Computational Creativity - Kai-Uwe Kühnberger,

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Prof Dr Kai-Uwe Kühnberger, Director of the Artificial Intelligence at the Institute of Cognitive Science (IKW) at Osnabrück University, Germany, gave this presentation today on "AI, Cognition, and Creativity" as part of our Cognitive Systems Institute Speaker Series.

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Computational Creativity - Kai-Uwe Kühnberger,

  1. 1. Institute of Cognitive ScienceAI, Cognition, and Creativity Prof. Dr. Kai-Uwe Kühnberger Artificial Intelligence Institute of Cognitive Science University Osnabrück 2nd of June, 2016 kkuehnbe@uos.de
  2. 2. Institute of Cognitive Science Main Ideas of our Research • Research field: cognitively inspired AI • Research is mainly inspired by • Cognitive mechanisms • (Neuro-)psychological findings • Methodology • Rich background knowledge • Integration of heterogeneous data sources • Psychological experiments • Classical AI techniques with machine learning methods • Areas of interest • Modelling higher cognitive abilities • Modeling of cognitive mechanisms , e.g. • Analogy making • Conceptual blending • Metaphor • Different application areas are, e.g. • Mathematics • Music • Human-Computer Interaction
  3. 3. Institute of Cognitive Science Cognitive City Guide
  4. 4. Institute of Cognitive Science Cognitive City Guide • A cognitive city guide • ...that helps to find your way around the city’s sights, restaurants, museums... • …that is based on: ➢ your location ➢ your preferences and questions ➢ and brief conversations… • ...and helps you to plan your next steps and find out all about the city you are in!
  5. 5. Institute of Cognitive Science Cognitive City Guide • Features of the system • Engages in dialogue • Answers questions about places and activities to go based on content of images • Provides a well-trained Watson that knows everything interesting about the city • Features of the system • Cognitive approach allows for enriched context-sensitive information • System learns to refine and add knowledge based on user interaction • System uses natural language
  6. 6. Institute of Cognitive Science Cognitive City Guide We utilize IBM resources and add our own technology • Dialogue: Bluemix Dialog engine + Bluemix Natural Language Classifier + our own simple AI framework • Location, Event & Activity Queries: scene graph image annotations by our team (dev & annotation), hosted on Bluemix Rank & Retrieve • Facts & Factoids Questions: Watson Experience Advisor, trained in Osnabrück based on a ground-truth developed in Osnabrück • Website & App: Design and framework in Osnabrück, Website first - hosted on Bluemix
  7. 7. Institute of Cognitive Science Human-Computer Interaction
  8. 8. Institute of Cognitive Science Human-Computer Interaction • Design und usability of mobile controlling heating systems • Study projects • Theses • Cooperation with a company • Various designs were proposed and evaluated in usability tests • Screenshots of some prototypical implementations are shown on the right
  9. 9. Institute of Cognitive Science Human-Computer Interaction • One concept of a student was professionally re-implemented by a software company and is now sold by the company • Comparing the original design and the final product, one can find many conceptual features of the student’s design realized in the final product
  10. 10. Institute of Cognitive Science Human-Computer Interaction • Usability Study for heating system controller (picture on the right) • For the usability study two target groups were chosen: 35-45 years old subjects and retired subjects • On the right there is the controller sold since 2015
  11. 11. Institute of Cognitive Science Computational Creativity
  12. 12. Institute of Cognitive Science Computational Creativity: Examples Nesting objects in (other) objects (nested doll principle) Planetary gearing “Trojan” (computer virus) Kinder Surprise Nesting bowls Smaller window contains snapshot of the entire screen Nesting tables Inspired by C. Hentschel (presentation) How is it possible that one principle can be used to solve structurally rather different problems in different domains?
  13. 13. Institute of Cognitive Science Computational Creativity: Examples http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/de/forschung/abt/bu/recat.html How many chairs are in this room?
