Globalizing training

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This step-by-step guide walks you through the process of leveraging training developed in the US for use in any country in the world.

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Globalizing training

  1. 1. Begin by Diane Valenti How to Leverage Training Designed in the US Across the Globe
  2. 2. Table of Contents Website Email Table of Contents Globalization Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Localization Myths and Misconceptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Localization Is a Complicated and Difficult Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 One Size Fits All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Different Types of Courses Require a Different Localization Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Localization Can Be Done Locally in the US . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Localization Is One-Way . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Localization Musts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 An Effective Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Partners You Can Count On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 An Open Mind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Instructional Design Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Determining If a Course Is a Candidate for Localization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Teaches a Proven Best Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Has Effective Instructional Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Training Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Learning Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Achieves Verifiable Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Localizing Training Across the Globe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Identifying Potential Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Prioritizing Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Determining If the Best Practice Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 —2—
  3. 3. Table of Contents Website Email Customizing the Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Updating the Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Revising the Learning Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Translating the Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Piloting the Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Appendix: Localization Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Is the Training Ready to Export? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Teaches a Proven Best Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Has Effective Instructional Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Training Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Learning Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Achieves Verifiable Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Which Countries Should We Focus on First? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Identifying Potential Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Prioritizing Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Does the Best Practice Work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Validating the Best Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 How Do We Customize the Training? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Updating the Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Revising the Learning Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Translating the Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Piloting the Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 About Diane Valenti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 —3—
  4. 4. Table of Contents Website Email Globalization Defined Globalizing training is simply leveraging training designed and developed in one country for use across the globe . Localizing training is the process of customizing the training designed and developed in one country for a different, specific country or region . When you localize training, you may need to customize three elements: • Language • Content • Learning activities What you customize and how you customize depends on the needs and culture of the target country . —4—
  5. 5. Table of Contents Website Email Localization Myths and Misconceptions There are several myths and misconceptions around the localization process . They include: • Localization is a complicated and difficult process . • One size fits all . • The process of localization differs for different types of courses (e .g ., technical vs . soft skills training) . • Localization can be done effectively from a US-based office . • Localization is one-way . Localization Is a Complicated and Difficult Process The idea of localization can be intimidating, especially if you haven’t traveled much internationally . In fact, you’ve probably done many of the tasks associated with localization and developed many of the skills . Have you ever been involved in customizing an off-the-shelf course to fit the needs and culture of your organization? If so, with the exception of translation, you’ve been through the localization process . One Size Fits All As North Americans, we tend to lump countries within a given geography together and assume businesses within the geography all operate the same way . This is especially true if the countries share a common language . The fact is that even people who speak the same language, Spanish for example, can have difficulty understanding each other . Slang, idioms, expressions, and accents can all conspire against comprehension . In some cases, there are even different words for the same item . In Mexico, they say aguacate to mean avocado, while in Peru they say palta . —5—
  6. 6. Table of Contents Website Email I remember being on a conference call with one of my client’s teams located in the UK . It was a relief that I taped the call, because I had a difficult time following the conversation . Yes, there was the usual talking over each other that occurs in large groups . But, more than that, I was always a half of a second behind as I tried to decipher the accent and the expressions . I needed to listen to the call again to digest what people were saying . There are also differences in how business is done from country to country, even within the same company . For example, one of my clients recently discovered that certain business metrics were calculated differently in the company’s regional offices in Europe and Asia . You must take into account all of these factors if you plan to effectively localize training . There are no shortcuts . Taking a one-size-fits-all approach undoubtedly means that the localization will be a poor fit for everyone . Different Types of Courses Require a Different Localization Process The good news is that the process of localization is the same regardless of the type of training—soft skills or technical . The process of determining what you need to customize and how you need to customize it is the same . However, generally speaking, soft skills courses require more customization than technical skills courses . For example, when an airplane manufacturer trains airplane mechanics all over the world, there is no doubt that the courses must be translated into a variety of languages . But, the content and the process have to be revised very little . After all, the process of changing brake pads is going to be the same whether it is done in San Francisco, Singapore, or Sydney . And, in this case, the most effective instructional strategy is to present the information and then allow for plenty of practice . This instructional approach works the world over . However, when a coffee company customizes training developed for store managers in the US for use in Saudi Arabia, there is a lot more work to be done . Not —6—
