Lvc & Ethnicity

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My slides about Language Variation and Change with respect to speaker Ethnicity, given for the lectures on Sociolinguistics at the University of Oxford in Fall 2009.

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Lvc & Ethnicity

  1. 1. Linguistic Variation& Ethnicity<br />Sociolinguistics<br />Week 7<br />Dr. Lauren Hall-Lew<br />
  2. 2. correlates of linguistic variation<br />Age<br />SEC<br />Gender<br />Ethnicity<br />
  3. 3. “Many discussions of ethnicity begin with the struggle to define ‘it’.” – Fishman 1985<br />vs. race<br />vs. nationality<br />vs. religion<br />vs. culture<br />vs. language<br />
  4. 4. “Many discussions of ethnicity begin with the struggle to define ‘it’.” – Fishman 1985<br />vs. race<br />vs. nationality<br />vs. religion<br />vs. culture<br />vs. language<br />“The expression of ‘collective, intergenerational <br />cultural continuity,’ i.e. the sensing and expressing <br />of links to ‘one’s own kind’ … collectivities that … <br />share putative ancestral origins.”<br />
  5. 5. Barth 1969<br />An ethnic group:<br />is largely biologically self-perpetuating<br />shares fundamental cultural values …<br />makes up a field of communication and interaction<br />has a membership which identifies itself, and is identified by others, as constituting a category distinguishable from other categories of the same order<br />
  6. 6. Joseph 2004<br />ethnic identity is focused more on common descent and on a cultural heritage shared because of common descent …<br />national identity is focused on political borders and autonomy …<br />racial identity [is] focused, like ethnic identity, on common descent and cultural heritage, but conceived on a grander scale, for example ‘black’ identity as opposed to Wolof identity.<br />
  7. 7. Labov 1963 (1972):Martha’s Vineyard<br />
  8. 8. Labov 1963 (1972):Martha’s Vineyard<br />
  9. 9. Labov 1963 (1972):Martha’s Vineyard<br />Centralization of vowels in price & mouth<br />English, Portuguese, Wampanoag Indians<br />
  10. 10. Labov 1963<br />Centralization of the price vowel<br />
  11. 11. Labov 1963<br />Centralization of the mouth vowel<br />
  12. 12. determining categories<br />The analysis depends on the choosing the appropriate categories<br />The task of the sociolinguist is to determine what matters to speakers, themselves<br />One way to do this is to see how categories are constructed in discourse<br />
  13. 13. ideological processes<br />Iconization naturalizes the link between a category and a property<br />Erasureis the process in which ideology, in simplifying the sociolinguistic field, renders some persons or activities invisible.<br />Fractal recursivity involves the projection of an opposition, salient at some level of relationships, onto come other level.<br />Irvine & Gal 2000<br />
  14. 14. determining categories<br />Identifying these processes helps the analyst determine which social categories are most likely relevant to interpreting language variation and change<br />The linguist must be careful to not engage in further processes of erasure, recursivity, or iconization<br />First-wave sociolinguistics is guilty of this:<br />e.g., treating African American English (AAE) as regionally homogenous<br />
  15. 15. ethnicity & LVC<br />First Wave claims: “participation”<br />Labov 2001:506<br />“All speakers who are socially defined as white, mainstream, or Euro-American, are involved in the [sound] changes to one degree or another … But for those children who are integral members of a sub-community that American society defines as ‘non-white’ -- Black, Hispanic, or native American – the result is quite different. No matter how frequently they are exposed to the local vernacular, the new speech patterns of regional sound change do not surface in their speech.”<br />
  16. 16. ethnicity & LVC<br />First Wave claims: “participation”<br />Labov2001:506<br />“All speakers who are socially defined as white, mainstream, or Euro-American, are involved in the [sound] changes to one degree or another … But for those children who are integral members of a sub-community that American society defines as ‘non-white’ -- Black, Hispanic, or native American – the result is quite different. No matter how frequently they are exposed to the local vernacular, the new speech patterns of regional sound change do not surface in their speech.”<br />
  17. 17. ethnicity & LVC<br />First Wave definitions of community<br />Labov2001:216<br />“…the limits of the speech community here defined are confined to the white majority, excluding African American and most Hispanic speakers.”<br />Erasure: ethnicity among whites; regional variation among non-whites<br />
  18. 18. ethnicity & LVC<br />Second Wave argumentation<br />ethnographic methods<br />reliance on categories important to the members of the community<br />correlations with variants reveal these categories, and how they’re related to one another<br />
