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Lecture 15 functional_styles(2)


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Lecture 15 functional_styles(2)

  2. 2.  Definition of a functional style  Informal style 1. colloquial words 2. slang 3. dialect words  Formal style 1. learned words 2. archaisms and historisms 3. poetic diction 4. professional terminology  Neutral vocabulary
  3. 3. Functional Style a system of expressive means peculiar to a specific sphere of communication
  4. 4. Functional Style sphere of communication – circumstances attending the process of speech in each particular case
  5. 5. Informal Style used in personal two-way every- day communication vocabulary may be determined socially (educational and cultural background, age group, occupation) or regionally (dialect)
  6. 6. Informal Style  gesture, tone, voice, situation are as important as words  careful choice of words plays a minor role  vocabulary is much less variegated  the same pronouns, auxiliaries, postpositives, the same most frequent and generic terms are used again and again
  7. 7. Informal Style  the same pronouns, auxiliaries, postpositives, the same most frequent and generic terms are used again and again  they convey a great number of different meanings  some words are overused (e.g. thing, do, get, nice, really, etc.)
  8. 8. Informal Style  characterized by imaginative phraseology (e.g. a lot of moonshine),  ready-made formulas of politeness and tags,  standard expressions of surprise, gratitude (e.g. I‘m most grateful), apology, etc.
  9. 9. Informal Style  substantives adjectives (e.g. greens for ’green leaf vegetables’, woolies for ‘woolen clothes’)  lexical intensifiers, emphatic verbs and adverbs with lost denotational meaning (e.g. awfully, lovely, terrific, grand, dead etc.)
  10. 10. Informal Style  lexical expressions of modality (e.g. definitely, in a way, I should think so, not at all, by no means , etc.)
  11. 11. Informal Style  Colloquial words 1. literary colloquial (cultivated speech) 2. familiar colloquial 3. low colloquial (illiterate speech)  Slang words  Dialect words
  12. 12. Literary Colloquial Speech  used by educated people in the course of ordinary conversation or when writing letters to intimate friends  e.g. bite, snack – meal to have a crush on smb – to fall in love with smb phrasal verbs - to put up, turn up, do away shortenings – pram, exam, flu
  13. 13. Familiar Colloquial Speech  more emotional, much more free and careless  used mostly by young and semi-educated  characterized by a great number of jocular or ironical expressions and nonce-words  e.g. doc – doctor, ta-ta – good-bye
  14. 14. Low Colloquial Speech illiterate unpopular speech contains more vulgar words sometimes contains elements of dialect
  15. 15. Slang  contrasted to standard literary vocabulary  mainly used by young and uneducated  characterized by the use of expressive, mostly ironical words which create fresh names for some usual things
  16. 16. Slang  most slang word are metaphors and jocular, often with a coarse, mocking, cynical colouring, produce shocking effect e.g. money – beans, bras, dibs, dough, wads drunk – boozy, cock-eyed, soaked
  17. 17. Slang  slang words and idioms are short-lived, soon they ether disappear or lose their peculiar colouring and become either colloquial or stylistically neutral e.g. chap, fun, mob, shabby, hitch-hiker, once in a blue moon
  18. 18. Slang general slang – specific for any social or professional group special slang – peculiar for some groups: teenager slang, football slang, sea slang, etc.
  19. 19. Argot  special vocabulary used by a particular social or age group, the so-called underworld (the criminal circles)  its main purpose - to be unintelligible to the outsiders  argot words are non-motivated e.g. shin – knife, book – life sentence
  20. 20. Dialect Words Dialect is a variety of a language which prevails in a district, with local peculiarities of vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar
  21. 21. Dialect Words  dialect words may enter colloquial speech, slang, then neutral vocabulary and formal language e.g. car, tram, trolley
  22. 22. Formal Style English vocabulary that occur in books and magazines, that we hear from a lecturer, a public speaker, a radio announcement, in formal official talk
  23. 23. Formal Style  used in monologues addressed by one person to many, often prepared in advance  words are used with precision  the vocabulary is elaborate, generalized, not limited socially or geographically
  24. 24. Formal Style  learned words 1. literary words 2. words of scientific prose 3. official words 4. poetic diction  Archaic and obsolete words  Professional terminology
  25. 25. Formal Style  literary words – used in descriptive passages of fiction  mostly polysyllabic words from Romance languages  create complex and solemn associations e.g. delusion, felicity, cordial, solitude
  26. 26. Formal Style  words of scientific prose e.g. experimental, divergent, heterogeneous, as early as, in terms of etc.  officialese (канцеляризмы) – words of official, bureaucratic language, peculiar to official documents, business correspondence e.g. accommodation (room), donation (gift), comestibles (food), dispatch (send off)
  27. 27. Formal Style  words of poetic diction are traditionally used only in poetry  characterized by a lofty, high-flown, sometimes archaic colouring  they are more abstract e.g. array (clothes), steed (horse), lone (lonely), naught (nothing), albeit (although)
  28. 28. Archaic and Obsolete Words Obsolete words are words that dropped from the language, “no longer in use, esp. for at least for a century”
  29. 29. Archaic and Obsolete Words  Archaic words (archaism) are words which survive in special contexts, “current in an earlier time but rare in present usage”  associated with poetic diction e.g. aye (yes), nay (no), morn (morning), betwixt (between)
  30. 30. Historisms  words denoting objects and phenomena which are things of the past and no longer exist  they are names for social relations, institutions, objects of material culture of the past
  31. 31. Historisms  names of ancient transport means, ancient clothes, weapons, musical instruments, etc. e.g. landau ландо; четырехколесный экипаж или автомобиль со съемным верхом, phaeton фаэтон ( четырехколесная открытая коляска ), hansom двухколесный экипаж ( с местом для кучера сзади ) calash легкая коляска ( имеющая низкие колеса и складной верх ) berlin старинный дорожный четырехколесный крытый экипаж
  32. 32. Professional Terminology  specialized vocabularies  term is a word or a word-group which is specifically employed by a particular branch of science, technology, trade or the arts to convey a concept peculiar to this particular activity
  33. 33. Professional Terminology  terms should be monosemantic (polysemy may lead to misunderstanding)  independent of the context  have only denotational meaning  terms should not have synonyms e.g. paint, tint, dye (краска) - colour
  34. 34. Neutral (basic) Vocabulary opposed to formal and informal words used in all kinds of situations, independent of the sphere of communication stylistically neutral (lack connotations)
  35. 35. Neutral (basic) Vocabulary  constitute the core of the vocabulary, denote objects and phenomena of everyday importance  characterized by high frequency e.g. to walk, summer, child, green
  36. 36. Interrelations between different strata of vocabulary Basic vocabulary Informal Formal begin Start, get started commence Child, baby Kid, brat, bearn (dialect) Infant, babe (poetical)
  37. 37. Stylistically-neutral and stylistically-marked words Stylistically- neutral words Stylistically-marked words informal formal Basic vocabulary