  7. 7. Table of Contents Website Email only is language an issue, but there are also issues unique to Saudi Arabia that mean the company needs to customize the content of the training as well . For example, employees leave to pray numerous times throughout the workday . How the store manager arranges for coverage of the store during these times is an issue unique to stores in Saudi Arabia . As a result, this custom content needs to be added to the US-based training . Localization Can Be Done Locally in the US As North Americans, we are comfortable with communicating via voice mail, e-mail, text messages, tweets, blogs, and webinars—none of which require an in-person interaction with another living human being . It’s efficient . It’s effective . And, it is very much a part of our culture . It is also fairly unusual in most other parts of the world where a premium is placed on the value of relationships . However, if you really want to know what training material needs to be customized and how to customize it, you have to build trusting relationships with people in the target country . Otherwise, you may not hear the whole story about how things work . Your in-country colleagues may feel they have little invested in the outcome so why take the time and make the effort to explain . Or, they may worry that you’ll judge their country and their culture as inefficient or ineffective by North American standards . Most people in other countries are just as aware of the shortcomings of their government and their society as we are of ours . However, if you haven’t developed a trusting relationship with them, they may be reluctant to share their opinions with you . This means the localized course isn’t likely to succeed because the customization doesn’t reflect reality . To ensure localization is effective, you need to get on a plane, visit the target country or countries, observe your colleagues there at work, ask lots of questions, and spend time socializing with them . The good news is that once you’ve laid the foundation, you won’t need to make a trip back each and every time you want to localize a course for this country . However, you may need to make more than one trip at the start, and you’ll definitely need to keep in touch and nurture that trusting relationship . —7—
  8. 8. Table of Contents Website Email This may feel like an inefficient, expensive, and time-consuming approach to localization . But, if you calculate the time, energy, and costs involved in implementing a course that doesn’t work, this up-front effort really is a bargain . Localization Is One-Way Often when we refer to localization of training, we are thinking about customizing training developed in the US for use in another country . But, localization can also go the other way . The US does not have the corner on the market of good ideas . You’ll get the most from your training budget if you actively seek to leverage training developed by your colleagues in other countries . Of course, you’ll need to customize it for a US- based workforce, but you could save a bundle by recycling what’s been done elsewhere rather than starting from scratch . —8—
  9. 9. Table of Contents Website Email Localization Musts Four things can make localizing training easier: • An effective course • Willing and able partners in country • An open mind • Strong instructional design skills An Effective Course If a course is not working here, why would you export it? You need to have evidence that the course gets results . In some cases, it can be extremely difficult, and not worth the time and money, to measure business impact . But, at a minimum, you should evaluate whether learners are, in fact, using what they learned in training to do their jobs . Partners You Can Count On You simply cannot customize a course for use in another country unless you have the support and active involvement of the locals . As an outsider, you will never have the level of understanding you need to make decisions about how to best modify instructional content and learning activities to reflect the nuances of that country’s culture . Reading books on culture that say things like, “In country X, communication is indirect” or “In country Y, the role of the teacher is highly revered” or “In country Z, saving face is critical” does not help enough . You need to know specifically how these generalities play out in the workplace . —9—
  10. 10. Table of Contents Website Email For example, if you are localizing a course on giving feedback, how do you do so in a country that has an indirect communication style? Or, if your project management course will be localized for a country where saving face is paramount, how do you find out the true status of a project? Only the locals can provide you with tips and techniques for getting things done within the constraints of the larger culture . You need cultural guides . In fact, you need a business guide and a training guide . The businessperson can vet your content . The trainer can vet your instructional design . An Open Mind It’s only natural for us to think that things should work a certain way in another country because that is how they work here . You can find yourself thinking, “how ridiculous” when you hear about a certain work practice . You may feel that if only they adopted our business practices, they could be more efficient, effective, or profitable . You could be right . However, this issue is a little like fighting the ocean . People who encounter a rip tide in the ocean and choose to fight it often end up drowning . Those who work with the current by swimming parallel to the shore are often the ones who survive . Culture is similar . If you fight it, you are not likely to get far . Instead you need to figure out how to work within the realities and constraints of the culture to reach your goals . How can you do this? Start by tapping into your innate curiosity . View the culture as a puzzle for you to solve by observing others, asking lots of questions, listening carefully, and thinking about what it takes to fit in and succeed . Some of what you learn will be wonderfully delightful and some of it will frustrate you . Finally, cultivating patience helps . Patience allows you to hang in there even when you are feeling frustrated because you can’t figure out how things work or because you are exhausted from spending so much time outside of your comfort zone, embarrassed by your missteps, or just plain old scared . — 10 —
  11. 11. Table of Contents Website Email Instructional Design Skills While localizing a training course is not complicated or difficult, it does require strong instructional design skills . You’ll need to evaluate the instructional effectiveness of the current course, revise it if it doesn’t measure up, and redesign it for any target countries . You may even need to backtrack and revise the best practice the course teaches if it is not currently getting results . And, you may need to revise this best practice again to fit the business conditions and culture in the target country . All of the above tasks require a skill set that is beyond most newly minted instructional designers not to mention most subject matter experts . — 11 —
