White Matter Project .Pptx


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White Matter Project .Pptx

  1. 1. WHITE MATTER By Ann, Laura & Matt
  2. 2. WHAT IS WHITE MATTER? <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>It is the fatty tissue located between the gray matter in the brain’s nerve fibres (axons). Basically, gray matter covers the nerve fibres and white matter connects one nerve fibre to another. Metaphorically, gray matter can be thought as the computer and white matter is the cables and wires that connect the computers. </li></ul>These ‘wires’ are coated in myelin, an electric insulation that helps the neurons send signals to one another. When the myelin degenerates, there are problems that occur within the brain and therefore are classified as ‘demyelinating diseases’.
  3. 3. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH WHITE MATTER <ul><li>Multiple Sclerosis (M.S.) </li></ul><ul><li>Alzheimer's Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) </li></ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic Depression </li></ul>
  4. 4. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (M.S.) <ul><li>What is MS? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a chronic nervous disorder where the immune system attacks the nervous system which results in demyelination (loss of myelin fibres) which means that the quick and efficient transmission of nerve impulses is weakened and damaged. </li></ul><ul><li>The average 20 year old male has 176,000 km worth of myelinated fibres and the average 20 year old female has 149,000 km. On average, you lose 10% of the length every decade. (Decline due to loss of thinner fibres). </li></ul>
  5. 5. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (CONT’D) <ul><li>Other factors that can contribute to MS: </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics - If a parent or sibling in your immediate </li></ul><ul><li>family has MS then that increases your risk of getting the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Environment - people living close to the equator get more vitamin D from the sun and vitamin D is good for your immune system and may protect against developing MS. </li></ul><ul><li>Sickness – during childhood, many children </li></ul><ul><li>are exposed to disease, viruses and bacteria that </li></ul><ul><li>can cause demyelination such as measles, human herpes virus-6, Chlamydia pneumonia and Epistein-Barr (which can cause mono). </li></ul>
  6. 6. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (CONT’D) <ul><li>Possible Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>stiffness </li></ul><ul><li>muscle spasms </li></ul><ul><li>depression/emotional changes </li></ul><ul><li>sexual malfunction </li></ul><ul><li>decrease in cognitive function (ability to learn, </li></ul><ul><li>remember, organize, problem solve, focus, plan etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>balance and coordination difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>numbness </li></ul><ul><li>fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Rare Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>speech impediment </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty swallowing </li></ul><ul><li>headaches </li></ul><ul><li>hearing loss </li></ul><ul><li>seizures </li></ul><ul><li>breathing difficulties </li></ul>
  7. 7. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (CONT’D) <ul><li>Treatments: </li></ul><ul><li>There is no cure for MS but FDA-Approved Disease-Modifying Agents (DMA) can be given. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>DMA: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Avonex - prolongs worsening effects of MS </li></ul><ul><li>(After 1 st exacerbation, Avonex delays time to a 2 nd exacerbation) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Betaseron - delays time between exacerbations </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Extavia - fewer exacerbations, longer amount of time between exacerbations and less severe exacerbations (then people on the placebo pills). </li></ul>
  8. 8. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (CONT’D) <ul><li>Future implications: </li></ul><ul><li>Most people diagnosed with MS have a relapsing form of MS which can slowly lead to disability. Others with MS may only have a few, mild relapses and only have minor neurological disturbances over time. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>MS is not fatal; most people with newly diagnosed MS live a normal life and a nearly normal lifespan. </li></ul>
  9. 9. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (CONT’D) <ul><li>Facts: </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 2.5 million people worldwide have MS. </li></ul><ul><li>First diagnosis of MS was in 1849. </li></ul><ul><li>If your father has MS the chances of you getting is 1:100. </li></ul><ul><li>If your mother has MS the chances of you getting it is 1:50. </li></ul>
  10. 10. ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Alzheimer's disease slowly causes the brain to deteriorate, causing cognitive processes to become drastically impaired. </li></ul><ul><li>During the onset of Alzheimer’s, brain cells shrink and die. Also, dense regions form across the brain, causing vital and simple processes to become difficult. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Comparison between a normal aged brain (left) and a brain diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease (right).
  12. 12. ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE (CONT’D) <ul><li>Symptoms : </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetting appointments, important dates, phone numbers, names and not remembering them later on </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty performing familiar tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Language problems </li></ul><ul><li>Misplacing things </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in mood </li></ul><ul><li>Personality changes </li></ul><ul><li>Become passive and lazy </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract thinking becomes a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Poor judgement </li></ul><ul><li>Problems remembering the time, day and current place </li></ul>
  13. 13. ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE (CONT’D) <ul><li>Treatment : </li></ul><ul><li>There is no known cure for Alzheimer’s disease but medication and lifestyle changes can stall the disease from progressing. </li></ul><ul><li>Medications include Aricept, Exelon and Reminyl for mild to moderate Alzheimers, and Ebixa for advanced forms of the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle changes include a proper diet, exercise, staying connected, reducing stress, and keeping the brain active (brain teasers, crosswords, learning something new etc). </li></ul>
  14. 14. ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE (CONT’D) <ul><li>Future Implications: </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, since there is no known cure everyone diagnosed with Alzheimer’s will eventually forget everything they have ever known. In the advanced stages of Alzheimer’s disease, patients will have trouble putting words together and performing either the simplest of tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately people diagnosed with this disease will die, but not of the disease itself. </li></ul>
  15. 15. SCHIZOPHRENIA <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a disorder in which the person's perception of reality is skewed through the five senses. This is usually in part attributed to an increased amount of dopamine in the brain. </li></ul>Increase of dopamine 
  16. 16. SCHIZOPHRENIA (CONT’D) <ul><li>Symptoms : </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Delusions </li></ul><ul><li>Irrational thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Incoherent speech </li></ul>
  17. 17. SCHIZOPHRENIA (CONT’D) <ul><li>Treatment : </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment for schizophrenia is a quite controversial topic. As of now the most common and accepted treatment is a medical path which includes the use of a pill called Risperidome. Much scientific and psychological research is still ongoing on the topic of schizophrenia. </li></ul>
  18. 18. OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of this disorder, a shortage of white matter causes less communication among the brain. This leads to symptoms of: “Intrusive thoughts” which leads to anxiety. More commonly known, constant physical acts or even mental “personal rituals” are repeated to try and offset the anxiety. In extreme cases people with OCD cannot go on with their day because they believe life cannot go on with the imbalance that they see in place. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people, including celebrities are well documented with their lives coping with OCD. As well many people are constantly trying to bring attention to it so that therapy for OCD’s effects can be covered by medical insurance. </li></ul>
  19. 19. OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER (CONT’D) <ul><li>Treatment : </li></ul><ul><li>A very humane approach is taken to treating OCD with Behavioural Therapy as well as Cognitive Therapy. Medication is also another choice. When it comes to the medication, pills called Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors are used. </li></ul>
  20. 20. QUICK FACTS <ul><li>Depression : Although not strongly associated with white matter, it has been discovered that an increase of white matter in the elderly can lead to late-life depression. Research shows that this is partly due to melanin genes being abnormal as well. </li></ul>
  21. 21. RESOURCES <ul><li>Information: </li></ul><ul><li>http :// en.wikipedia.org </li></ul><ul><li>http :// www.nationalmssociety.org/index.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.mssociety.org.uk / </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2361659 </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2007/08/01/health/adam/18117Grayandwhitematterofthebrain.html </li></ul><ul><li>www.wikipedia.org </li></ul>