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Dp 1

  1. 1. BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDHYALAYA Dissertation Phase -I (740002) ON GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY NEW EYECATHER OF CONSTRUCTION SECTOR : UTILIZATION OF AGROWASTE ASHES IN BRICKS INDUSTY PREPAIRED BY: UNDER GUIDANCE OF: Dhruv Vyas.(120070714017) PROF. JAYESHKUMAR R.PITRODA M.E-CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING &MANAGEMENT3rd SEM-2013 ASSISTANT PROFESSOR B.V.M. ENGINEERING COLLEGE CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT VALLABH VIDHYANAGAR B.V.M. ENGINEERING COLLEGE
  2. 2. CONTENT  INTRODUCTION  OBJECTIVE  NEED OF STUDY OF STUDY  SCOPE OF STUDY  CRITICAL  ABOUT LITERATURE REVIEW AGROWASTES BARLEY HUSK ASH GROUNDNUT SHELL HUSK ASH TOBBACO HUSK ASH  METHODOLOGY  WORKFLOW CHART  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  REFRENCES
  3. 3.  A brick is a block or a single unit of a ceramic material used in masonry construction. Typically bricks are stacked together or laid as brickwork using various kinds of mortar to hold the bricks together and make a permanent structure.  Bricks are typically produced in common or standard sizes in bulk quantities. They have been regarded as one of the longest lasting and strongest building materials used throughout history.  A "brick" is a standard-sized (19*9*9) weight-bearing building unit. Bricks are laid in horizontal courses, sometimes dry and sometimes with mortar. When the term is used in this sense, the brick might be made from clay, lime-and-sand, concrete, or shaped stone. In some cases, such as adobe the brick is merely dried. More commonly it is fired in a kiln of some sort to form a true ceramic.
  4. 4.  The rapid urbanization is creating a shortfall of conventional building construction materials due to limited availability of natural resources.  On the other hand energy consumed for the production of conventional building construction materials pollutes air, water and land.  In order to meet the ever increasing demand for the energy efficient building construction materials there is a need to adopt cost effective, environmentally appropriate technologies and upgrade traditional techniques with available local materials.
  5. 5. • The results provide a guideline for producing adobe brick containing agricultural by-products with improved strength and lower moisture absorption. Agro Brick with performance improved in these ways will be beneficial for developing lowcost Architecture for local people and for building and recreation facilities for the residential and commercial Industry.
  6. 6. OBJECTIVES • To make agro waste bricks for Erosion of Clay. • To utilize the waste of agro wastes in construction • To make non-conventional brick product. • Far Eye for sustainable construction. • To compare properties and cost factor with Normal Bricks. • To make a green bricks .
  7. 7. NEED OF STUDY  Excess use of good clay caused erosion of fertile soil and soil degradation and disturbed the ecology, burnt clay brick industry.  In India produces over 60 billion clay bricks annually resulting in strong impact on soil erosion and unprocessed emissions. Use of traditional technologies in firing the bricks results in significant local air pollution.  Study conduct to add Barley Husk Ash , Groundnut shell Ash , Tobacco husk Ash to reducing fertile land erosions and control over consuming of clay by construction sector.