  14. 14. Institute of Cognitive Science Computational Creativity: Examples • How is it possible that children / mathematicians learn / invent new concepts? • Rudimentary concept of natural numbers • Rudimentary concept of infinity • Rudimentary concept of sets and set theoretic operations • Complex numbers • Quaternions • Prime ideals in ring theory • Products and co-products in category theory • Galois theory
  15. 15. Institute of Cognitive Science Computational Creativity: Context • Collaborative research project “COINVENT – The Concept Invention Theory” (http://www.coinvent.uni- osnabrueck.de/en/home.html ) • Several European partners work on computational concept invention primarily in the domains mathematics and music • Computational creativity conference at the Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Bielefeld (19th of Sep. to 22nd of Sep.) • Book on computational creativity edited by members of the research project • Including a chapter on “A Culinary Computational Creativity System” co- authored by members of the Watson Research Center
  16. 16. Institute of Cognitive Science Computational Creativity: Methods • Idea: • Blend conceptual spaces (source and target) in order to get an interesting blend space (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002) • Examples: • Blending chords for inventing new chords • Blending mathematical theories for inventing new mathematical concepts
  17. 17. Institute of Cognitive Science Computational Creativity: Mathematics Lakoff & Núñez (2000): mathematics origins from concrete domains of human activity (mathematical metaphors) A natural idea is to use the analogy engine Heuristic-Driven Theory Projection (HDTP) to compute mathematical metaphors that are grounded in concrete domains of human activity.
  18. 18. Institute of Cognitive Science Computational Creativity: Mathematics Guhe et al. (2010), CogSci‘10
  19. 19. Institute of Cognitive Science Computational Creativity: Mathematics Argand discovered the complex plane as a geometric interpretation of complex numbers in 1806 (Argand, 1813). This discovery is rather explicitly described by the mathematician. A formalized version of concept blending can be used to compute the blend space. Martinez et al. (2012), Springer
  20. 20. Institute of Cognitive Science Computational Creativity: Mathematics • Other examples from mathematics based on conceptual blending: • Subsystems of (Peano) arithmetic: Martinez et al. (2016), Annals Math. and AI • Teaching mathematics for school children: Besold et al. (2014), LNCS Springer • General aspects of conceptual blending in basic mathematics: Martinez et al. (2011), Cog. Sys. Research • General aspects of conceptual blending in mathematics: Bou et al., 2015, ICCC 2015 • Galois Theory and Conceptual Blending: Gomez Ramirez, under review
  21. 21. Institute of Cognitive Science Computational Creativity: Music • There are many possibilities to harmonize a piece of music. • Blending different harmonization styles with a melody adds interesting aspects to a piece of music: Here is Beethoven’s famous “Ode to Joy” in two harmonization.
  22. 22. Institute of Cognitive Science Computational Creativity: Music • A classical example in the COINVENT project concerns the blending of cadences. • Tritone substitution and backdoor progression are Jazz chord progressions, whereas the perfect cadence and the phrygian cadence existed already for hundreds of years. Cambouropoulos et al. (2014)
  23. 23. Institute of Cognitive Science Computational Creativity: Music • Another form of cadence blending is cross-fading chord progressions of different idioms in a smooth manner. • Assume a sequence C – Dmin – G7 – C – F and a sequence G#7 – C# is given. A transition from F to G#7 is hard, if the key is C. But by blending F and G#7 to a C˚7 (diminished dominant seventh chord), this might be possible. Eppe et al. (2015)
  24. 24. Institute of Cognitive Science Computational Creativity: Further Domains • Further domains of interest in the area of computational creativity • Physics • Interpretations of visual scences • Metaphors • Problem solving Metaphors: “Gills are the lungs of fish.” “Electrons are the planets of the nucleus.” „Juliet is the sun.” Technical Concepts
  25. 25. Institute of Cognitive Science Summary • Cognitive City Guide • Human-Computer Interaction • Computational Creativity in mathematics • Computational Creativity in music • Computational Creativity in other domains
  26. 26. Institute of Cognitive Science Thank you very much

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