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  • In learner to instructor interaction, the instructor attempts to stimulate student interest in the course content, to motivate the student, and to facilitate the learning process.Ideally, the instructor establishes an environment in which active participation and conversation can occur, and the learner participates in learning by engaging in interaction with his or her instructor, peers, and content.
  • Shackelford and Maxwell (2012) identified seven types of learner to instructor interaction.Online instructors need to communicate their expectations for online participation as well as course procedures. One easy way to do this is by creating a weekly screencast, podcast, or web conference to model and explain expectations for online learners.When instructors are absent from online discussions, learning and engagement are low. Online instructors need to provide guidance and feedback to help shape the conversation and keep it connected to key learning outcomes.Providing encouraging feedback doesn’t necessarily need to take extra time, as it can be woven into content-related feedback. Online instructors can use text, audio, or video to provide encouragement to students.Learners in traditional classrooms get ongoing feedback through verbal and nonverbal cues, which is missing in online settings. Synchronous web conferences provide a good opportunity for online instructors to give general feedback to the class, while emails, podcasts, and discussion board replies allow for individual feedback.Using a variety of communication types increases the likelihood that learner preferences will be met. Online communication can happen via synchronous class meetings, one-on-one virtual meetings, emails, blogs, asynchronous discussions boards, podcasts, wikis, and screencasts.On the seven, instructor modeling has the largest impact on students’ sense of community. Instructors model frequently for learners in F2F classrooms, but this modeling must be more explicit online. Instructors can use tools like screencasts, web conferences, and podcasts to model skills and concepts for online learners.Requiring students to participate in online discussions and other learning activities ensures that all students will have access to interaction with the instructor.
  • Learner interaction in_elearning_lamar_research_institute_3-21-14

    1. 1. LEARNER INTERACTION IN E-LEARNING Lamar Research Institute March 21, 2014 Cynthia Cummings, Diane Mason, Daryl Ann Borel, Kaye Shelton, Babette Eikenberg, Katie Baur, Clementine Msengi, and Jennifer Butcher
    2. 2. ONLINE LEARNING GROWTH • 32% of 6.7 million higher education students have taken at least one online course (Allen & Seaman, 2013). • 27.34 million higher education students in the United States in 2014 with an estimated 3.55 million (12.8 percent) will complete all of their coursework online, 18.65 million (68.2 percent) will take some online courses, and 5.14 million (19 percent) will participate in face-to-face courses.
    3. 3. ONLINE LEARNING GROWTH • Web-based environments affect how, when, and where students learn (Sher, 2009). • In spite of the exponential growth of online learning, critics are still concerned with the lack of effective and efficient interaction among students and professors (Arbaugh, 2000). • The massive growth of online learning opportunities accessible to students through public, private, for-profit, and free resources brings to light the need for ongoing discussions and research regarding overall learner effectiveness (Allen & Seaman, 2011). • Distance educators need to provide a theoretical framework for interaction (Garrison, 2000).
    4. 4. THE CONTEXTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ONLINE LEARNING EXPERIENCES • Five Pillars of the Sloan Consortium (SLOAN-C) Quality Online Framework • The Quality Scorecard for the Administration of Online Programs • Quality Matters Rubric (MarylandOnline, 2010; Sloan Consortium, 2012a; Sloan Consortium, 2012b)
    5. 5. FIVE PILLARS OF THE SLOAN CONSORTIUM (SLOAN-C) QUALITY ONLINE FRAMEWORK • Learner Effectiveness • Scale (Cost Effectiveness and Commitment) • Access • Faculty Satisfaction • Student Satisfaction (Bourne & Moore, 2002; Sloan Consortium, 2012a)
    6. 6. THE QUALITY SCORECARD FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF ONLINE PROGRAMS • Tool for measuring quality within the total higher education online program by offering 70 indicators . • Rubric helps to identify areas of weaknesses and components of strength for strategic and continuous improvement planning .
    7. 7. QUALITY MATTERS (QM) RUBRIC • 70 quality indicators used in a faculty peer-review process to assess the quality of online or blended courses. • Consists of three features which includes a written set of indicators, a peer review process, and professional development.
    8. 8. E-LEARNING INTERACTIONS • A university must go beyond access to information or content and include engagement between colleagues and peers to help develop understanding (Laurillard, 2000). • This engagement is developed through interaction between teachers and students and among students, and forms the basis of Laurillard’s (2000) approach to teaching and learning.