  12. 12. Table of Contents Website Email Determining If a Course Is a Candidate for Localization Before you consider a course as a candidate for globalization, you should be positive of three things: • The course teaches a proven best practice • The course has effective instructional design • The course achieves verifiable results Teaches a Proven Best Practice The first time I heard the term “green field,” I was studying business in college . As it was explained to me then, green field meant testing out a new business model or idea to see if it worked . I always thought of it as planting the seeds of innovation in a green field . Unfortunately, far too often organizations are in such a rush to develop and implement training that they don’t take the time to do any green-field testing of the best practice the training teaches . Instead, subject matter experts gather in a conference room to develop a theoretical best practice . The problem with drawing-board theory is that it doesn’t always work the way you think it will . If it did, we would never see such product blunders as New Coke or such marketing mistakes as the Nova being introduced in Latin America . There are always unintended and unwanted consequences that no one could anticipate . This is why testing is critical before you roll out the training that teaches a best practice to all the employees of your multinational Fortune 500 employer . So, if you have been asked to localize a course for use outside of the US, you may need to retroactively document and test the best practice that is being trained if this was not done during the training development phase . — 12 —
  13. 13. Table of Contents Website Email To do so, you can reverse engineer the best practice from the training materials . The resulting document should include: • Goal of the best practice—what it was designed to achieve • Steps and sub steps of the best practice • Quality criteria applicable to each step or sub step • References to tools and resources used to perform the best practice Ideally, the goal of the best practice should be tied to a business metric . For example, it might be to increase the value of add-on sales by an average of $4 per sale, to reduce the number of mistakes by 15%, or to increase referral business by 25% . It is not always possible to develop a quantifiable goal . For example, a goal of management training might be for managers to make good decisions . It can be very difficult to tie a quantifiable factor to decision making . However, there are qualitative factors that you can use to judge whether the decision has the prerequisites to be considered a good decision . For example, a good decision can be characterized as one for which the manager can explain how it supports corporate and departmental goals as well as one that is made on time to be useful . Once you have a specific, measurable goal, the best practice should detail the steps and sub steps required to consistently achieve the goal . For example, to increase the value of add-on sales, the salesperson should always suggest a companion product before ringing up the sale . To give feedback, managers should position the feedback between two compliments . These steps are the best practice . You may need to associate a quality measurement with one or more of the steps as well . For example, a distribution analyst may need to calculate beginning-of-month inventory with 100% accuracy when making inventory distribution recommendations . Finally, you’ll need to gather any resources or tools that are used to perform the best practice . Examples of tools include Excel spreadsheets, marketing collateral, databases, reports, websites, and checklists . Make a list of these resources and tools in your document . — 13 —
  14. 14. Table of Contents Website Email Once you’ve documented the best practice, you need to conduct field research to make sure the documented steps consistently lead to achieving the goal . Your field research could involve observing work; interviewing employees, their managers, their direct reports, and their customers (external and internal); reviewing reports; checking the final product; and even trying the best practice, yourself, to verify it works . Your objective is to make sure the best practice is real . During the field research, you may discover that employees have modified the best practice . They may have added or deleted steps, changed the sequence of how things are done, or created new tools . Make sure to note these revisions . You may need to update the training materials to reflect the field research . Before doing so, though, make sure to check with Legal, Safety or QA to ensure that the revisions reflect proper procedure . If you learn that the best practice in the training doesn’t work, you’ll need to decide what to do . Your options include: • Working with subject matter experts to develop and test a new or a revised best practice • Working with management to eliminate system issues that hinder employees from performing the best practice or from getting results when they do • Scrapping the best practice and the training if the situation seems hopeless • Soldiering on with your localization assignment if the politics seem hopeless Has Effective Instructional Design Once you have indisputable evidence that the training is teaching a proven best practice, you need to make sure the instructional design is sound . Ask yourself the questions beginning on the next page to evaluate the instructional design . — 14 —
  15. 15. Table of Contents Website Email Training Overview 1) Does the training course teach the best practice the way it is really performed? If you have verified that the course teaches a proven best practice, you have already answered this question . Otherwise, consider this question now . Quite often employees modify a best practice learned in training so that it works in their real-world business environment . They may add, change, delete or re-sequence steps, or they may add, delete, or modify tools and resources . You’ll need to make sure the training materials reflect any modifications that have been made so that the course teaches the best practice the way it is really performed . Before doing so, though, make sure to check with Legal, Safety or QA to ensure that the revisions reflect proper procedure . 2) Is the training course part of a process? It is not possible to use a training course to inject new knowledge and skills into employees . Instead, people learn through repeated exposure, practice, and feedback . As a result, it is rarely appropriate to think of training as a single, stand-alone event . Rather, training might consist of: • Pre-work to identify strengths, areas for growth, and opportunities to use new knowledge and skills immediately after the course • A training course delivered in the classroom, over a WebEx conference call, or as an e-learning module, for example • Shoulder-to-shoulder coaching on the job that allows employees to immediately apply new knowledge, practice new skills, and receive feedback targeted to improve performance 3) Does the delivery method promote training effectiveness? There are many possible ways to deliver training: classroom, WebEx, and e-learning are just a few . Often, though, the delivery method is chosen based more on expediency than on effectiveness . — 15 —