  19. 19. ethnicity & LVC<br />Third Wave argumentation<br />ethnographic methods<br />linguistic variables are part of speakers’ own construction of (ethnic) identities and categories<br />linguistic variables are just one set of social practices, part of whole combined styles<br />correlations between ethnic categories and linguistic variables provide a window into how ethnic identities are constructed<br />
  20. 20. Current Studies<br />
  21. 21. Studies in the UK<br />Historically less focus on ethnicity compared to linguistics in North America<br />Increasing interest, especially in London<br />Shifts and increases in immigration<br />WWII & related economic pressures<br />Majority EU immigrants, but (more) saliently immigrants from former colonies<br />
  22. 22. Foreign-born population: by ethnic group, April 2001, UK<br />UK born in 2001: 92% White<br />Foreign born in UK in 2001: 53% White<br />http://www.statistics.gov.uk/CCI/nugget.asp?ID=1312&Pos=1&ColRank=2&Rank=480<br />
  23. 23. The non-White population: by ethnic group, April 2001, UK<br />http://www.statistics.gov.uk/CCI/nugget.asp?ID=764&Pos=2&ColRank=2&Rank=224<br />
  24. 24. Sharma 2009: London Asians <br />Some London communities are &gt; 75% South Asian<br />Southall: one of these; primarily Punjabi-heritage<br />
  25. 25. Sharma 2009<br />Lx variable<br />/t/-retroflection (as well as glottalization, and vocalic variables)<br />3 groups<br />Gen 1 (all ages)<br />Gen 2-mid & Gen 2-young<br />Contrasting social conditions & ethnic experiences in London<br />
  26. 26. Sharma 2009: Word position<br /><ul><li>Competence of Punjabi English in Gen 2-mid
  27. 27. (Also, competence of British English in Gen 2-mid; so adual competence group, maintaining both systems; greater use of style shifting.)
  28. 28. Gen 2-young reinterprets </li></ul>the Punjabi English <br />feature as part of a new,<br />young British Punjabi style<br />
  29. 29. Sharma 2009: Gender<br /><ul><li>Reinterpreted social meaning of Panjabi English feature has acquired a gendered meaning, too.</li></li></ul><li>Sharma 2009: Context<br /><ul><li>Young Women still use retroflex-/t/ at home,
  30. 30. a fact that would’ve been missed with traditional methods of data collection!</li></li></ul><li>Studies in the US<br />
  31. 31. Studies in the US<br />The non-white population: by ethnic group, est. 2006, U.S.<br />(U.S. = 26% non-white, vs. 8% in the U.K.)<br />
  32. 32. Studies in the US<br />Vast majority of work on African American English (and varieties of it)<br />Increasing work on Spanish-influenced varieties of English (e.g., Chicano English) as well as U.S. varieties of Spanish<br />Very little work on English LVC among Asian Americans (or among Native American Indians)<br />
  33. 33. Hall-Lew 2009: San Francisco Asians<br />Chinese Americans: Largest & longest in-residence group of Asians in the U.S.<br />Some San Francisco communities are &gt; 50%<br />
  34. 34. Hall-Lew 2009<br />The Sunset District: <br />Asian (mostly Chinese)<br />European (many Irish)<br />Lx variables<br />merger & fronting<br />known features of California English<br />30 people, ages 16-76<br />
  35. 35. Hall-Lew 2009<br />The Merger of lot & thought:<br />Enid, Chinese American, age 76: unmerged<br />… we shop, we walk …<br /> Maya, Chinese & Filipino, age 24: merged<br />… talk a lot …<br />
  36. 36. Hall-Lew 2009<br />Merger:<br />Enid, Chinese American, age 76: unmerged<br />… we shop, we walk …<br /> Maya, Chinese & Filipino, age 24: merged<br />… talk a lot …<br />
  37. 37. Hall-Lew 2009<br />Merger:<br />Enid, Chinese American, age 76: unmerged<br />… we shop, we walk …<br /> Maya, Chinese & Filipino, age 24: merged<br />… talk a lot …<br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39. Hall-Lew 2009<br />The Fronting of goat:<br />April, European American, age 18<br />… I kind of associate that …<br /> Monica, Chinese American, age 16<br />… um, so Stern Grove has this like …<br />
  40. 40. Hall-Lew 2009<br />Fronting:<br />April, European American, age 18<br />… I kind of associate that …<br /> Monica, Chinese American, age 16<br />… um, so Stern Grove has this like …<br />
  41. 41. Hall-Lew 2009<br />Fronting:<br />April, European American, age 18<br />… I kind of associate that …<br /> Monica, Chinese American, age 16<br />… um, so Stern Grove has this uh rep …<br />
  42. 42.
  43. 43. Other Current LVC Topics<br />Pan-ethnic styles (e.g., MLE)<br />Ethnic resources gaining broader social meanings, available for wider use<br />Style-switching & the role of the interviewer<br />
  44. 44. A Promising LVC Topic<br />Bi-/Multiethnic or Mixed Race identities<br />
  45. 45. Further Topics Beyond LVC<br /><ul><li>Language & Racism
  46. 46. mock styles
  47. 47. crossing & passing
  48. 48. accent hallucination
  49. 49. linguistic profiling</li></ul>Above variation<br />discourse structure<br />conversation structure<br />Language contact<br />Bi-/Multilingualism<br />code-switching<br />
  50. 50. lauren.hall-lew@ell.ox.ac.uk<br />

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