    9. 9. E-LEARNING INTERACTIONS • Online learning courses must be carefully designed, meet the pedagogical needs of students, and offer quality resources for course content (Mayadas, Bourne, & Bacsich, 2009; Murray, Pérez, Geist, & Hedrick, 2012). • Learner to Content • Learner to Instructor • Learner to Learner • Learner to Interface
    10. 10. LEARNER TO CONTENT • During the last decade faculty and teachers have been exploring and experimenting with a number of alternative approaches to engage students with course content. • New Forms of Teaching (Fink, 2003) • Simulation, Debate, Case Studies, Role-Playing • Writing to Learn • Small Group Learning • Assessment as Learning • Problem-Based Learning • Service Learning • Online Learning
    11. 11. LEARNER TO CONTENT Old Paradigm  Knowledge transferred from faculty to students  Student is a passive vessel to be filled with the faculty’s knowledge  Mode of learning is primarily memorizing  Context of learning is primarily individual  Assessment through norm referenced mostly employing multiple-choice items and student rating the instruction at the end of the course  Technology use through drill and practice, textbook substitute, and chalk-talk substitute New Paradigm  Knowledge jointly constructed by students and faculty  Student is an active constructor, discoverer, transformer of knowledge  Mode of learning is primarily relating  Context of learning includes individual, cooperative, and work teams  Assessment through criterion referenced to pre- defined standards mainly employing portfolios, products, and some reliance on traditional test items  Technology use through problem solving, communication, collaboration, expression, and information access Old and New Paradigms for College Teaching (Campbell & Smith as referenced in Fink, 2003)
    12. 12. LIB GUIDES • LibGuides can provide a platform for active learning through the lens of digital media. • Content management system that faculty can use to create and share information online for use locally and globally. • Little or no technical knowledge is needed to publish useful content. • Conversely, tech-savvy faculty can use advanced features such as APIs or widget builders to mix and match content as needed.
    13. 13. EDUD 6307 LIB GUIDE
    14. 14. LIB GUIDES
    15. 15. FINALLY • What Do Faculty Need? • Awareness • Encouragement • Time • Resources • Cooperative Students • Recognition and Reward These six conditions are mutually reinforcing. Meaning all six need to be intact and viable if we want to have a major impact on the ability to support and sustain instructional changes within the higher education levels.
    16. 16. LEARNER TO INSTRUCTOR • Purpose • Reinforce students’ understanding of course materials. • Stimulate students’ interest in course content. • Maintain students’ engagement in an online course. • Motivate students. • Facilitate the learning process (Swan, 2003).
    17. 17. LEARNER TO INSTRUCTOR • Benefits • Sense of community – Builds a sense of community among the students, which leads to student satisfaction, retention, and increased learning. • Feedback – Provides students with the feedback they need to determine if they are mastering the content in your course. • Variety – Exposes students to a variety of learning resources, including content materials and experiences and knowledge shared by other students. • Active Learning – Makes students become more actively engaged in the learning process, leading to higher levels of learning.
    18. 18. LEARNER TO INSTRUCTOR • Types (Shackelford & Maxwell, 2012) • Providing information on expectations. • Participating in discussions. • Providing support and encouragement. • Providing timely feedback. • Using multiple modes of communication. • Instructor modeling. • Required participation.