  16. 16. Table of Contents Website Email For example, it may be more expedient to use an e-learning module to train a global customer service team on how to handle difficult calls . However, while e-learning may be an efficient way to introduce basic, underlying concepts, there is nothing as effective as role-playing difficult call situations with another human being to give learners an opportunity to practice managing their emotions and responding in ways that are ultimately helpful to the customer rather than obstructionist . 4) Do the instructional materials answer the question, “What’s in it for me?” Answering the question, “What’s in it for me?” helps provide learners with the motivation to learn and then apply what they learn to their jobs . If learners don’t have a rational self-interest to learn, you can be sure that, while they may click through the e-learning module or sit through the two days of classroom training, they are actually absorbing very little . In fact, this is the reason any training course should start with an explanation of how learners will benefit . Possible examples include: • Your job will be easier . • You’ll be able to focus on the interesting, strategic work you never have time for because the boring, routine tasks will be automated . • You’ll be set up for success in your career . In fact, you’ll be able to write your own ticket . • You’ll be able to make a visible, meaningful contribution to the goals of the organization . Your work will count . • You’ll be able to stay safe or out of trouble . • You’ll be able to keep up with your peers . • You won’t look foolish in team meetings . 5) Do the instructional materials present a single model for performance? A model for performance is the steps employees would take to perform the best practice . For example, the model might include the six steps to make a good decision or to forecast a budget or the four components to check to troubleshoot equipment problems . — 16 —
  17. 17. Table of Contents Website Email If the instructional materials contain multiple models for performance—such as the six steps to make good decisions along with the four steps to provide feedback and the three steps to coach effectively— learners will most likely leave the training more confused than when they came . Just as bad is when the training doesn’t present a model at all . In this case, information is presented topically . The drawback to a topical presentation is that it doesn’t mirror the best practice . This makes it very difficult for employees to figure out what the best practice is and apply it to their work . Objectives 6) Does the course objective describe what learners will be able to do after training? Each course should have a course objective that describes what learners will be able to do after the training . In other words, it describes the goal of the course . It also serves as the framework to guide decisions about what content to include and what learning activities to use to teach that content . The course objective should describe specific, observable, measurable job performance . In other words, if you were a fly on the wall, you’d have no doubt whether learners had met the objective simply by observing them work . Objectives such as “understand the supply chain process” won’t work because you can’t tell by observation what someone understands about the supply chain . If the course objective is unclear, it won’t serve as a framework to guide decisions about what content to include and what learning activities to use to teach that content . The course objective is the same as the goal of the best practice taught in the course . For example, by the end of this course learners will be able to forecast a budget with 75% accuracy, enter a customer order, increase add-on sales by $4 per sale, or reduce the number of mistakes by 15% . 7) Do lesson objectives describe what learners will be able to do by the end of each lesson? Each lesson should have a lesson objective that describes what learners will be able to do by the end of the lesson . In other words, the lesson objective describes the goal of the lesson . It also serves as the framework to guide decisions about what content to include in the lesson and what learning activities to use to teach that content . — 17 —
  18. 18. Table of Contents Website Email Ideally, each lesson will map to a step in the performance model that is presented in the training . So, if there are six steps to decision making, there should be six lessons, one for each step, plus an introduction and a summary lesson for a total of eight lessons . Sample lesson objectives that map to the steps for using a new system might include: • Lesson 1: Log in to the system • Lesson 2: Open the discrepancy database • Lesson 3: Navigate within the database • Lesson 4: Add incidents As you look at the lesson objectives, make sure that if learners are able to achieve the lesson objectives, they will be able to achieve your course objective . For example, if the course objective is to add incidents into a database, are all steps included in the lessons? Perhaps learners should search for similar incidents before they add a new incident to make sure there are no double entries . If this is true, there should be another lesson on searching the database before the current lesson 4 on adding incidents . The steps in your performance model will need revising as well . Like the course objective, lesson objectives should describe specific, observable, measurable job performance . Lesson objectives should not describe learning activities—such as, “work through a simulation of the banking system” —or the instructor’s performance—such as, “assist learners in the development of interview questions .” Neither describes the learners’ specific, observable, measurable job performance . 8) Do learning objectives describe what learners will be able to do by the end of each topic within a lesson? Each lesson should have multiple learning objectives that directly link to the topics within the lesson . In other words, each learning objective should describe the goal of a particular topic contained in the lesson . — 18 —
  19. 19. Table of Contents Website Email For example, the learning objectives for the lesson on logging in might include: • Set up a user name • Set up a password • Log in Like lesson objectives, learning objectives should describe specific, observable, measurable job performance . 9) Is there a clear path from course objective to lesson objectives to learning objectives? There should be a clear path, like stepping stones, from the course objective to the lesson objectives to the learning objectives . In fact, simply by looking at the learning objectives you should be able to reverse engineer the goal of the lesson, the lesson objective . And, simply by looking at the lesson objectives you should be able to reverse engineer the goal of the course, the course objective . Content 10) Can you use the content to reverse engineer the learning objectives? It can be tempting to include everything in a training course that learners might ever need to know . Unfortunately, this can result in information overload where learners leave the training feeling overwhelmed, confused, and frustrated . This makes it very hard, if not impossible, for them to apply what they learned to their jobs . In fact, the number one question learners have when they finish training is, “What do I do when I get back to my desk?” That question should be answered very specifically by the lesson objectives and the supporting learning objectives . In fact, if you study the content of each lesson, you should be able to reverse engineer the learning objectives . If content is included that does not map to a specific learning objective, you either have nice-to-know information that doesn’t add value to the training or you are missing a learning objective . Conversely, if you have a learning objective that isn’t supported by related content, you either have a nice-to-know objective that doesn’t add value to the training or you are missing content . — 19 —
