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Problemas de traducción


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Problemas de traducción

  1. 1. PROBLEMAS DE TRADUCCIÓNDiferencias entre Traducción Jurídica y Traducción Técnica, Científica, etc.
  2. 2. • A diferencia de realidades como los elementos químicos o las reglas de la física, que coinciden más o menos universalmente en todas las comunidades según el nivel de conocimiento de la materia, los conceptos, la terminología y las mismas realidades jurídicas se corresponden sólo en parte de una sociedad a otra. Cuando decimos en parte, nos referimos a que ciertos conceptos pueden coincidir plenamente ( con o sin diferencias de terminología, por supuesto), algunos existen en una sociedad y no aparecen bajo ninguna forma en la otra, mientras que otros se corresponden, pero sólo hasta cierto punto, en las dos sociedades.
  3. 3. • Problems faced by the legal translator1.Lack of knowledge of the terminology andphraseology (USM Units of specialized meaning)used in the text or which ought to be used therein(in the case of the wording of the translation,given that the future reader has expectations inthat respect).
  4. 4. • 2. A lack of knowledge of the characteristic traits that give the text substance, such as the branch of law to which it corresponds, the textual genre to which it belongs ( its usual macroestructure), the main function to be expected, etc.• 3. A lack of knowledge of the figures involves: the individuals who or agents that feature or may feature in the legal context of the text (courts, civil service, lawyers, second or third parties, applicable legislation, etc). Legal texts have a high level of intertextuality, and it is usually tacit. For ex., it is common for there to be no reference to the legislation or precedent that is relevant to a particular text, but it is assumed that the target of the text possesses knowledge thereof.
  5. 5. • 4. A lack of knowledge of the possible legal consequences arising from the text. Texts that require the person at whom they are aimed to respond or act in a specific manner, texts that involve action form third parties, texts that are provisional or not final.It is not enouth for the translator to be familiar with the twolegal contexts involved (which, for each language and itscorresponding legal system, will include the four problem areasreferred to above). The translator needs to take a broaderuniverse into account, namely the context of translation, thecommunicative situation in which it arises, whether a translateddocument or target text is to be legally valid in the tartgetlanguage/legal system or whether a translation is beingundertaken for informative purposes, etc.
  6. 6. • The most appropriate type of equivalence will be opted for : • 1. On a lexical level • 2. On a sentence level • 3. On a textual level 1. Lexical level • a) A legal equivalent (is held to mean equivalency established between two terms that represent two similar concepts in each of the legal systems (separation agreement, acuerdo de división de bienes, convenio regulador. • b) A contextual equivalent (refers to the case of the term in the source language having different possible equivalents in the target language depending on the context in which it is used ( e.g. attorney can be the equivalent of abogado, apoderado, Fiscal General de Estado). • c) Lexical translation consists of suggesting a loan translation of a term in the source language when there is no equivalent thereof in the target legal system ( The Business Namens Act- Ley de Nombres de Empresas, Sociedades)
  7. 7. • d) Periphrastic translation involves explaining a source language term in the target text• (joint venture, unión de dos o más empresas…..)• 2. Sentence level (phraseologically functional equivalencies, collocations, etc).• 3. Textual level ( reproducing the specific characteristics of the macrostructure and adaptation to the particular characteristics of the genre in the target legal system, etc.)
  8. 8. • The legal translator is constantly faced with translation situations that require the following three facets: a) knowledge of the four problem areas in the language and legal system corresponding to the original text; b) knowledge of the four problem area in the language and the legal system corresponding to the target text, which implies being able to think of the closest situation possible to that to which the original text refers in the the target language and legal system; c) reflection and decision making in order to select the most appropriate type of equivalency on lexical, sentence and textual levels.
  9. 9. • Equivalencia Funcional• Cualidad de una traducción en la que el mensaje del TO ha sido transferido a la lengua receptora de tal modo que la respuesta del receptor es esencialmente igual que la de los receptores originales.• En la mayoría de los casos es el método o procedimiento más adecuado en traducción jurídica, no siempre aplicable estrictamente.• Como alternativas (según Weston)• - Traducción palabra por palabra si nos ofrece una equivalencia funcional
  10. 10. • - Traducción no literal, que representa una equivalencia funcional en la LM (High School Escuela Secundaria)• - Traducción palabra por palabra o no literal, que representa una equivalencia semántica, pero que no existe como un referente cultural equivalente en la LM;• - Transcripción, con o sin glosas (a veces necesaria, de cualquier forma, para lectores especializados);• - Neologismo• - Explicación /definición• Otro elemento de importancia• Transparencia
  11. 11. • Si se vuelve a traducir o retro-traducir el documento debe ser posible reconocer e identificar los términos originales.• Ministerio de Educacion- Department of Education- Departamento de Educación• Adopción Simple, Adopción Plena. En inglés solo existe Adoption
  12. 12. • Example from Academic Documents• The client who requires the translation of this type of document is usually applying for the recognition of his/her studies in an English speaking country. Besides recognition, other reasosn given for such trnaslations are applications for grants, research posts or a place on a postgraduate course. In all of these cases, the client´s future may hinge on the correct, or sometimes, incorrect representation of his/her studies.
  13. 13. • Qualifications• When concepts in the SL culture do not have exact equivalents in the TL culture the translator must opt for a multiple system of translation which must include lexical borrowing of the original term and a definition, normally enclosed in square brackets to denote that it is the translator who is giving this information.• Licenciatura en Filología Inglesa• Basic information to be included in the translation• a) Duration of the course of studies (important in recognition or access to postgraduate studies• b) Level (whether the studies are considered as undergraduate or postgraduate in SL)• c) Content refers to the name of the course
  14. 14. • 1. Formal equivalents (literal, no lexical borrowing)• Licentiate in English Philology• A licentiate is defined as a degree situated between that of a bachelor and a doctor which is only awarded by European universities (Collins 1994)• 2. Dynamic equivalents (No lexical borrowing)• Bachelor in English Philology• (It is not part of the translator´s responsibility to recognise and award the qualification of bachelor as defined as a person who holds the degree of Bachelor of Arts, etc.).• 3. A compromise choosing the best alternative in each unit
  15. 15. • A five* year undergraduate course in English Philology• A final version would be a mixture of lexical borrowing and definition, including the term ¨degree¨ which is defined as «an academic award conferred by a university or college on successful completion of a course»• Licentciatura en Filología Inglesa [ a degree awarded after a five year undergraduate course of study in English Philology]