08/facebook-launches-m-new-kind-virtual-assistant/ https://www.engadget.com/2015/12/09/microsoft-officially-launches-cortana-on-iphone-and-android/ http://mashable.com/2016/05/18/google-assistant/ https://www.ibm.com/watson/developercloud/conversation.html http://ben-evans.com/benedictevans/2016/3/30/chat-bots-conversation-and-ai-as-an-interface https://techcrunch.com/2015/09/29/forget-apps-now-the-bots-take-over/ http://venturebeat.com/2016/08/02/why-chatbots-are-replacing-apps/ http://venturebeat.com/2016/05/01/the-200-billion-dollar-chatbot-disruption/ http://venturebeat.com/2016/10/23/ai-agents-like-alexa-siri-and-m-will-create-the-first-trillion-dollar-company/ http://s2.quickmeme.com/img/c3/c3305497a908aed0e1792f5d6be8bb85b8878081952e9874ad45fe22692451d0.jpg http://www.recode.net/2016/10/12/13251618/mossberg-apple-siri-digital-assistant-dumb https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/apr/14/facebook-messenger-spammy-chatbot-must-improve-and-fast https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/apr/29/please-facebook-dont-make-me-speak-to-your-awful-chatbots https://www.technologyreview.com/s/601897/tougher-turing-test-exposes-chatbots-stupidity/ https://www.technologyreview.com/s/601329/is-the-chatbot-trend-one-big-misunderstanding/ http://www.geekwire.com/2016/long-journey-facebook-messenger-boss-says-chatbots-got-really-overhyped/ http://venturebeat.com/2016/10/07/lets-be-honest-chatbots-kind-of-suck-for-now/ https://cdn.theatlantic.com/assets/media/img/mt/2015/06/image043/lead_960.jpg?1435096373 https://www.wired.com/2014/01/siri-her-reaction/ https://www.amazon.com/Chatbots-Kundenkommunikation-Xpert-press-German-Alexander/dp/3642624111/ https://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/muiseum/weizenbaum/joseph_pic.jpg https://knowledgeillusion.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/4966605.gif https://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/toolsctr/v1r0/topic/uxspi/artwork/cli_commands.jpg http://www.conceptdraw.com/How-To-Guide/picture/OSX10.10YosemiteApps.png http://pocketnow.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/TellMe1.jpg http://blogs.aspect.com/bot-framework-s-comparison/ http://commonsensereasoning.org/winograd.html http://opencyc.org/ https://concept.research.microsoft.com/ http://ben-evans.com/benedictevans/2016/10/10/echo-interfaces-and-friction https://medium.com/@aeisenberger/messaging-bots-and-slack-a52c894a4b2d#.ot0103mti

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