  8. 8. Scope of study  Scope of this study is limited to Gujarat region of the India  Replacement of various Agro wastes as addition in bricks accordingly in the range of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by weight.  Assessment of agro wastes ( barley husk / Groundnut shell , Tobacco husk ) and clay which will be use in brick by various test such as specific gravity, specific gravity, water absorption.  Engineering properties like compressive strength, water absorption and size and shape have been studied. It is important to consider the strength and moisture absorption capacity of compressive absorption. strength, shrinkage, brick. In adobe brick effects optimal thermal conductivity, and moisture
  9. 9. Critical literature Review
  10. 10. SR. NO. AUTHORS JOURNAL WITH YEAR TITLE IMPORTANT SIGNIFICANCE 1. ALAA.A.SHAKIR, NAGANATHAN, KAMAL NASHARUDDIN BIN MUSTAPHA AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF BASIC AND APPLIED SCIENCES , 2013 DEVELOPMENT OF BRICKS FROM WASTE MATERIAL IN TERMS OF MAKING MORE ENVIRONMENTAL AND AN ECONOMICAL BRICK NEITHER CONSUMES ENERGY RESOURCES NOR EMITS POLLUTANT GASES GIVES AN ECONOMICAL OPTION TO DESIGN THE GREEN BUILDING. 2. P.S. SHEHRAWAT, NITU SINDHU THIRD INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM "AGROSYM JAHORINA 2012“ , 2012 AGRICULTURAL WASTE UTILIZATION FOR HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE LIFESTYLE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES WILL INCREASE IF INDUSTRIES LIKE PROCESSING UNITS FOR MAKING VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT OF WASTE COLLECTION CENTERS IN VILLAGES AND OTHERS ARE DEVELOPED IN VILLAGES. 3. JOSÉ A. RABI, SERGIO F. SANTOS, GUSTAVO H. D. TONOLI AND HOLMER SAVASTANO JR. NOVA SCIENCE PUBLICATION , 2009 AGRICULTURAL WASTES AS BUILDING MATERIALS: PROPERTIES, PERFORMANCE AND APPLICATIONS PROVIDE A SUITABLE AS WELL AS A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION. ALSO IMPROVING THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 10
  11. 11. 4. DANIEL G. PENNINGTON, ROBERT C. FRAZEE, STEVEN R. JONES , DAN EATON, DAVID A. ROBERTI CALIFORNIA ENVIRONMENT AL PROTECTION AGENCY , JANUARY 1999 FEASIBILITY STUDY ON THE EXPANDED USE OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST WASTE IN COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS These products and uses appear to have bright futures and further research will undoubtedly develop productive uses for these wastes. 5. MR. MOHAMMED MAJZOUB TECHNICAL BRIEF , 1999 UTILIZATION OF COW-DUNG IN BRICKMAKING Modifies properties of those clays and results in better brick qualities compared to other organicwaste,improves plasticity, reduces green breakage and acts as internal fuel in firing bricks thus reducing firing cracks. 11
  12. 12. SR. NO. AUTHORS JOURNAL WITH YEAR TITLE IMPORTANT SIGNIFICANCE 6. SUBIR SHRI SINGH ENVIS NEWS LETTER , FEBRUARY 2007 BUILD WELL WITH WASTE Use of environment-friendly technologies .  Minimize transportation of material .  Maximize the use of local material and resources . Utilization of industrial and mine wastes for the production of building material .
  13. 13. About Agro wastes  Agricultural waste is waste produced at agricultural premises as a result of an agricultural activity. This includes land used for horticulture, fruit growing, seed growing, dairy farming and livestock breeding and keeping, the use of land as grazing land, meadow land, market gardens and nursery grounds, and the use of land for woodlands where that use is ancillary to the farming of land for other agricultural purposes.  Study conduct Innovative approaches of Barley Husk ash , Tobacco husk Ash , Groundnut shell husk ash adding in proportions of 10 %,20%, 30%, 40% ,50% partial replacement of clay .  To control the consumption of clay from brick manufacturing industries.
  14. 14. Barley Husk Ash  One of the Second largest crop produced in India after Rice. Barley comes in Rabi Crop. Specially in Gujarat North Gujarat and mid –east Gujarat region of india growing crop of Barley.
  15. 15.  Barley husk ash as addition in bricks accordingly in the range of 0%, 0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30%, 0.40% and 0.50% by weight.  To check mechanical properties of by Compression Test (at 7, 14 and 28 days), Water absorption test (at 28 days).  BHA – clay bricks have very low water absorption of 12-15%.  BHA bricks can be of good quality with sharp edges, controlled dimensions and offer a plain and even finish. They are resistant to wear and tear which makes them suitable for the internal and external uses. Plastering over brick can be avoided thus achieving further economy.  The bonding with mortar and plaster is much greater or better in the case of BHA bricks.
