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H effects

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H effects

  1. 1. Media effects
  2. 2. Laswell’s Model of Mass Communication <ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><li>Says What </li></ul><ul><li>In Which Channel </li></ul><ul><li>To Whom </li></ul><ul><li>With What Effect </li></ul>
  3. 3. Effects Theories <ul><li>Walter Lippmann: Public Opinion (1922) </li></ul><ul><li>We see the world as &quot;pictures in our heads&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Media shape perception of things we have not experienced personally </li></ul>
  4. 4. Powerful Effects Theory <ul><li>Media have immediate, direct influence </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes people are passive and absorb media content uncritically & unconditionally </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hypodermic Needle” model </li></ul><ul><li>“ Magic Bullet” model </li></ul>
  5. 5. Minimalist Effects <ul><li>Paul Lazarsfeld Erie County study (1940) </li></ul><ul><li>Mass media had hardly any direct effect </li></ul><ul><li>Personal contact more important than media contact </li></ul><ul><li>Media effects mostly indirect </li></ul>
  6. 6. Two-step Flow model <ul><li>Media affect individuals through opinion leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion leaders are those who influence others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clergy, teachers, neighborhood leaders, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Status Conferral <ul><li>Media coverage can create prominence for issues & people </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Maxwell McCombs & Don Shaw </li></ul><ul><li>Media tell people what to think about – but not what to think </li></ul>
  8. 8. Media can: <ul><li>Create awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Establish priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetuate issues </li></ul><ul><li>Intramedia effect as well </li></ul>
  9. 9. Narcoticizing dysfunction <ul><li>Media do not energize people into taking action </li></ul><ul><li>Media lull people into passivity by overwhelming them with information </li></ul><ul><li>People deceive selves into believing they’re involved when they’re actually only informed </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cumulative Effects Theory <ul><li>Media influence is gradual over time </li></ul><ul><li>Effect is often powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral of Silence (Noelle-Neumann) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal majority intimidates others into silence </li></ul>
  11. 11. Focus on the audience <ul><li>1940s challenge to audience passivity </li></ul>
  12. 12. Uses & Gratifications <ul><li>People choose media that meet their needs & interests </li></ul><ul><li>Needs such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>Diversion </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul>
  13. 13. Surveillance <ul><li>Media provide info about what’s going on </li></ul><ul><li>Both news & entertainment </li></ul>
  14. 14. Diversion <ul><li>Media as entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate </li></ul><ul><li>Relax </li></ul><ul><li>Release </li></ul>
  15. 15. Socialization <ul><li>Mass media can help initiate people into society </li></ul><ul><li>And help them fit in </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate dominant behaviors and norms </li></ul><ul><li>“ Observational learning” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Role modeling <ul><li>Imitative behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Impact can be negative or positive (&quot;prosocial”) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Socialization via eavesdropping <ul><li>Children learn about adult topics by seeing them depicted in media </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Parasocial interaction </li></ul><ul><li>False sense of participating in dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is actually one-way </li></ul>
  19. 19. Consistency theory <ul><li>Individuals exercise control over media’s effects on them </li></ul><ul><li>People choose media & messages consistent with their existing views & values </li></ul><ul><li>Selective: </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Retention & Recall </li></ul>
  20. 20. Selective Exposure <ul><li>People choose some media messages over others </li></ul><ul><li>People ignore messages that contradict their beliefs </li></ul>
  21. 21. Selective Perception <ul><li>People tend to hear what they want or expect to hear </li></ul>
  22. 22. Selective retention & recall <ul><li>People retain & recollect some media messages and not others </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Bottom line: </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals have a large degree of control over how the mass media affect them </li></ul>
  24. 24. War of the Worlds Revisited <ul><li>Why did the Orson Welles broadcast have such a powerful effect on its audience? </li></ul><ul><li>EarthStation1. com's Radio Sounds Showcase: The 1938 &quot;War of the Worlds&quot; Radio Broadcast Wavs </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>“ Reverence” for radio as a reliable medium </li></ul><ul><li>Predisposition to expect bad news </li></ul><ul><li>Selective perception </li></ul><ul><li>Gullibility fueled by awe of science </li></ul><ul><li>WWI memories – gas warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of common sense </li></ul>
  26. 26. Determining Causality <ul><li>Correlation means that 2 or more variables coexist </li></ul><ul><li>Causality means that one variable causes another </li></ul><ul><li>Beware of bad science (studies purporting causality) </li></ul>

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