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The Microprocessor-based PC System Microprocessor Course Electrical Engineering Department University of Indonesia
Bus, Memory & I/O Section <ul><li>Fig.  1.2  shows the general block diagram of the PC </li></ul><ul><li>A  bus  is a set ...
Bus, Memory & I/O Section (cont’d) <ul><li>The  Transient Program Area (TPA)  holds the OS and other program that control ...
Bus, Memory & I/O Section (cont’d) <ul><li>The  interrupt vectors  access various features of the DOS, BIOS (Basic I/O Sys...
Bus, Memory & I/O Section (cont’d) <ul><li>The  MSDOS (PCDOS) program  occupies two areas of memory </li></ul><ul><li>The ...
Bus, Memory & I/O Section (cont’d) <ul><li>The  system area  (Fig.  1.5 ) contains program on either a read-only memory or...
Bus, Memory & I/O Section (cont’d) <ul><li>The  input/output space  extends from I/O port 0000H to port FFFFH.  </li></ul>...
The Microprocessor <ul><li>The microprocessor is the  controlling element  in a computer system and is sometimes referred ...
The Microprocessor (cont’d) <ul><ul><li>Data transfer between itself and the memory or I/O systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Buses <ul><li>The microprocessor controls memory and I/O through a series of connections called  buses </li></ul><ul><li>A...
Buses <ul><li>Three buses exist for the transfer of information:  address, data, control  (Fig  1.8 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
Buses <ul><li>The memory sizes and organizations differ between various member of the Intel   p familiy </li></ul><ul><li...
Buses <ul><li>The micro-instructions for READ: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the   p reads the contain of memory location by send...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Chapter1

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Materi Kuliah Mikroprocessor Teknik Komputer Unversitas Indonesia

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Chapter1

  1. 1. The Microprocessor-based PC System Microprocessor Course Electrical Engineering Department University of Indonesia
  2. 2. Bus, Memory & I/O Section <ul><li>Fig. 1.2 shows the general block diagram of the PC </li></ul><ul><li>A bus is a set of common connections that carry the same type of information </li></ul><ul><li>The memory system is divided into three main parts: TPA, system area, XMS (optional) </li></ul><ul><li>The pentium Pro-based computer system, for example, can have up to 1M less than 4G or 64G of extended memory (Fig. 1.3 ) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bus, Memory & I/O Section (cont’d) <ul><li>The Transient Program Area (TPA) holds the OS and other program that control the computer system </li></ul><ul><li>It also stores any currently active or inactive application programs </li></ul><ul><li>The length of TPA is 640 KB </li></ul><ul><li>The memory map (fig. 1.4 ), hexadecimal addr.) shows how many areas of the TPA are used for system programs, data, and drivers </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bus, Memory & I/O Section (cont’d) <ul><li>The interrupt vectors access various features of the DOS, BIOS (Basic I/O System), and application </li></ul><ul><li>The BIOS and DOS communications areas contain transient data used by program to access I/O devices and internal features of the computer system </li></ul><ul><li>The IO.SYS is a program that loads into the TPA from the disk whenever an MSDOS or PC DOS system is started </li></ul>
  5. 5. Bus, Memory & I/O Section (cont’d) <ul><li>The MSDOS (PCDOS) program occupies two areas of memory </li></ul><ul><li>The size of the driver area and # of drivers change from one computer to another </li></ul><ul><li>The COMMAND.COM program controls the operation of the computer from the keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>The free TPA area holds application prog-rams as they are executed </li></ul>
  6. 6. Bus, Memory & I/O Section (cont’d) <ul><li>The system area (Fig. 1.5 ) contains program on either a read-only memory or flash memory and also areas of read/write (RAM) memory for data storage </li></ul><ul><li>The area at locations C8000H-DFFFFH is often open or free. It is usually used for the Expanded Memory System (EMS) -> Fig. 1.6 </li></ul><ul><li>The EMS allows a 64 KB page frame of memory to be used by application programs </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bus, Memory & I/O Section (cont’d) <ul><li>The input/output space extends from I/O port 0000H to port FFFFH. </li></ul><ul><li>An I/O port is similar to a memory address but addresses an I/O device </li></ul><ul><li>The I/O area contains two major sections (Fig 1.7 ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the area below I/O location 0500H is reserved for system devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the remaining area is available I/O space for expansion </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Microprocessor <ul><li>The microprocessor is the controlling element in a computer system and is sometimes referred to as the CPU (Central Processing Unit) </li></ul><ul><li>Memory and I/O are controlled through instructions that are stored in the memory and executed by the microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>The microprocessor performs three main tasks for the computer system: </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Microprocessor (cont’d) <ul><ul><li>Data transfer between itself and the memory or I/O systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simple arithmetic & logic operations (Table 1.3 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>program flow via simple decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why the microprocessor is powerful? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to execute millions of instructions per second from a program or software (group of instructions) stored in the memory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>able to make simple decision, based upon numerical facts (Table 1.4 ) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Buses <ul><li>The microprocessor controls memory and I/O through a series of connections called buses </li></ul><ul><li>A bus is a common group of wires that interconnect components in a computer system </li></ul><ul><li>Buses select an I/O or memory device, transfer data between an I/O device or memory and the microprocessor, and control the I/O and memory system </li></ul>
  11. 11. Buses <ul><li>Three buses exist for the transfer of information: address, data, control (Fig 1.8 ) </li></ul><ul><li>The address bus requests a memory location from the memory or an I/O location from the I/O devices </li></ul><ul><li>Table 1.5 depicts a complete listing of bus and memory sizes on the Intel family of  p </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 1.9 shows the memory width and sizes of 8086-80486 and Pentium  p </li></ul>
  12. 12. Buses <ul><li>The memory sizes and organizations differ between various member of the Intel  p familiy </li></ul><ul><li>The control bus contains lines that select the memory or I/O and cause them to perform a read or write operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Four control bus connections: MRDC, MWTC, IORC, IOWC </li></ul>
  13. 13. Buses <ul><li>The micro-instructions for READ: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the  p reads the contain of memory location by sending the memory an address through address bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the  p sends the memory read control signal (MRDC) to cause memory to read data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the data read from the memory are passed to the microprocessor through the data bus </li></ul></ul>

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