Bone marrow transplant

1,253 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,253
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
142
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
49
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Bone marrow transplant

  1. 1. What is Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) ? DHARAMSHILA BLOOD AND MARROW STEM CELL TRANSPLANT CENTRE
  2. 2. What is Bone Marrow Transplantation? Stem Cells from the Bone marrow produce blood cells essential for survival. In conditions, where a cancer is arising from the bone marrow or the immune system is damaged or diseased, healthy blood stem cells can be transplanted (infused into patient’s blood steam) after appropriate treatment to save the life.
  3. 3. What are stem cells? Stem cells are the most primitive cells which can differentiate to various other dedicated cells, such as nerve cells, bone cells, liver cells, blood cells etc. The most primitive stem cell gets committed to organ-specific stem cells and thus form either blood stem cells or nerve stem cells.
  4. 4. What are the sources of Blood Stem Cells? • Bone Marrow : This is the natural reserve for blood stem cells. They are located in the centre of most large bones in an adult or all bones in children. Given the need of the body, they form the appropriate number of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets, This is conventionally carried out by obtaining bone marrow cells from the donor under anaesthesia (this is usually obtained from hip bones) and infusing this in the patient (similar to blood transfusion) after the ‘conditioning’ has been completed. • Peripheral Blood : Normally, there is only an occasional blood stem cell in our circulation. However, when a blood grown factor (G-CSF) is injected, this stimulates the committed stem cells from the bone marrow to spil over in the circulation. If we count the number of blood stem cells after 3 doses of G-CSF daily, this would have increased by several hundred times. This is called mobilization. At this time, we can collect and concentrate these stem cells from the blood itself by a machine called cell separator, without the use of anesthesia. • Umbilical Cord Blood : Placental along with the umbilical cord are waste products of pregnancy. However, in the mid-1980s, it was found that an amazingly high concentration of stem cells was present in the cord blood which is discarded. Since the efforts have been made to collect and store cord blood units from random pregnancies and also directed collections from further childbirth in an affected family where BMT is found necessary.
  5. 5. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION? • Autologous BMT : Standard dose of chemotherapy can not always cure a cancer and high dose of chemotherapy or radiotherapy is often needed. However, such high doses of treatment damage the patient’s bone marrow irreversibly. The blood stem cells are collected from the patient before administering high dose chemotherapy under these circumstances and stored. This is infused back to the patient once the high dose chemotherapy has been administered. • Allogenic BMT : The blood stem cells are obtained from the peripheral blood or bone marrow of a donor who is suitably matched to the patient.
  6. 6. WHO NEEDS BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT ? • Blood Cancers : Any blood cancer (leukemia) or lymph gland cancer (Lymphoma) which is not completely cured with chemotherapy or recurs after completion of chemotherapy (relapse), can be cured with BMT in about half of those. • Thalassemia and other genetic conditions : In these conditions, the defective bone marrow cells can be killed by chemotherapy and replaced by marrow from a healthy donor. The chances of success in these conditions, if carried out early enough are 80 – 90%. • Aplastic Anaemia and related conditions : In these conditions, the bone marrow does not produce enough stem cells and healthy stem cells can repopulate the bone marrow with less amount of ‘conditioning’. • Other cancers : Many other cancers which do not arise from the bone marrow can be cured by infusing patient’s own stem cells which could be collected and frozen before administration of high dose chemotherapy. Lymphomas, Brain Tumours and many other cancers of childhood respond to this treatment called ‘Autologous Transplantation’.
  7. 7. WHO CAN BE A DONOR FOR BMT? • Donor for BMT has to be matched with the patient in their ‘tissue type’. This is confirmed by typing their HLA antigens. • Family Donor : Within a family, there is about 25-30% chance of finding such a match in a brother or a sister. Parents match with the children in only one half of HLA type. If there is no match within the close family, the chances of finding a fully matched donor in distant relatives is remote. • Volunteer Unrelated Donors : To find a match with a random person is less than one in a billion. However, if we screen million people of similar ethnic background, we might find a close match. Based on this concept, volunteer unrelated donor registries have been set up in all developed countries and they are the major source of blood stem cells in all these countries. Several such registries worldwide provide over a million donors who volunteer to donate marrow if needed. The best chances of finding a match are within the same ethnic community. Unfortunately, no such registry exists in India at present.
  8. 8. WHO NEEDS BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT ? • Blood Cancers : Any blood cancer (leukemia) or lymph gland cancer (Lymphoma) which is not completely cured with chemotherapy or recurs after completion of chemotherapy (relapse), can be cured with BMT in about half of those. • Thalassemia and other genetic conditions : In these conditions, the defective bone marrow cells can be killed by chemotherapy and replaced by marrow from a healthy donor. The chances of success in these conditions, if carried out early enough are 80 – 90%. • Aplastic Anaemia and related conditions : In these conditions, the bone marrow does not produce enough stem cells and healthy stem cells can repopulate the bone marrow with less amount of ‘conditioning’. • Other cancers : Many other cancers which do not arise from the bone marrow can be cured by infusing patient’s own stem cells which could be collected and frozen before administration of high dose chemotherapy. Lymphomas, Brain Tumours and many other cancers of childhood respond to this treatment called ‘Autologous Transplantation’.
  9. 9. CONTACT If you would like to refer a patient to one of our consultants please contact us through our referral helpline or e-mail a referral letter. Whenever you have a general enquiry about our BMT Centre, please do not hesitate to contact us at Dharamshila BMT Centre Dharamshila Hospital And Research Centre, Dharamshila Marg, Vasundhara Enclave, Near New Ashok Nagar Metro Station, Delhi 110096 (India). Helpline : +91-8130000120 Ph. No. : +91-43066666, +91-43066518 E-mail : contact@dhrc.in Web : www.dhrc.in, www.dharamshila.com
  10. 10. CONTACT If you would like to refer a patient to one of our consultants please contact us through our referral helpline or e-mail a referral letter. Whenever you have a general enquiry about our BMT Centre, please do not hesitate to contact us at Dharamshila BMT Centre Dharamshila Hospital And Research Centre, Dharamshila Marg, Vasundhara Enclave, Near New Ashok Nagar Metro Station, Delhi 110096 (India). Helpline : +91-8130000120 Ph. No. : +91-43066666, +91-43066518 E-mail : contact@dhrc.in Web : www.dhrc.in, www.dharamshila.com

×