Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Methodological possibilities for strengthening the monitoring of SDG indicator 16.10.1

106 views

Published on

Talk presented at the Academic Conference on the Safety of Journalists, World Press Freedom Day, Addis Ababa, 1 May 2019

Published in: News & Politics
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Methodological possibilities for strengthening the monitoring of SDG indicator 16.10.1

  1. 1. Methodological possibilities for strengthening the monitoring of SDG indicator 16.10.1 Academic Conference on the Safety of Journalists, World Press Freedom Day, Addis Ababa, 1 May 2019 Paper authors: Diana Maynard, Sara Torsner and Jackie Harrison, Centre for Freedom of the Media (CFOM), The University of Sheffield, UK
  2. 2. Background • The importance of global monitoring of violations against journalists recognised in SDG agenda (indicator 16.10.1): ‘verified cases of killing, kidnapping, enforced disappearance, arbitrary detention and torture of journalists, associated media personnel’ • To meet this ambitious monitoring agenda we need a comprehensive monitoring system capturing the scope & nature of violations (lethal & non-lethal) • Developing such a system confronts us with fundamental challenges including: o The accessibility of reliable information on violations o The systematisation and compiling of information
  3. 3. The problem of accessibility of reliable information • Substantial gaps in data beyond killings and therefore data on a range of different types of violations is not readily available o No single data source systematically captures all categories of 16.10.1 violations (and beyond) Ø how can this problem be mitigated? • Practical challenges of collecting and verifying data on violations: o Institutionalised local mechanisms for data collection absent or under development o Data collected by local civil society actors rarely pooled into a common repository o Difficulties with data verification o Lack of access to datasets Ø Any attempt to improve monitoring of violations against journalists in line with 16.10.1 must address the issue of generating quality data on a range of violations
  4. 4. The problem of systematisation Our research shows: • Lack of conceptual consistency across datasets (numerous definitions of instances of violations) • Substantial difference in the coverage of violation types across various data sets • Lack of methodological transparency • Need for sophisticated data categorisation & disaggregation to merge data form different sources o Harmonisation of data categories o Further categorisation of additional information from descriptive text sources • Need to explore and utilize previously untapped data sources (e.g. by using automated text processing tools)
  5. 5. Areas of practical research 1. Events-based methodology 2. Reconciling data from multiple sources 3. Information validity
  6. 6. Events-based methodology • Monitoring violations against journalists traditionally uses a person-based approach • This doesn’t preserve relations between individuals or between events • Typically used in human rights monitoring (e.g. HURIDOCS) and in NLP o What happened (who did what to whom)? o What actions were taken in response (who did what)? • An event is a situation in which a specific violation happens to a specific person, grounded in time • We can model complex events in a clear way, preserving temporal and causal relations
  7. 7. Events do not happen in isolation Event 1 Sub-Event 1 Sub-Event 2 Event 1 Event 2 Event 1 Event 2 precedes causes
  8. 8. A complex event The family of murdered Maltese anti-corruption journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia is demanding an independent public inquiry because she had suffered years of intimidation. She was killed by a car bomb near her home in October. Her widely-read blog accused top politicians of corruption. One of her sons, Paul, said three pet dogs were killed and attempts were made to burn down the journalist's home. • Several separate events, but • are they related? • was it the same perpetrator(s)?
  9. 9. Reconciling information from different sources Relation Example Issue Solution Same Event? Exact match Location: London Location: London Identical facts Two events can be merged Very likely Equivalent match Type: murder Type: assassination Semantically equivalent facts Two events can be merged Very likely No-conflict Location: London Date: 2019 Different but semantically compatible facts Facts from two events can be merged Probably Specificity Conflict Location: London Location: UK One fact is more specific than the other, but both are semantically compatible Facts can be merged at either specific or generic level Probably Direct conflict Location: London Location: Paris Facts conflict semantically: both cannot be correct More info needed to resolve conflict Unlikely
  10. 10. Annotation of free text Name Date Location City Location Country Event type Type of death Guerin 26061996 Dublin Ireland Killing Shooting
  11. 11. Reconciling databases Name Date City Country Event type Type of death Guerin 26061996 Dublin Ireland Killing Shooting Name Date Organisation Location Event type Veronica Guerin 26 June 1996 Sunday Independent Ireland Murder Name Date Organisation Location Event type Sources Veronica Guerin 26061996 Sunday Independent Dublin, Ireland Shooting: deliberate, fatal 2
  12. 12. Information validity • An information reliability measure is critical for monitoring • Can be based on: o Number of sources that agree o Trustworthiness of sources (e.g. Global Disinformation Index, Journalism Trust Initiative) o Likelihood of error/vagueness (e.g. names are often wrong)
  13. 13. Putting it all together
  14. 14. Conclusions • Monitoring the complexity of violations against journalists by going beyond killings can be achieved through an events-based approach • This enables us to investigate patterns, trends and early warnings, leading to a better understanding of the contexts in which threats to journalists can escalate into a killing undertaken with impunity
  15. 15. Thank you for listening Contact: Diana Maynard (d.maynard@sheffield.ac.uk), Senior Research Fellow, Centre for Freedom of the Media (CFOM), The University of Sheffield, UK Sara Torsner (sktorsner1@sheffield.ac.uk), PhD Researcher, Centre for Freedom of the Media (CFOM), The University of Sheffield, UK Jackie Harrison (j.harrison@sheffield.ac.uk), Professor Centre for Freedom of the Media (CFOM), The University of Sheffield, UK Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 825297, WeVerify, and by Free Press Unlimited
  16. 16. ICCS Crime Classification Scheme
  17. 17. HURIDOCS classification

×