SAP Batch Management OverviewBatch Management can be defined as tagging an alphanumeric or a numeric code tothe material produced or material procured. Every batch number has an inventoryquantity associated with it. This 10 digit code in SAP helps in uniquely identifying amaterial and the quantity associated with it.A partial quantity of production or procurement can be tagged with a batch number thatclearly makes that material inventory unique.The Batch number generated for the material quantity not only helps in uniquelyassorting the material inventory, but it also stores the characteristics values or thechemical composition or the product specifications at the time of its production orprocurement.Which Materials can be Batch Managed?Typically you can say that material which can be stored separately without mixing andpiling one over the other, is a good candidate for batch management.Product produced or procured has to be stored separately for it to be tagged with abatch number. If you mix all the pieces or mass together then the identification is lost.Case 1: Products which are powder in state like Iron ore, which is procured fromvendors (in ships) and are dumped in a location loosing any sort of traceability of whenthey were procured and from whom they were procured are not a good candidate forbatch management.Case 2: At the same time, if Iron ore is procured from vendors (in ships) and piled upseparately (every shipment is piled up separately) then you can think of making theproduct (iron ore) as a batch management candidate.Case 3: You can also take a case where products are Solid in state but are mixedtogether after production; where the producing company does not wish to keep anytraceability of when it was produced and what were the product features or conditions atthat point of time. In this case you can avoid Batch management or any recording batchspecifications.Perquisites in SAP for Batch Management Activation of Batch Management at Material Level, Plant level or Client Level
Creation of Number Range for Batch Management: Specify use of Standard InternalNumber Range or External Number Range or Both Material should be activated for batch managementLife after Batch ManagementBatch Management once activated in configuration and the material master’s activatedfor batch management, then the material is stored in inventory at plant-storage location-batch level. In this case there is no question on mixing of material or loosing any sort oftraceability.The plant inventory which would be normally stored in storage locations at the plant-storage location level would now be stored at the plant-storage location-batch level;which means that every time you issue this material for further production or every timeyou deliver this to the customer, you have to mention the storage location as well as thebatch number you are issuing.This may end your liberty of consumption of this material at plant-storage location leveland you may get frustrated in knowing the batch number you are issuing every time.Storage Location Stock before Batch Management:Material Plant Storage Unrestricted Stock Location QtyM1 0001 -Trident Group - Barnala FG 3502 PiecesStorage Location Stock after Batch Management:Material Plant Storage Batch Unrestricted Stock Location Number QtyM1 0001 - FG 0000002369 1002 Pieces Trident Group – PunjabM1 0001 - FG 0000005480 2500 Pieces Trident Group - PunjabActivating or Deactivating Batch Management for a Material duringthe life of the Material
Activating or Deactivating Batch Management for a product means that you would haveto go through a lot of work:a) All the existing in-progress documents like the Purchase orders, Sales ordersdeliveries, Production orders, Batch Classifications or Batches, which are usingthe Material batches should be reversed, archived or deleted.b) All the Material Stock should be made = 0The best way to do it is, moving the stock of the material to a temporary material orwriting off all the stock for the material. Once you have done this you can activate ordeactivate the material for batch management.c) You can then bring back all the stock from the temporary material to this originalmaterial.When is a Batch created in SAPWhen is a Batch Created in SAP:A 10 digit batch is created in SAP for a batch managed material at the following instantsof goods receipt for the material:a) A Batch is created at Goods Reciept from Production (Movement type 101):When you carry out Goods receipt for a Batch Managed Material from a productionorder or a process order or a run shcedule header, the system creates a batch for thereceived quantity and material.The batch received would have an internal batch number assigned (or an external batchnumber assigned as per configuration).If the configuration is set at External batchnumbering, then you would have to assign a batch number before saving the goodsreceipt.The received stock would be associated with the batch number and any furtherinventory movement for the material quantity would be made using the batch number.The goods receipt movement types are MB31, MIGO, MIGO_GR through movementtype 101 - GR from Production order.b) A Batch is created at Goods Reciept from Purchase order or STO (Movementtype 101):When you carry out a goods receipt for a batch managed material from a Purchaseorder (or a STO - Stock Transport order), the system creates a Batch number (if the
configuration is set at internal batch numbering). If the configuration is set at Externalbatch numbering, then you would have to assign a batch number before saving thegoods receipt.The purchase order goods receipt is from an external vendor, whereas STO receipt isfrom a supplying plant in the same or different company code.If the Batch Management is set at plant level then in the case of STO transfers thebatch number in all possibilities would change at the goods receipt in the receivingplant. If Batch Management is set at Material Level then the supplied material batchwould be adopted at goods receipt in the receiving plant.The goods receipt movement types are MB31, MIGO, MIGO_GR through movementtype 101 - GR from Purchase order. In the case of STO you could also create a goodsreceipt from an outbound delivery created at the sending plant.c) A Batch is created at Goods Receipt from Production - By Product receipt:When you carry out by-product goods receipt for a batch managed material from aproduction order or purchase order using MB1c-531 movement type, the systemcreates a Batch number.d) A Batch is created at Goods receipt from Initial Inventory Creation:When you carry out goods receipt as a part of initial inventory creation through 561 or501 movement types, the system creates a Batch number for a batch managedmaterial.Summary - A Batch in SAP is created at a Goods Receipt of a Batch ManagementMaterialWhen you receive a Goods Receipt of a Batch Management Material through any GRMovement type, SAP Triggers creation of a Batch number for the received quantity.Above were listed only a few major GR Transaction code and Movement type.SAP Batch SpecificationsBatch SpecificationsDefine Batch Specifications