  20. 20. Table of Contents Website Email 11) Does the content explain not only what and how, but why? Content should cover not only what and how, but why whenever possible . People are more likely to remember what and how to do something if they know why it is important . Knowing the importance of something makes it a priority . In school, teachers accomplish this by pointing out when something will be on the test . In training, trainers accomplish this by pointing out why something should be done a particular way to either avoid a problem or optimize results . 12) Does the content include examples, analogies, and anecdotes? Stories in the form of examples, analogies, and anecdotes can help learners retain information and form compelling mental pictures that promote understanding as well as explain complicated concepts . In fact, they act like Velcro by giving learners something interesting to which they can stick dry or complicated concepts, bland facts, policies, and rules . 13) Is the content written in global English? Content should be written in global English at no more than a fifth-grade reading level . This means: • Using short, simple sentences • Writing in the active voice • Using simple vocabulary words and then reusing the same words again instead of using synonyms to spice up the writing • Avoiding acronyms, clichés, and idioms • Avoiding double negatives Learning Activities 14) Does the instructional design give learners the opportunity to actively participate at least 75% of the time? The more time learners spend actively engaged, the higher their level of mastery . This is because learning is about creating knowledge, not absorbing it . After all, are you more likely to bake the perfect soufflé after listening to a lecture on baking techniques or after you’ve had a chance to practice making — 20 —
  21. 21. Table of Contents Website Email and baking soufflés? Lectures and demonstrations can lay conceptual groundwork, but they don’t substitute for hands-on experience . In addition, it’s critical that learners have multiple opportunities to practice applying new knowledge and skills in different ways . Unless the task is quite simple, it is rare that someone can actually learn how to do something by watching a demonstration and practicing one time . As a result, it is better to cover less content and spend more time practicing than to try to jam too much content into the session with little opportunity for practice . 15) Do learning activities support learners’ ability to achieve one or more lesson objectives? The purpose of every single learning activity is to give learners the hands-on practice they need to achieve a specific learning objective . For example, if an objective is for learners to able to clarify prospect needs during a sales call, an appropriate learning activity might be a role-play that gives learners the chance to practice asking questions and restating answers to clarify prospect needs . Note the explicit, direct tie between the two . While this logic may seem obvious, some courses include activities strictly as a way to raise the fun factor for learners . There is nothing wrong with having fun as a part of learning . However, resources, such as learners’ time, are in short supply . In most organizations, work doesn’t stop accumulating because someone is in training . As a result, it is critical that the learning activities focus on achieving learning objectives rather than on having a good time . 16) Do learning activities mirror the job as closely as possible? The purpose of training is to improve job performance . As a result, learning activities should look and feel as much like real work as is feasible, given the constraints of the training environment . If possible, learners may even bring real work to training to give them a chance to apply new skills immediately . This can provide them with the support they need to get over the rough spots of applying what they’ve learned in the neat world of training to the messy world of real life . — 21 —
  22. 22. Table of Contents Website Email Learning activities should also mirror the job by pointing learners to resources that will be available on the job . Such resources could include online help, policies and procedures, reference guides, marketing collateral, and job aids, for example . Well-designed learning activities give learners an opportunity to practice using these resources to accomplish a task . Poorly designed learning activities encourage learners to turn to the instructor for all knowledge . Unfortunately, when the learners get back to their desks, the instructor won’t be available to answer questions . 17) Are learning activities debriefed so that learners understand the purpose? Some learning activities use a familiar analogy to introduce a new concept or topic or to point out existing knowledge and skills that transfer to a new situation . For example, learners may: • Solve a murder mystery to uncover behaviors that contribute to a high-performing team • Construct a Lego tower to see what happens when a new member is introduced to the group • Assemble the components of a recipe to learn the importance of including all elements in a plan • Participate in a simulation to draw conclusions about how a system works These types of activities can be tricky . The analogy must be similar enough to the situation the training addresses that the instructor can get the point of the activity across . It is also extremely important that the learners be debriefed thoroughly and correctly so they don’t miss the point of the activity . A good debrief includes the following questions: • What happened? • Why did we do this activity? How does it relate to the real world? • What did you learn? • How does what you learned relate to the real world? — 22 —
  23. 23. Table of Contents Website Email These questions help learners see how the activity can be translated into lessons learned that apply on the job . 18) Are there opportunities for learners to receive feedback? Bottom line—the point of learning activities is to give learners an opportunity to practice using new knowledge and skills . As a result, it is critical that learners receive feedback . Without feedback, they won’t have any way to know how they are doing and what, if any, adjustments to make . Achieves Verifiable Results Because a course is theoretically sound doesn’t mean that it is guaranteed to deliver results . To find out if the training works, you need to evaluate its effectiveness in terms of whether learners are correctly applying what they learned to their jobs . Ideally, the course includes a test that assesses whether learners learned how to perform the best practice taught . The test should mimic as closely as possible how learners will perform the best practice on the job . So, if the best practice teaches learners how to make good decisions, the test might include a number of scenarios where learners have to make decisions and explain their process and rationale . If learners have to troubleshoot network problems, the test should present them with a series of problems to troubleshoot . It can be tempting to rely on a multiple-choice test for every type of training . It is quick . It is easy to develop . And, it keeps the logistics of giving the test manageable . Unfortunately, this sort of test is often not robust enough to tell you whether learners can apply what they learned . It may only indicate whether learners understand the theory . The evaluation strategy should also include assessing whether learners are applying what they learned in the training to their job . There are many ways to do this . You can gather this data from secret shoppers, reports, customers, managers, peers, and employees themselves . The goal is to find out what knowledge and skills learners have been able to implement and what, if anything, is standing in the way of applying — 23 —
