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“Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Computing and Innovating in Practice”


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Cristina Mele, Full Professor of Management at the University of Napoli “Federico II”, presentation as part of Cognitive Systems Institute Speaker Series

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“Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Computing and Innovating in Practice”

  1. 1. Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Computing & Innovating in Practice Cristina Mele University of Naples Federico II
  2. 2. Agenda • Recent trends • Artificial Intelligence & Human Intelligence: the need for multidisciplinarity • A post-humanist approach: from technology to socio-material practices • Framing innovation as innovating in practice • A focus on Health • AI & CC as enablers of a texture of practices
  3. 3. Opportunities & Challenges
  4. 4. AI & Acquisition
  5. 5. •AI = think or behave … as humans •Machines over humans •Artificial Intelligence vs Human Intelligence
  6. 6. From latin intelligentĭa, …. verb intelligĕre, ”to understand” or verb legĕre, ”read", with intŭs, ”inside"; …who had intelligentĭa was someone able to “read inside” or “go beyond the surface” Intelligence
  7. 7. • AI & CC : A multidisciplinary perspective
  8. 8. Technologies as evolution … not as a magical artefact Early technologies from existing primitive technologies as components. These new Technologies in time become possible components – building blocks – for the construction of further new technologies. Some of these in turn go on to become possible building blocks for the creation of yet newer technologies. In this way. Slowly over time, many technologies form from an initial few, an more complex ones from using simpler ones as components. The overall collection of technologies bootstraps itself upward from the few to the many and from the simple to the complex. (Arthur, 2009, p. 21) “We place our hopes in technology. We hope in technology to make our lives better, to solve our problems, to get us out of predicaments, to provide the future we want for ourselves and our children. (Arthur, 2009, p. 11)
  9. 9. There is a need to consider the impact that new technologies, AI & CC have on the social dimension and how practices are changing to increase well-being. Socio-material practices (a posthumanist perspective)
  10. 10. • By adopting an overarching concept of service innovation as the provision of new benefits for market actors (Mele et al. 2010; Vargo and Lusch 2011) some scholars question the linear traditional process of innovation (Chesborugh, 2003) and ask how market actors practice innovation in the age of uncertainty and complexity (Russo Spena and Mele 2016; Mele and Russo Spena 2017). From innovation (Artifact/ outcome side) To innovating (the practice side) Innovating in Practice
  11. 11. Innovating in practice • The active verbal form better reflects the emergent character of innovation in service ecosystems (Vargo and Lusch, 2011; Vargo et al., 2015). • Verbs express “a pattern, a set of emergent phenomena, a set of changes that may induce further changes” (Arthur, 2013, p. 19). • Innovating takes place in social interaction and in activities • Innovating in practice: “a collective doing that connects knowledgeable actors” (Mele and Russo-Spena, 2017).
  12. 12. ü From providers to users’ context üFrom a passive patient to an engaged, equipped user/actor Engaging empowered users/actors The river of healthcare is moving. People are taking health into their own hands. The center of gravity of healthcare has moved from hospitals to patients and from clinics to the home. Now it is mobile. Actors uses devices and collect data on their health and wellbeing and store information wherever they are (home, office, etc.) In the past, to do medical exams people had to book a visit with their doctor, then go into a specialized medical center or hospital to do exams. Before NOW
  13. 13. Before NOW Widening A2A interactions ü From dyadic to networked / ecosystemic ü From asymmetric to more balanced To have different specialized consultation patients could meet just one physician at once, then book another visit with another doctor and so on Ai & CC give the possibility to actors to get remote help from experts. They can transmit real-time video and snapshot with specialized doctors in order to have a consultation about the patient emergency situation in realtime. AI & CC enable to create a virtual clinical environment providing patients with basic information and specialists clinical consultation to enable them to operate virtually except for what it involves touching the patient. The patients, and his/her family members can get in touch with more than one specialized physicians at the same time
  14. 14. Buoyuses artificial intelligence to resemble a chat with your favourite doctor, where you get an accurate analysis of your symptoms and what to do We designed Buoy’s artificial intelligence to deliver a personalized and more accurate analysis of your symptoms. Our virtual assistant answers medical and health questions for consumers and doctors instantly. The idea behind cognitive computing, or artificial intelligence, is that our computer learns by doing, getting at its tasks better over time by crunching more medical information