  16. 16. Groundnut shell Husk Ash  Groundnut shell is an important cash crop produced in large quantity in India. The production of ground nut reached its peak in India during the period of 1969 to 1978,when approximately 2.7 million tones of the pods were produced from an area of 1.5 million hectares.  The utilization of groundnut husk will promote waste management at little cost, reduce pollution by these wastes and increase the economic base of farmers when the waste is sold thereby encouraging more production.
  17. 17.  Groundnut shell husk ash as addition in bricks accordingly in the range of 0%, 0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30%, 0.40% and 0.50% by weight.  To check mechanical properties of by Compression Test (at 7, 14 and 28 days), Water absorption test (at 28 days).
  18. 18. Tobacco Husk Ash  Tobacco one of the most important crop of Charotar region of Gujarat . In india and specially Gujarat is the highest grower of tobacco.  Tobacco cultivation is similar to other agricultural products. Seeds are sown in cold frames or hotbeds to prevent attacks from insects, and then transplanted into the fields. Tobacco is an annual crop, which is usually harvested mechanically or by hand.
  19. 19.  Tobacco husk ash as addition in bricks accordingly in the range of 0%, 0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30%, 0.40% and 0.50% by weight. To check mechanical properties of by Compression Test (at 7, 14 and 28 days), Water absorption test (at 28 days).
  20. 20. Advantages of Agro wastes  Agro wastes are providing a cost effective alternative to conventional bricks, by reducing the cost of brick.  Its  It easily available. controls the consumption of clay from clay bricks manufacturer.  Far  It eye for Sustainable Development.. is an innovative supplementary Construction Material.
  21. 21. Disadvantages of Agro waste   It can not be utilize in brick without proper experiment investigation It can not be possible to fully replacement of clay brick without affecting strength
  22. 22. Tests for bricks  Crushing Strength  Absorption  Test The following field tests help in ascertaining the good quality bricks:  (i) uniformity in size (ii) uniformity in color (iii) structure (iv) hardness test (v) sound test (vi) strength test.  Efflorescense
  23. 23. Compressive Strength ( IS: 3495 – P (1)-1992)  The brick specimen are immersed in water for 24 hours. The frog of the brick is filled flush with 1:3 cement mortar and the specimen is stored in damp jute bag for 24 hours and then immersed in clean water for 24 hours.  The specimen is placed in compression testing machine with 6 mm plywood on top and bottom of it to get uniform load on the specimen. Then load is applied axially at a uniform rate of 14 N/mm .  The crushing load is noted. Then the crushing strength is the ratio of crushing load to the area of brick loaded. Average of five specimen is taken as the crushing strength.
  24. 24. Absorption Test ( IS 3495- PART 1-4)  Brick specimen are weighed dry. Then they are immersed in water for a period of 24 hours. The specimen are taken out and wiped with cloth. The weight of each specimen in wet condition is determined.  The difference in weight indicate the water absorbed. Then the percentage absorption is the ratio of water absorbed to dry weight multiplied by 100. The average of five specimen is taken. This value should not exceed 20 per cent. sharp edges.  To check it, 20 bricks are selected at random and they are stacked along the length, along the width and then along the height. For the standard bricks of size 190 mm 90 mm 90 mm.
  25. 25.  IS code permits the following limits:  Lengthwise:  Widthwise:  Height  3680 to 3920 mm 1740 to 1860 mm wise: 1740 to 1860 mm. The following field tests help in ascertaining the good quality bricks:  (i) uniformity in size (ii) uniformity in color (iii) structure (iv) hardness test (v) sound test (vi) strength test.
