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  1. 1. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF USA (United States of America)
  2. 2. Basic Data Official country name: United States of America Region: North and Central America Population: 275,562,673 Official Languages: English, Spanish Official Religion: Christianity (73–76%) Academic year: September – June Compulsory Schooling: 10 years Public Expenditure on education: 5.4%
  3. 3. • Foreign students in national universities: 453,785 • Education enrollment: Primary 24,045,967 Secondary 21,473,692 Higher 14,261,778 • Education enrollment: Primary 102% Secondary 97% Higher 81%
  4. 4. • Teachers: • Student teacher ratio: Primary 1,499,697 Secondary 1,394,080 Higher 915,321 Primary 17:1 • Female enrollment rate: Primary 101% Secondary 97% Higher 92%
  5. 5. GDP (Gross Domestic Product): $15.09 Trillion US dollars at current prices 2011source World Bank GNP (Gross National Product): $ 15.23 Trillion dollars at current prices 2011 source World Bank $16,130.8 Billions of dollars 2012
  6. 6. Literacy • The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) defines literacy as the "ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, commu nicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society.
  7. 7. Definition of literacy in U.S.A • Rates of literacy in the United States depend on which of the various definitions of literacy is used. • Governments may label individuals who can read a couple of thousand simple words they learned by sight in the first four grades in school as literate. • Other sources may term such individuals functionally illiterate if they are unable to use basic sources of written information like warning labels and driving directions. • The World Factbook prepared by the CIA defines literacy in the United States as "age 15 and over can read and write.
  8. 8. • Literacy Rate of U.S.A • General Literacy rate: 97% • Male literacy rate: 99% • Female literacy rate: 99%
  9. 9. A Brief History The American system of education has undergone dramatic transformations Schools were among the first institutions built by the colonist All educational teaching was a type of religious instruction, and the intent clearly was to preserve the Puritan culture and to keep all followers homogenous and disciplined.
  10. 10. • By 1634, in Massachusetts, children began their education at around eight years old and continued for six years • The subjects taught were designed to assist students in practical matters of daily life: arithmetic for business; languages to communicate debate and preach; and reading to provide access to the Bible and to understand contracts, government documents and laws.
  11. 11. • The immigrants from Germany, Scotland and Ireland fled to America in search of economic opportunity in the early 1700’s • As the British departed, grammar schools became less dominant and languages such as French and German were more widely taught • Astronomy, logic and rhetoric were also staples in the curriculum • The late nineteenth century began to show signs of the progressive school systems that were to evolve in the twentieth century.
  12. 12. • Nationwide, however, attempts to educate females were sporadic, and many religious denominations such as the German Reformed Church. • One of the most important educational philosophers of the early twentieth century was john Dewey, a pragmatist who as a young man tried to reconcile his passion for science with his New England Christian upbringing. He preached the theory of “instrumentalism”. His pragmatic approach held students know the world as it actually is, not in some mystic sense.
  13. 13. Educational Structure • Primary (Elementary) Schools:  Introduction of primary schools for children four years and older were a modification of the British infant schools.  Eventually the primary schools were assimilated into elementary schools.  During the later half of the nineteenth century, American schools also began the formation of Kindergartens.
  14. 14. • Secondary (high) school:  Between 1900 and 1915, Americans searching for upward mobility became concerned that there should be high schools operating to provide an equal opportunity for all.  In the beginning of the twentieth century, the eight and four –year high school programs began giving way to junior high schools and middle school. One of the major reasons for the change was to isolate youngsters just before and after the start of adolescence.
  15. 15. • First Degree Attainment:  Over 500,000 students earn associate degrees each year, and nearly 1.2 million students earn bachelor's degrees.  Of the students who initially enroll in short programs and associate degree programs.  Over 38 percent finish and receive some award, including 6 percent who gain admission to bachelor's degree programs and graduate and 48 percent drop out.  53 percent, earn a bachelor's degree while 24 percent drop out and the remainder remain on the rolls without completing a degree or switch to another type of program.
  16. 16. • Advanced Degree Attainment:  Many students start careers and later undertake a part-time graduate program or quit working to re enter university. 1.2 million students of all ages enroll in first-professional and advanced degree programs each year.  The mean registered time from receipt of a bachelor's degree to earning a research doctorate is 7.3 years, which varies by subject.  Of U.S. citizens and residents aged 25-40, approximately 1.4 percent have earned first-professional degrees, 5.4 percent have earned master's degrees, and one percent have earned research doctorates.
  17. 17. School Entry • U.S. children enter formal schooling around age 6 • Over 3.7 million children enter the first grade of school each year.