  24. 24. Table of Contents Website Email everything they’ve learned . In other words, it’s not about return on investment (ROI) but rather about return on expectations (ROE) . And, if the ROE is disappointing, the evaluation should provide you with actionable information that you can use to correct the training . What about ROI? The potential ROI should have been calculated before the training was designed, developed, and implemented . It drives the decision about whether to train at all and if the answer is “yes,” how much money to put into the effort . Plus, you already know that the best practice gets results . The training is simply teaching that best practice . So, if learners apply the best practice, business results are inevitable unless something has changed in the business environment and the best practice needs to be revised . Most often, when I’ve conducted these levels of evaluation, I’ve discovered that the training needs additional back-end support . Learners “get it” in the classroom but then have trouble applying the training on the job . This is why it’s so important that the actually training event is one step in an overall process . — 24 —
  25. 25. Table of Contents Website Email Localizing Training Across the Globe Now that you know the training works in the US, you can be sure it is ready to localize . Think of this first part of the process as perfecting a prototype . You can now customize the prototype to meet the needs of a global audience . The steps to localize training are: 1) Identify potential countries that could benefit from leveraging the training 2) Prioritize countries to localize training for 3) Determine if the proven best practice will work as is in the target country 4) Customize the training Identifying Potential Countries Some courses, such as new employee orientation, make sense to implement everywhere . Others may not . For example, rolling out a class on a sophisticated sales model in an emerging market may not make sense if the model was built for use in a mature market . Nor will it make sense to implement a course designed to reduce turnover in a region that doesn’t have issues with employee turnover . In short, there should be a link between the goal of the training and either a business challenge or an opportunity for employees in the potential target country . Hopefully, this goal will be clearly communicated to you either when the target country requests the training or when headquarters directs you to localize the training for particular countries . If not, this is something you should clarify with business subject matter experts in country . Otherwise, you will end up with a solution (the training) without a corresponding problem . At a minimum, this is a waste of company resources . — 25 —
  26. 26. Table of Contents Website Email This is also a good time to gather information that will better help you understand what the expectations are for the training when it is implemented in the target country . What are the current baseline business metric measurements? What does current employee performance look like? What business metric measurements and employee performance are desired given that the training is successful? Prioritizing Countries If the goal of the training makes sense for multiple target countries, you may need to prioritize your efforts . Localizing a course for multiple countries at the same time can quickly become mind-boggling . To help prioritize, ask: 1) How much of an impact will the training make? The amount of impact can be influenced by factors such as the number of employees affected and the potential business benefits of the training . 2) What level of support can I count on? Are people in the business and in the training function available to assist with localization? 3) How much customization will be required? Retrofitting a US-based course for a Canadian audience will be a lot easier than retrofitting that same course for a Chinese audience . 4) How much interest exists to leverage the training? Will regional leaders do anything needed to make the training happen or do they have other priorities? Determining If the Best Practice Works Once you’ve selected one or more countries for which to localize the training, you’ll need to set the training course aside . Your first step is to determine if the best practice that works so well in the US works equally well in the chosen country . To do this, you’ll need to connect with people in the business rather than with those in training roles . — 26 —
  27. 27. Table of Contents Website Email Specifically, you’ll need to identify subject matter experts who can vet the best practice based on the documentation you created earlier . These experts should be top performers who work locally within the business . They should not be members of the training team . Review the best practice, including any tools and resources, with your subject matter experts to find out: 1) If the US-based best practice could work as is 2) If the US-based best practice could be modified to meet their needs 3) If they have a local best practice that addresses the issue Depending on what you learn, you may decide that it makes sense to: 1) Use the US-based best practice as is 2) Modify the US-based best practice 3) Use the local best practice If the decision is to use the US-based best practice as is or to modify it, you still need to test it to make sure it works in the target country . In fact, subject matter experts should actually perform the steps and use the tools and resources to ensure they get results . Again, observing work, interviewing (employees, their managers, their direct reports, and their customers), reviewing reports, and checking the final product should provide evidence that the best practice works . In some cases, the best practice may need to be modified to fit the business norms of the target country . Your subject matter experts should be able to help you add, delete, and revise steps and quality criteria in the best practice document as well as modify any corresponding tools and resources . If you can’t quite seem to revise the best practice in a way that works, you may need to bring in an outside subject matter expert . For example, a sales expert may need to observe a subject matter expert using a sales call best practice in the target country to help revise the best practice to resolve issues around price negotiation . — 27 —
