Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

How to write a report for TV? By Hossein Shahidi


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

How to write a report for TV? By Hossein Shahidi

  1. 1. TV News - Dr Hossein Shahidi What’s in a TV News Package 1. Reporter’s narration 2. Sound bites • Interviews • ‘Talking Heads’ • Vox pops 3. Videos with natural sound 4. Stand-ups - 5. Graphics 6. Music - sometimes The Basic Steps 1. Check equipment 2. Check location 3. Relate before you record 4. Make sure you have recorded • Headphones 5. Re-record TV News
  2. 2.  Establishing shot ◦ GV , Wide ◦ Tight … medium … wide  Sequences - 1. Related shots o Wide, Medium and Tight 2. Showing completion 3. Action / reaction 4. Action sequences  Cutaways – ◦ Jump cuts – ◦ Sequence jump cuts  Transition Shots ◦ Changes in time or location TV News - Dr Hossein Shahidi • Frame or compose before recording o In ‘pause’ • In-camera editing • Hold the Camera Still • Use a tripod – o Except for ‘action shots’  Sport  Following someone down the road • Without a tripod o Use wide shot • Fill the Screen
  3. 3.  Rule of Thirds  Z-Principle  10-second rule  Get plenty of shots ◦ Wide, Medium, Tight ◦ Wide, Medium, Tight, Tight, and Tight ◦ Tight, Medium, Wide  Angled shots  Leave Head Room  Leave Lead Room ◦ Talk Room ◦ Walk Rook • Interviews • Two-shot • One-shot • Close up • Include Action in the Interview • 180-degree rule – Crossing the line – Shooting axis – Neutralizing Shots – Changing perspective • Reverse (reaction) shots / noddies - TV News - Dr Hossein Shahidi
  4. 4. TV News - Dr Hossein Shahidi http://www.filmmakers- Subject has 'room to breathe' Subject too central in shot How to describe shots
  5. 5. TV News - Dr Hossein Shahidi • Zoom • Pan • Motivated pans and zooms • How to pan and zoom • Continuity - • White balance • Three-point lighting • Key light • Back light • Fill light • Shooting outdoors • Reflectors • Shooting at night • Piece-to-camera / stand-up • 10”-20”; 1 or 2 points 1. Standard Outcue (SOC) 2. Location: To show you were there 3. Drama: To reveal something 4. Acting: To show participation 5. To provide transition • Place to place • Topic to topic 6. No appropriate video • Walk and Talk –
  6. 6. TV News - Dr Hossein Shahidi • Is ‘a picture is worth 1,000 words’? • If it is, the do not repeat what the picture says . • Is it is not, add o Meaning o Context o Background • KISS • Short sentences • No sentences • The sound of silence • Nat sound package A group of young people eating with their hands Jordanians say Mansaf is best eaten with hands -la-/viva07/2005 mansaf.html
  7. 7. TV News - Dr Hossein Shahidi • Leading Lines • Visual Entrance • Movement • Color • Light and Dark • Balance and Symmetry • Perfect Symmetry • Asymmetrical balance • Informal balance • Foreground • Background • Practice assertiveness • Understand the Story • Broaden Your Skills • Avoid Complacency • Communicate • Tight editing • Except for conclusion • Final shot kept for several seconds • So the director can cut away from story before screen goes black.
  8. 8.  A-roll, or Footage ◦ In film and video, footage is the raw, unedited material as it had been originally filmed by movie camera or recorded by a video camera which usually must be edited to create a motion picture, video clip, television show or similar completed work. ◦ More loosely, footage can also refer to all sequences used in film and video editing, such as special effects and archive material (for special cases of this, see stock footage and B roll). ◦ Since the term originates in film, footage is only used for recorded images, such as film stock, videotapes or digitized clips – on live television, the signals from the cameras are called sources instead.  B-roll ◦ Secondary footage that adds meaning to a sequence or disguises the elimination of unwanted content. ◦ This technique of using the cutaway is common to hide zooms in documentary films: the visuals may cut away to B roll footage of what the person is talking about while the A camera zooms in, then cut back after the zoom is complete. ◦ The cutaway to B roll footage can also be used to hide verbal or physical tics that the editor and/or director finds distracting: with the audio separate from the video, the filmmakers are free to excise "uh"s, sniffs, coughs, and so forth. Similarly, a contextually irrelevant part of a sentence or anecdote can be removed to construct a more effective, succinct delivery. ◦ This can also be used to change the meaning of the speaker to fit the view of the producer. In fiction film, the technique can be used to indicate simultaneous action or flashbacks, usually increasing tension or revealing information. ◦ "B roll" also refers to footage provided free of charge to broadcast news organizations as a means of gaining free publicity. For example, an automobile maker might shoot a video of its assembly line, hoping that segments will be used in stories about the new model year. ◦ "B roll" sometimes makes its way into stock footage libraries. TV News - Dr Hossein Shahidi
  9. 9.  In film, a cutaway is the interruption of a continuously filmed action by inserting a view of something else.[1] It is usually, although not always, followed by a cut back to the first shot, when the cutaway avoids a jump cut.[2]  Method: Cutaways do not have to contribute any dramatic content of their own, often being used to help the editor assemble a longer sequence.[3] For this reason, editors choose cutaways related to the main action, such as another action or object in the same location.[4] For example, if the main shot is of a man walking down an alley, possible cutaways may include a shot of a cat on a nearby dumpster or a shot of a woman watching from a window overhead.  In news broadcasting and documentary work, the cutaway is used much as it would be in fiction. On location, there is usually just one camera to film an interview, and it's usually trained on the interviewee. Often there is also only one microphone. After the interview, the interviewer will usually repeat his questions while he himself is being filmed, with pauses as they act as if to listen to the answers. These shots can be used as cutaways. Cutaways to the interviewer, called noddies, can also be used to cover cuts.[8]  Some television shows utilized cutaways, mostly in comedies. Family Guy frequently uses them for visual gags and characters sometimes mention the use of the technique. TV News - Dr Hossein Shahidi
  10. 10.  Production jobs  A newscast director is in charge of show preparation, including assigning camera and talent (cast) positions on the set, as well as selecting the camera shots and other elements (recorded and live).  The technical director operates the video switcher which controls and mixes all the elements of the show.  At smaller stations, the director and technical director are the same person.  A graphics person operates a character generator that produces the name keys (on-screen titles) and full-page graphics.  The audio technician operates the audio board. The technician is in charge of the microphones, music, and audio tape.  Often, production assistants operate the teleprompters and cameras, and serve as lighting and rigging technicians ("grips"). TV News - Dr Hossein Shahidi
  11. 11.  Anchors (formerly "anchormen"), serve as masters of ceremonies and are usually shown facing the camera in a studio while reading unseen teleprompters.  They are often in pairs (co-anchors) side by side, often alternating their reading.  Meteorologists describe and forecast weather and show "graphics" (maps, charts, and pictures). Any of those people can become the most recognizable faces of a station.  Reporters research and write the stories and sometimes edit them into a package. Reporters are usually accompanied by a  videographer at the scenes of the news.  The latter holds the camera.  That person or assistants manage the audio and lighting.  They are in charge of setting up live shots and might edit, too. The producer might choose, research, and write stories, as well as deciding the timing and arrangement of the newscast.  An associate producer, if any, might specialize in elements of the show such as graphics. TV News - Dr Hossein Shahidi