  26. 26.  Uniformity  in Size: A good brick should have rectangular plane surface and uniform in size. This check is made in the field by observation.  Uniformity A in Colour: good brick will be having uniform colour throughout. This observation may be made before purchasing the brick.  Structure: A few bricks may be broken in the field and their cross-section observed. The section should be homogeneous, compact and free from defects such as holes and lumps.  Sound Test: If two bricks are struck with each other they should produce clear ringing sound. The sound should not be dull.  Hardness Test: For this a simple field test is scratch the brick with nail. If no impression is marked on the surface, the brick is sufficiently hard
  27. 27. Efflorescense  The presence of alkalies in brick is not desirable because they form patches of gray powder by absorbing moisture. Hence to determine the presence of alkalies this test is performed as explained below: Place the brick specimen in a glass dish containing water to a depth of 25 mm in a well ventilated room.  After all the water is absorbed or evaporated again add water for a depth of 25 mm. After second evaporation observe the bricks for white/grey patches.
  28. 28. Work flow chart PHASE - 1 DETERMINE OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE THE STUDY LITERATURE REVIEW UNDERSTANDING AGRO WASTE MATERIAL, UTILIZATION IN BRICKS INDUSTRY DETERMINE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, MIX PROPORTION
  29. 29. PHASE-2 CASTING OF BRICKS, AS PER MIX PROPORTIONS TESTING AND ANALYZING THE RESULTS & RATE ANALYSIS CASE VALD ON ??- YES DOUCMENTATION
  30. 30. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT • Prof. J.J.Bhavsar– B.V.M Engg. College, V.V.Nagar. • Prof. J.R.Pitroda– B.V.M Engg. College, V.V.Nagar. • Students of M.E-Construction Engineering & Management, B.V.M Engg. College, V.V.Nagar.
  31. 31. References  Arslan E. I Il , Aslan Sibel, Ipek Ubeyde, Altun Samet, Yazicio lu Salih, 2005, Physico-chemical treatment of marble processing wastewater and the recycling of its sludge, Waste Management & Research, 23( 6): 550-559.  Balasubramanian J., Sabumon C., john U. Lazar ,And ilangovanR.,1995, Reuse of textile effluent treatment plant sludge in buildingmaterials, journal of materials processing technology 48 (1-4) : 379–384.Weng, C., Lin, D. and Chiang, P., 2003. Utilization of sludge as brick materials. Advances in Environmental Research, 7 (3): 679-685  Colangelo F., Marroccoli M., and Cioffi R., Properties of self-leveling concrete made with industrial wastes. Conference on use of building materials in building structures, November,2004, Barcelona , Spain  Colombo A. , Tunesi A., Barberini V., Galimberti L., Cavallo A.,chemical and mineralogical characterization of cutting process sludge , exploitation of sludge from stone working synthesis of the research, accessed 2008,http://www.aigt.ch/ download/ rapporto_INTERREGen.pdf .  Dr.T.Sekar, N.Ganesan & Dr.NVN.Nampoothiri (2011) ,“Studies on strength characteristics on utilization of waste materials as coarse aggregate in concrete”, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology,Volume 3 No 7, 2011.
  32. 32. • G.Murali, K.R.Jayavelu, N.Jeevitha, M.Rubini and N.R.Saranya “Experimental Investigation On Bricks With Partial Replacement Of innovative material” International Journal of Engineering Research and ApplicationsVol. 2, Issue 2,Mar-Apr 2012, pp.314319. [5] Hansen, T. C. and Begh, E., „Elasticity and drying shrinkage of recycled aggregate concrete‟, Journal of American Concrete Institute, 82 • Hasaba, S., Kawamura, M., KazuyukI,T. and Kunio,T., „Drying shrinkage and durability of concrete made from recycled concrete, bricks and aggregates‟, Transactions of Japan Concrete Institute, Tokyo, Vol 3, 1981, pp.55-60. • IS 2386-1963 – PART I- PARTICLE SIZE AND SHAPE
  33. 33. THANK YOU

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