  28. 28. Table of Contents Website Email Don’t forget to have Legal, Safety or QA review the best practice before you update the training to ensure that the training reflects proper procedure . On the other hand, if you decide to use the local best practice, you’ll need to have your subject matter experts test it (if they haven’t already done so) using the same methods you used to validate the US-based best practice . Such methods could include observing work; interviewing employees, their managers, their direct reports, and their customers (external and internal); reviewing reports; and checking the final product . Once you’ve tested the best practice, create a document that describes the local best practice in detail . The document should include all of the same information as the document you created for the US-based best practice . Work with the subject matter experts to create or gather any necessary resources and tools . Customizing the Training Once you’ve documented either the local best practice or the revised US-based best practice, you are ready to revise the training . Specifically, you’ll need to • Update the content • Revise the learning activities • Translate the course • Pilot the course Updating the Content Initially, you should only focus on getting the content right . You need to know what you will teach before you decide how you will teach it . Use the best practice document you created as a guide to rewrite the content in the training materials . — 28 —
  29. 29. Table of Contents Website Email Please note if you do not possess strong instructional design skills, you’ll want to get an instructional designer involved . An instructional designer will be able to ensure that any changes made to the training materials follow the guidelines for effective instructional design cited earlier . Also, having someone unfamiliar with the best practice can add value, as the person may be able to spot holes in your documentation that neither you nor the subject matter experts noticed . Most often this occurs when the instructional designer tries to explain a step and realizes more information is necessary to write clearly . Next, have your subject matter experts review the training materials to make sure that you’ve captured any nuances of how the best practice is performed in their country . Make sure to get specific recommendations for any changes . You may have them work with you to reword the training materials so you can be sure that you’ve captured any nuances and that you haven’t inadvertently introduced any assumptions based on how business is done in the US . Finally, have an editor review the training materials to ensure you used global English throughout . It is too easy for clichés, corporate-speak, and idioms to creep unnoticed into the writing to leave this in the hands of the person who revised the content . Revising the Learning Activities Then, it’s time to connect with your training colleagues in country . Review the learning activities with them to see if the activities will work as is in their country . If not, make the modifications they suggest . Again, I strongly recommend getting an instructional designer involved if you do not possess strong instructional design skills . A good instructional designer will be able to easily transform role-plays into case studies, for example . Speaking of which, here is where good instructional design up front can really make your job easier . Ideally, learning activities should mirror the actual job as closely as possible . For example, if learners have to create a business plan on the job, they have to create a business plan in the training . Or, if they have to delegate work — 29 —
  30. 30. Table of Contents Website Email on the job, they have to delegate work in the training . If learning activities provide a direct opportunity to practice what learners do on the job, they are much more likely to be appropriate cross culturally . Once you’ve redesigned and rewritten learning activities, have both your subject matter experts and your training colleagues review the activities . Your subject matter experts will be checking the activities to ensure they provide realistic practice scenarios . Your training colleagues will be checking the activities to ensure that the way the activity is conducted will work in their country . For example, while an element of competition can make an activity fun and exciting in the US, it may not be appropriate in a culture where saving face or cooperation is highly valued . Translating the Training Once you feel that you’ve documented the customized course accurately in English, it’s time to translate it . Make sure to have a native speaker from the selected country do the translation . Think about how strange it would be to have someone from the UK translate a course designed in Sweden for a US-target audience . American English and British English can be quite different . The same goes for other languages such as Spanish . Often your organization will have a contract in place with a translation service; check with Corporate Communications . This will enable you to take advantage of a negotiated rate . Piloting the Training Now it’s time to hand off the course to your in-country training colleagues to pilot and finalize . Their goal is to find out: • What worked? • What needs to be improved? • What improvements are recommended? — 30 —
  31. 31. Table of Contents Website Email Based on the feedback they receive from course participants, they should revise the course and provide you with feedback on the revisions they made . This way you can learn from the changes . Finally, you should provide your in-country training colleagues with the data that you gathered on current and desired business metric measurements and employee performance . They will be able to use this data to evaluate the effectiveness of the training and course correct as necessary . — 31 —
  32. 32. Table of Contents Website Email Conclusion In conclusion, there are three keys to globalizing training . The first is good instructional design . Think of your US-designed course as a prototype that you want to perfect before you roll it out elsewhere . The second is a close working relationship with your colleagues in the target countries . Without their support and involvement, you simply will not be able to effectively customize the training to meet their needs . The third is to ensure that the training makes sense for the selected countries . To this end, it is always a better idea to make your colleagues aware of what training is available that they might want to leverage . Then, let them request the courses that they feel address an important business issue or opportunity . Ultimately, though, globalization is not difficult . It can be a cost-effective alternative to “reinventing the wheel” as each country designs and develops its own version of a course . — 32 —
  33. 33. Table of Contents Website Email Appendix: Localization Checklist Is the Training Ready to Export? Teaches a Proven Best Practice 1) What is the name of the best practice? 2) What is the purpose/goal of the best practice? 3) What are the steps and sub steps of the best practice? 4) What, if any, quality criteria apply to the steps and sub steps of the best practice? 5) What tools and resources are used to perform the best practice? 6) What is your (quantitative or qualitative) proof that the best practice works? 7) Has the best practice been revised in any way to ensure that it works in the current business environment? If so, what revisions have been made? 8) Have you verified with Legal, Safety or QA that any revisions that have been made to the best practice reflect proper procedure? Has Effective Instructional Design Training Overview 1) Does the training course teach the best practice the way it is really performed? Have any revisions been captured? 2) Is the training course part of a process? 3) Does the delivery method promote training effectiveness? 4) Do the instructional materials answer the question, “What’s in it for me?” 5) Do the instructional materials present a single model for performance? — 33 —
