The spanish- Early explorer Alvar Nunez Cabeza
De Vaca arrived in November, 1528 and explored
the whole south-west.
Another expedition by Francisco Vasquez De
Coranado was launched in search of wealth.
Results from an expedition depicted Texas as a
barren inhospitable place that lacked natural
The Spanish made no financial gain, but realized
this was important territory.
A French Expedition arrived on a Texas coast in 1684 and
claimed the area for the king of France. La Salle (Leader of
French expedition) was murdered and the rest of his group
was killed by disease and starvation. Settlement lasted
barely 3 years.
Although the occupation was short, the Spanish felt very
threatened and felt the need to show that it was their land.
The Mexicans- Many Spanish missions did not prosper due
to Indian tribes conflicting with them. Spain realized the
Comanche wanted no part of the Spanish or their
The Spanish missions prospered mainly in South-Texas and
there was a strong emergence of Mexican culture.
Cattle trade among the Rio Grande in the 1750’s was the
basis for many tools, terminology, and technology for the
Anglo cattle industry.
The Republic of Mexico was born after 10 years of bloody
fighting with Spain.
The first organized Anglo settlement was under Stephen F.
Austin whose father negotiated settlement with the Spanish.
The government of Mexico began issuing land grants but the
recipients had to occupy the land within two years and had to
become a Catholic. This was a major agent of conversion.
These offers attracted many Angelo's bringing whole families
and livestock, and drastically different attitudes.
There were disagreements and rebellions, Santa Anna
promised to destroy rebellious interlopers. Santa Anna’s
counterpart was Sam Houston. After a mere 7 months of
battle the Texans were victorious by defeating and capturing
Santa Anna. The Mexican forces withdrew for exchange of
Santa Anna. In March Texas became its own Nation acting
on its own Declaration of Independence.
The Republic of Texas existed for almost 10 years enduring
numerous invasions and attacks and a deteriorating
economy. Inflation became huge and all exchanges were
reliant heavily on trade as there was a scarcity of cash and
the cash itself had been inflated beyond belief.
Life in the period of the Republic was very difficult and the
government was regarded as dangerous by some of the
citizens. On February of 1846, the Republic of Texas seized
to exist due in part because of the Manifest Destiny.
Texas joined the Confederacy along side
10 other states, but not all Texans
agreed and wanted this. Texas was
mainly used as supplies of men and
Reconstruction began in June 1865 and
was a time of great stress and turmoil.
States first Republican Governor was
E.J Davis. When he left it ended the
mark of the reconstruction period.
A Frontier State
Expansion and political upheaval forced
Indians out of the land. But in this time
self reliance, belief in material
progress, and land ownership where
vital to everyday life.
Expansion of railroads moving
westward was happening at this time.
Texas was making a transition from
country to city farm to factory.
A Modern State
A big thing to strike Texas in the 20th
century was Oil, and it changed the
image of Texas forever. Texas became
more advanced technology due to oil
and oil fields.
Jim Ferguson’s wife Miriam won the
“Two governors for the price of one”
A Modern State
The Depression hit Texas hard, farm
prices fell. Oil discoveries and defense
plants during and after world war 2 is
what helped Texans financially.
There was segregation against nonwhites and that made many problems
John F Kennedy was assassinated in
Dallas, in November,1963.
A Modern State
During the 1970’s the economic
importance started to over shadow
politics, and as oil prices rose so did the
OPEC failed to agree on a world wide oil
price, Saudi Arabia drastically altered oil
prices. This affected Texas in a negative
losing billions of dollars.
A lot of the events that have occurred have
defined what Texas is and has added to the
patriotism of Texas through what its citizens
have survived through.
Coastal planes- Coastal marshes
throughout the coast of the Gulf of
Mexico from Corpus Christi to the
Louisiana Border. Plays a large role in
economy. Good for Rice, Cotton and
other crops, and oil.
The Piney Wood
High amounts of rainfall up to 60 inches
per a year in some areas. Timber is a
big economic resource, along with oil
and gas in the area.
Lots of land protected by Federal Law
The Post Oaks and Prairies
West of the Piney Woods, is roaring
prairies with rich soil and where a lot of
the cotton was grown in the 19th century.
Barnett shale natural gas deposits are a
major source of economic activity.
Cities include Dallas, Austin, Fort
worth, San Antonio, and Waco.
South Texas Prairie
An arid climate located in the Southern
regions of Texas. Major place where
Cattle were raised and currently
agriculture plays a major role in that
area. Bird watchers go because of the
huge Bird Migration in that area.
Land dominated by lime stone hills.
Farming has not prospered here, but
sheep and goat ranches have done well.
Breeding of exotic game has diversified
Very scenic hills and quite valleys, solid
mineral production takes place here.
Austin’s capital is made of distinctive
pink granite from this area.
Good soil, produces wheat and cotton
Many of the greater ranches and farms
that Texas is known for have originated
from the Wichita Prairie due to its
Flat grassy lands, huge prosperous
ranches. Currently produces cotton and
grain. Oil is also abundant in this area
around Midland and Oddesa.
West Texas Basins and Ranges
West of the Pecos is the most
underdeveloped part of the state. Big
bend national park and Guadalupe peek
are a part of this area.
Wind power turbines, are a large part of
energy production in this area.
Rude in the notions of individualism
independence, limited government and
free enterprise. This is stereotypically
thought to be the view of most Texans.
These types of people would like to
maintain the people in charge and do
not think that ordinary people are fit to
handle issues such as politics. They are
very reluctant to changing, they want
everything to stay the same.
These people are more concerned
about public good than private gain.
They are intolerant to any type of
corruption. They encourage public
participation in Government.
The Changing face of Texas
Texas is always changing and if you look
at our history and all the different
cultures that are incorporated into it will
show that the face of Texas will continue
to change. New people and new
opportunities will mirror these realities.