    19. 19. LEARNER TO INSTRUCTOR • Tools/Strategies • Asynchronous Communication (different time, different place) • Discussion Boards/Forums • Videos/Screencasts • Email • Podcasts • FAQs • Social Networking Sites, such as Facebook and Twitter
    20. 20. LEARNER TO INSTRUCTOR • Synchronous Communication (same time, different place) • Web Conferences • Virtual office hours • Skype • Chat • Virtual Spaces, such as Second Life
    21. 21. LEARNER TO INSTRUCTOR • Examples/Demos • Databases • Proquest • Credo • Cabell's • Eric • EBSCOhost • Films on Demand • Research Guide • Inter-library Loan • Web Conferencing
    22. 22. LEARNER TO LEARNER • Purpose • Build student cognitive processes. • Develop a motivation for learning. • Offer opportunities for reflection. • Enhance the social interaction skills of all students. • Resourcefully create content through a variety of collaborative, interactive means. Image Under Creative Common License http://www.pcschools535.org/vnews/display.v/ART/4d62d667c63d 8
    23. 23. LEARNER TO LEARNER • Types • Simulations • Problem-based and Project-based Learning • Case-based Learning • Collaboration Methods • Role Playing • Peer Editing • Peer Instruction • Peer Feedback • Online Icebreakers • Flipped Classroom • Web 2.0 Tools Image Creative Commons License http://borderlessnewsandviews.com/2012/04/state-of-the-labor-union/
    24. 24. LEARNER TO LEARNER EXAMPLES • Simulations • Educational Leadership • http://coe.fgcu.edu/faculty/valesky/edleadsims/simulations.html • Prehistoric Climate Change • http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/students/idealabs/prehistoric_climate_change .html • Science and Math Simulations • http://www.crowdrise.com/helpbuildteachwithphet
    25. 25. LEARNER TO LEARNER EXAMPLES • Problem-based and Project-based Learning • Edutopia • http://www.edutopia.org/stw-project-based-learning-best-practices-new-tech-video • Buck Institute for Education (BIE) • http://bie.org/ • Problem-based Learning Clearninghouse • http://www.udel.edu/pblc/clearinghouse/
    26. 26. LEARNER TO LEARNER EXAMPLES • Role Playing • Higher Order Thinking Questions • Stories, Situations, or Case Studies • Hypothetical Characters • Avatars • Scenarios • Cooperative Learning Strategies • Case-based Learning • http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/collection/
    27. 27. LEARNER TO LEARNER EXAMPLES • Other Collaboration Methods • Peer Editing - Areas of strength and weakness, encourages learner self-management of learning, and enhances individual achievement of learning outcomes. • Peer Instruction - Students interact and learn from one another without initial, direct teacher assistance, or intervention. • Peer Feedback - Peer feedback through blogging effective for editing articles and improving writing skills. • Online Icebreakers • BINGO - Create a Bingo activity after the first week of class and students have posted introductions in the discussion board. • ONE WORD - In the first week introductory discussion board, have students create a one word bio about themselves and then explain why they chose that. • SNOWBALL – In the first week of introductions, direct the students to post their introductions one at a time. The second student must post their information and then find something in common with the first student. They can also be required to respond to several students that have posted similar interests.
    28. 28. FLIPPED LEARNING • Bergman and Sams (2012) – High school science teachers. • Hamdan et al. (2013) Identified four key pillars that permit flipped learning, using active learning assessments, to be implemented in effective ways: • Flexible Learning Environment – Promotes engaged experiences. • Learning Culture – Includes online learning components similar to a hybrid model. • Intentional Content – Student centered pedagogies and active learning assessments used to focus on learning. • Professional Educator – Skilled in personalized and authentic learning. • Flipped Learning Network • http://flippedlearning.org/site/default.aspx?PageID=1
    29. 29. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSIONS • Connected learning is becoming a priority in both K-12 and higher education classrooms through the use of incorporating online learning activities that build bridges between life experiences and cognitive concepts. • Self-directed learning and the expansion of learning communities using social networking, Web 2.0 tools, and mobile technologies is a high priority. These approaches offer new learning models for both faculty development and student exploration. • Competition for student enrollment presents a need for an elevated level of accountability, rigor, creativity, and online learning support systems.
    30. 30. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSIONS • Quality Matters and the Sloan-C Quality Scorecard are increasingly important tools for measurement of quality online courses and systems (Quality Matters, 2013; Sloan-C, 2013). • Large data storage systems and rapid internet distribution systems permit online learning developers, instructors, and students opportunities for high quality content. It also enhances the ability to store enormous volumes of data to support student learning outcomes. (Gartner, 2013; Gonick, 2013; T.H.E. Journal, 2013).
    31. 31. CONTACT INFORMATION • Cynthia Cummings – cdcummings@lamar.edu • Diane Mason – diane.mason@lamar.edu • Daryl Ann Borel – darylann.borel@lamar.edu • Kaye Shelton – kaye.shelton@lamar.edu • Babette Eikenberg – beikenberg@lamar.edu • Katie Baur – katie.baur@lamar.edu • Clementine Msengi – clementine.msengi@lamar.edu • Jennifer Butcher – jennifer.butcher@lamar.edu College of Education and Human Development Department of Educational Leadership Lamar University