  34. 34. Table of Contents Website Email Objectives 6) Does the course objective describe what learners will be able to do after training? 7) Do lesson objectives describe what learners will be able to do by the end of each lesson? 8) Do learning objectives describe what learners will be able to do by the end of each topic within a lesson? 9) Is there a clear path from course objective to lesson objectives to learning objectives? Content 10) Can you use the content to reverse engineer the learning objectives? 11) Does the content explain not only what and how, but why? 12) Does the content include examples, analogies, and anecdotes? 13) Is the content written in global English? Learning Activities 14) Does the instructional design give learners the opportunity to actively participate at least 75% of the time? 15) Do learning activities support learners’ ability to achieve one or more lesson objectives? 16) Do learning activities mirror the job as closely as possible? 17) Are learning activities debriefed so that learners understand the purpose? 18) Are there opportunities for learners to receive feedback? — 34 —
  35. 35. Table of Contents Website Email Achieves Verifiable Results 1) Is there a test that assesses whether learners learned the best practice taught in the training? If so, what are typical post-training results? Do they indicate that learners have learned the best practice? 2) Are learners applying what they learned in training to their work? Are they using the best practice taught on the job? What is your evidence? Which Countries Should We Focus on First? Identifying Potential Countries 1) What business challenge or opportunity was the training designed to address in the US? 2) What business challenge or opportunity will the training address in the target country? 3) Are the above answers the same or very similar? If not, this country may not be a good candidate for localizing the training . 4) What are the current baseline business metric measurements? 5) What does current employee performance look like? 6) What are the desired business metric measurements? 7) What does desired employee performance look like? Prioritizing Countries 1) How much of an impact will the training make? The amount of impact can be influenced by factors such as the number of employees affected and the potential business benefits of the training . 2) What level of support can I count on? Are people in the business and in the training function available to assist with localization? 3) How much customization will be required? Retrofitting a US-based course for a Canadian audience will be a lot easier than retrofitting that same course for a Chinese audience . — 35 —
  36. 36. Table of Contents Website Email 4) How much interest exists to leverage the training? Will regional leaders do anything needed to make the training happen or do they have other priorities? Does the Best Practice Work? Validating the Best Practice Review the best practice, including any tools and resources, with your subject matter experts to find out: 1) If the US-based best practice could work as is 2) If the US-based best practice could be modified to meet their needs 3) If they have a local best practice that addresses the issue With subject matter experts, decide whether it makes sense to: 1) Use the US-based best practice as is 2) Modify the US-based best practice 3) Use the local best practice If you will use... Then... The US best practice as is Test the best practice to make sure it works in the target country A modified version of Document any modifications and test the modified best practice to make the US best practice sure it will work in the target country The local best practice Document and test the best practice to make sure it works — 36 —
  37. 37. Table of Contents Website Email How Do We Customize the Training? Updating the Content 1) If you are using a local best practice or have modified the US best practice, rewrite the training content . Use the best practice documentation you created as a guide . Check with Legal, Safety or QA to ensure the best practice reflects proper procedure . 2) Review the training content with the business subject matter experts you’ve been working with to validate the best practice . Your goal is to ensure that you’ve documented the best practice accurately, completely, and clearly in the training materials . Revising the Learning Activities 3) Review the learning activities in the training materials with your in-country training colleagues . Note any revisions they suggest to the activities to make them culturally appropriate . (Note: Also review any housekeeping items such as ground rules and agendas .) 4) Revise the learning activities . 5) Review the learning activities with the business subject matter experts to make sure the activities are realistic practice scenarios and with the in-country training team to make sure the activities are culturally appropriate . Translating the Training 6) Have the training materials translated . Make sure to check with Corporate Communications to see if your company already has a contract in place with a translation service . 7) Insist on using a translator who is a native speaker of the country for which you are customizing the training . — 37 —
  38. 38. Table of Contents Website Email Piloting the Training 8) Hand off the customized training materials to the in-country training team to pilot and finalize . 9) Meet with the in-country training team to find out what feedback they received during the pilot and what revisions they made to finalize the training materials . Note any lessons learned . 10) Provide the current and desired business metric measurements and employee performance you collected to your in-country training colleagues to use in training evaluation . — 38 —
  39. 39. Table of Contents Website Email About Diane Valenti Diane Valenti, President and Founder of Applied Performance Solutions, Inc ., has over twenty years experience in performance consulting . She has extensive project management experience and expertise, as well . She has been a certified project manager (PMP) and has managed virtual teams of up to thirty members working on projects of close to $1,000,000 budget . Diane has taught instructional design in the extension program at UC Berkeley . She has also written and been featured in articles in the Training & Development Journal, Training Magazine, E-Learning!, and ASTD’s blog and e-zine, Learning Circuits . In addition, Diane is the author of Training Budgets Step-by-Step, a book on how to develop a training plan and budget linked to strategic objectives, as well as Buyer Beware, an Ebook that is the definitive guide on becoming a savvy purchaser of custom e-learning . She holds a Masters degree in Education and Human Development from the George Washington University in Washington, DC . Contact Diane and her team to help you leverage training across the globe: Email: Diane@apsiconsult.com Phone: 415-701-7600 Website: www.apsiconsult.com Copyright © 2010 by Diane Valenti, Applied Performance Solutions, Inc . All rights reserved . Globalizing Training: How to Leverage Training Designed in the US Across the Globe is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial- No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. — 39 —

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