  18. 18. Duration of School • Formal schooling lasts 12 years, until around age 18
  19. 19. Stages/Levels of School • Early Childhood Education ECE (first or second year of formal schooling) are collectively termed as Infant development, preschool (age 2-4) • Elementary Education (Formal primary education) ranges from1-6 grade • Middle School The upper level of primary education) is often organized separately into a unit called, which begins at grade 4, 5, or 6 and ends at grade 6, 7, or 8
  20. 20. US – Types of Schools, years etc. • Public schools – run by the governments • Private schools – state-certified • Home school program • The year groups are called GRADES Elementary education includes the subjects:  Arithmetic  Mathematics  English ( grammar, spelling, literature)  History  Geography
  21. 21. The Philosophy of American Education • • • • • • • Student-focused Student empowerment Socratic method Based on scientific process Little rote memorization Multiple paths to learning Emphasis on individual learning styles: visual, auditory, tactile, kinesthetic, etc.
  22. 22. • Teaching methodologies focus on multiple “levels” of student engagement with the material – critical thinking skills: theory + method + practical application.
  23. 23. Compulsory Education • first established in Massachusetts in 1852 • a requirement that children attend public school • Students may drop out of school if they have reached the age set in their state's law for the end of compulsory schooling, but dropouts are not considered to have completed school and no certificate or award is issued at this stage. • The U.S. dropout rate is just over 11 percent of secondary-level students age 16 and older.
  24. 24. Special Education • Around 6 million students receive some form of special needs instruction and support for diagnosed disabilities that may affect learning • Students are frequently required to stay in compulsory school longer than regular students, usually until age 20 or 21 • 2.4 million school-age students are enrolled in special programs for the gifted and talented • Students who complete Individual Education Plan (IEP) programs in special education also receive certificates
  25. 25. Admission Procedure • In College, an admission takes considerable time and involves multiple steps, deadlines and choices, including fees, essays, college visits and interviews. • About a quarter of high school seniors apply to seven or more schools, paying an average of $40 per application. (Some undergraduate programs may require a separate application at some universities.) • Students have to pass a standardize test of PSAT or SAT to get admission in college or university.
  26. 26. Non-formal Education Adult Education: An adult employee attempting to acquire computer skills, or a non-native English speaker hoping to improve writing skills. Classes that have a high demand are English for non-native speakers seeking fluency. Distance Education: A viable alternative for obtaining additional skills, knowledge and certification or credentials needed for career advancement. Classes mainly were conducted via television and radio, videotaped by a professor and technical crew, and then delivered by mail, delivery service or electronic mail to student.
  27. 27. Vocational Education: i. Secondary Vocational Education: • consumer and homemaking education • general labor market preparation • specific labor market preparation Specific labor market preparation courses teach students the skills needed to enter a particular occupational field. Agriculture; Business and office; Marketing and distribution; Health; Occupational home economics; trade and industry (including construction, mechanics and repairs, and precision production); and Technical and communications.
  28. 28. Ii. Postsecondary Vocational Education • focuses on providing occupationally specific preparation • generally parallel the program areas identified at the secondary level • emphasis at traditionally been on providing students with skills needed to enter a particular occupational field, these skills have typically been at a more advanced level than those provided through secondary occupational programs
  29. 29. Teacher Education TE started in the beginning of nineteenth century, developed through private Academies. This development can be discussed under three specific stages: • The Normal School Movement (1823-1860 • The Teacher Training (1860-1910) • The Teacher Education (1910 onwards)
  30. 30. • Equality of Opportunity: There is equality of opportunity and men and women front all sections of society, high and low, rich and poor, have an easy access to institutions preparing teachers. • Cooperative Enterprise : The system of teacher education is a cooperative enterprise and not the monopoly of one single authority or agency. It is a partnership between state agencies, local organizations, teachers training colleges, Universities and Liberal Arts Colleges.
  31. 31. • Education as Total Development: The Americans consider Education as the total development of the physical, mental, moral, social and intellectual aspects of personality. Therefore the program of teacher training is broad-based aimed at producing a right type of person as well as a right type of teacher. Due to this emphasis on new and broad concept of education the term “teacher training” has been replaced by “teacher education”.
  32. 32. Integrated courses of general and professional education: The aim of these integrated courses is to provide complete or total education of teachers, both as good human being and as an efficient teacher. The duration of such courses is four or five years, which amalgamate B.A. or B.S.C. with degree or diploma in education.
  33. 33. • Pre-service and in-service teacher education is Complementary: Like two sides of a coin, both are equally important. Therefore the training of the teachers is not limited to the period spent in teacher training institutions but a continuous process which goes on throughout the professional career of teachers.
  34. 34. • Practice teaching: • Also known as student teaching. • Generally introduced in the later part of • the professional courses, undertaken by • the student teachers. • Includes observation of lessons, participation in criticism or discussion lessons and finally the actual class room teaching under the skillful guidance of the supervisors.
  35. 35. • “Internship in teaching” envisages the student teachers working continuously for eight or nine weeks under the supervision, of one or more senior teachers of the cooperating school. • The entire work of internship is planned and executed by the college lecturer in consultation with the senior school teacher and the pupils’ teachers.