Introductionofdatastructure 110731092019-phpapp01-120309093553-phpapp02


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Introductionofdatastructure 110731092019-phpapp01-120309093553-phpapp02

  1. 1. Introduction to Data
  2. 2. Algorithm● An algorithm is a finite set of instructions which, when followed, accomplishes a particular task.● Its Characteristics ○ Each instruction should be unique and concise ○ Each instruction should be relative in nature and should not be repeated infinitely. ○ Repetition of same task(s) should be avoided. ○ The result be available to the user after the algorithm terminates.
  3. 3. Efficiency of Algorithms● The performance of algorithms can be measured on the scales● Time● Space
  4. 4. Space Complexity● The amount of memory space required by the algorithm during the course of execution● Some of the reasons for space complexity are ○ If the program, is to run on mutli-user system, it may be required to specify the amount of memory to be allocated to the program ○ We may be interested to know in advance that whether sufficient memory is available to run the program. ○ There may be several possible solutions with different space requirements.
  5. 5. Space needed by Program Components ● Instruction Space – Space needed to store the executable version of the program and it is fixed. ● Data Space : It is needed to store all constants, varialbe values ● Environment Space : Space needed to store the information needed to resume the suspended functions.
  6. 6. Time Complexity● The amount of time needed to run to completion.● Some reasons for studying time complexity ○ We may be interested to know in advance that whether a program will provide satisfactory real time response. ○ There must be several possible solutions with different time requirements.
  7. 7. Data structure● When elements of data are organized together in terms of some relationships among the elements, the organization is called data structure.● A data structure is a set of data values along with the relationship between the data values in form of set of operations permitted on them.● Arrays, records, stacks, lists, graphs are the names of some of some of these basic data structures.
  8. 8. A data structure can be(a) transienti.e. it is created when a program starts and is destroyedwhen the program ends. Most data structures in mainmemory are transient, for example, an array of data.(b) Permanenti.e. it already exists when a program starts and ispreserved when the program ends. Most data structures ondisk are permanent, for example, a file of data, or a cross-linked data file collection (a database).
  9. 9. Data StructureLinear Non-Linear● Array ● Tree● Stack ● Graph● Queue● Linked Lists
  10. 10. Abstract Data Type (ADT) ● It is a mathematical model with a collections of operations defined on that model. ● The ADT encapsulates a data type can be localized and are not visible to the users of the ADT. ● An implementation of an ADT is a translation into statements of a programming language, of the declaration that defines a variable to be of that ADT, plus a procedure in that language for each operation of the ADT.