  15. 15. Involving new and knowledgeable actors Devices providers Hospitals Users Health intermediari es Emergency Departme nt Doctors Operational Center Medical staff Caregivers AI & CC offer a number of exciting potential applications for patient care, I really think this could transform both what we do and how we do it. These technologies could really have a major impact on how we practice medicine (a quote from a doctor) Bay Labs is at the forefront of bringing deep learning advances to critical unsolved problems in healthcare. We have assembled an exceptional team of clinicians, engineers, and scientists who are developing breakthrough technologies in cardiovascular imaging and care to combat heart disease, the leading cause of death worldwide.
  16. 16. The doctors and researchers had to meet patients in their office to study and research parameters linked to episodes of illness. Taking into consideration the events related to illness episodes, physicians could observe only data recorded during the visit, and if something happened when the patient was outside of the health centre it was impossible to study the symptoms. üFrom Knowledge as object to knowledge as activity üContinuous, real-time data acquisition in daily life ü Advance understanding of human behavior in real life settings Through AI & CC, knowledge is co-created through continuous and real-time observation of healthcare parameters, thereby advancing understanding of human behaviour in real-life settings. Doctors can first of all detect seizures every time they happen; in addition, they can correlate seizures to symptoms and help identify whether there are certain factors that influence them. Data become richer as they include new information about wearer, viz. health parameters, enabling the decision makers (e.g., doctors or physicians) to obtain a full understanding of the meaning behind the data collected. Before NOW Knowing in action
  17. 17. ….more comprehensive situational awareness. ……apply knowledge to data enables it to more quickly and effectively extract knowledge from data. ….use reasoning and thoughtful user experience to clear away the ambiguity and pinpoint the truth. … assist people's actions and enable them to make timely and informed decisions.
  18. 18. With AI &CC researchers and doctors have continuous data and a more complete understanding of the phenomenon thanks to data recorded by patients. Patients can record and keep track of their own data. These data can serve as a starting point to give patients more control of their health and provide physicians information on daily habits. Such information can be analyzed by AI & CC potentially catching problems before they start. Resourcing in interactions Doctors had to search patient information and medical history in a folder, which was physically and/or electronically stored, spending a great amount of time. In addition, if patients needed different specialised consultation he should met just one physician at once, and then should book another visit with another doctor, and so on. Before NOW üKnowing emerges through human and non human interaction
  19. 19. The active brain trainer Intendu is a functional brain-body training console for people with brain impairments. It was designed by an interdisciplinary team of neuroscientists, rehabilitation clinicians, computer scientists and gaming experts, creating an unparalleled training tool for home use that adds to the user’s rehabilitation process. Intendu’s life-simulating games focus on 8 main cognitive functions
  20. 20. ü From space constraints to everywhere ü From time constraints to real time Overcoming time/space constrains People have always a doctor wherever they are. They can have a consultation through audio-video communication devices without moving from home, also during the night or holidays when the personal doctor is not available. As the parameters are continuously monitored, in case of anomalies users can have an home visit or in emergency cases an ambulance. In addition, the Medical Passport is recorded and all data can be shared. To have a consultation people were obliged to go to the doctor during work-hours, if something happen during the night or holidays or when the doctor’s office was closed people had to go at hospital and wait for their turn, also for hours if it was not an emergency. Before NOW
  21. 21. • From the arefacts to a collective doing that connects knowledgeable actors (doctors, patients, health intermediaries, caregivers, ecc.). • Innovating emerges as constantly co-constructed by connections-in-action involving both humans and non-human interwoven in a texture of interconnected practices. • Knowing + Networking = a texture; AI, CC & Innovating in practice N E T W O R K I N G K N O W I N G Engaging empowered users/actors Widening A2A interactions Involving new and knowledgeable actors Knowing in action Resourcing in interaction Overcoming time/space constrains
  22. 22. Democratizing health • The healthcare moves from hospitals to homes, from passive patients to empowered and proactive patients to knowledgeable actors • Health ecosystem. This includes family, friends, and alternative healthcare providers as well as a host of wellness services. • A human-centred suite of devices using AI &CC to empower everyday people to monitor and better understand their health anytime, anywhere. Improving wellbeing • AI & CC are not only technology improvements but are resources within actors’ activities and A2A relationships • AI, CC, smart devices as resources to be integrated … enabling new practices A new healthcare?
  23. 23. • Understand the technology/social role of AI & CC • Design new roles for actors by increasing their knowledgeability • Enabling networking and knowing Challenges • Emergent problem of responsibility (hospital, doctor, user, other health service providers, etc.) • New problems of security, privacy, etc. • Normative practices • ……. Implications
  24. 24. Research Group at Department of Economics, Management, Institutions University of Naples Federico II Chaired by Cristina Mele Tiziana Russo Spena