A Batch is created in SAP as a master data prior to production or at receipt of stockfrom a vendor through a purchase order or at the receipt from a production order.A Batch contains a place holder for maintaining various production or productspecifications in the form of Batch characteristics.Mantaining Batch Characteristics Values or Batch Specifications is notmandatory atall:It is not mandatory that you maintain batch specifiation in a batch.You can create batches for material inventory without any batch specifications.Maintaining Batch characteristics values for batches is an Optional Feature.Batch Specifications Example:If you producing steel billets of a certain quality, you can maintain specifications for acertain production batch asMaterial = Steel BilletPlant = 0001Batch Number = 0000056239Carbon = 0.16Si = 0.2Magnesium = 0.15Sulfur = 0.022Potassium = 0.025Al = 0.02How to Make a Batch Unique with Batch Specifications:To make a batch specifications unique by adding characteristics such as ProductionDate, Production Line, Shelf life of Product or even the supervisors name. If you addthese sort of characteristics with values you would be successful in making a batchunique with unique set of batch specifications.Making a batch as unique as possible helps differentiating between multiple batcheswhich makes it easier for back traceability.In the above example of Steel Billte production, you can add some more characteristicsin the batch classification, as below:
Material = Steel BilletPlant = 0001Batch Number = 0000056239Carbon = 0.16Si = 0.2Magnesium = 0.15Sulfur = 0.022Potassium = 0.025Al = 0.02Production Date = 25th Dec 2009Production Time = 13:12:08Production Line = L3Shelf life = 25th Dec 2019Batch Specifications Target Values:Batch characteristics can a predefined value maintained. You can maintain thefollowing: An absolute value or absolute values Absolute values predefined will force you enter no other value other than thesepredefined ones in the batches. A Character format Characteristics STEEL_PRODUCT_GROUPS can have predefined values such as Billets, Coils, Rounds, and Bars. While a Numeric characteristics can have predefined values for characteristics “BILLET_LENGTH” as 10m, 50m, 100m, 150m, 200m, 250m, A Tolerance Range Value A Tolerance value range predefined in the batch characteristics will force you enterno other value other than these predefined ones in the batches. A Character format characteristic cannot have tolerance ranges.
A Numeric format characteristic CARBON_CONTENT can have predefined tolerance ranges such as 0.1 – 0.3. Leave it blank for entry in the Batches during GR or Tolerance Entry in the Material Master There can be situations where you may want to enter any value in the Batch and not restrict to predefined values in the characteristics Tolerances ranges at Batch Characteristics Level - There can be situation where the tolerance ranges change with respect to the materials characteristics combination. Tolerances range Material Wise – There can be situations where the tolerances forthe characteristics changes with respect to materials, i.e. characteristicsCARBON_CONTENT may not be 0.1 to 0.3 for all the materials and it may vary foreach material, to do this you would have to assign a value for the batch classcharacteristics in the material master and not in the batch characteristics level. Youhave to enter a value for the characteristics in the material master classification view,say MATERIAL = M1 for Batch Class STEEL_CHEMISTRY would have a value 0.15 –0.3 for the characteristics “CARBON_CONTENT”.Master Date Maintenance for SAP BatchSpecifications:If you want to maintain batch specifications for a produced or purchased batch you needto maintain a set of master data in the order mentioned: Creation of SAP Characteristics Create Characteristics through the use of transaction code CT04. Characteristics are the actual Specification master data with predefined values or number range or open for entry of any value. For example to have something called carbon % you have to maintain a characteristics called – “CARBON_CONTENT”. Similarly you have to create all the characteristics that you want to use for recording values. While Creation or during change of characteristics, you can define target predefined values for the characteristics or define a tolerance number range within which the
recorded value should exists or leave it blank for input of any value during resultrecording for the characteristics. Though there can be situations where the allowedtolerances changes material wise; in which case you can leave the values section inCharacteristics as blank and maintain the required tolerances in the characteristicsat the material master classification view for the batch class or material class.For example, you can have for the characteristics “CARBON_CONTENT” you candefine a tolerance number range of 0.17 - 0.24 which means that any resultant valuethat you would record should be mandatorily within this range. Or as a secondexample for characteristics PRODUCTION_LINE_NUMBER” you can havepredefined set of values such as L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 to choose from during resultrecording in the Production Batch.Please see below for details on how to create the characteristics.Example:Carbon_Content (Characteristics) = Predefined Range 0.1 – 0.3Si_Content (Characteristics) = Predefined Range 0.1 – 0.3Mg_Content (Characteristics) = Predefined Range 0.2 – 0.5S_Content (Characteristics) = Predefined Range 0.01 – 0.03P_Content (Characteristics) = Predefined Range 0.01 – 0.004Al_Content (Characteristics) = Predefined Range 0.01 – 0.004Production Date (Characteristics) = No Predefined ValueProduction time (Characteristics) = No Predefined ValueProduction Line (Characteristics) = Predefined Values L1, L2, L3, L4, L5Shelf Life (Characteristics) = No Predefined ValueNote – when you leave the predefined values as blank in the characteristics, itmeans that any value can be entered or it can also mean that the values changewith respect to material master and you have to maintain the values or a valuetolerance range in the material master. Creation of SAP Batch classOnce you have created all the characteristics, you have to create a class usingtransaction code CL01.A class is a place holder for characteristics. Eventually you would assign the class toa material master. By assigning a class to a material master you would be indirectlyassigning all the characteristics to the material.See the illustration below:STEEL_CHEMISTRY (Batch Class type 023) Carbon_Content (Characteristics)
Si_Content (Characteristics) Mg_Content (Characteristics) S_Content (Characteristics) P_Content (Characteristics) Al_Content (Characteristics) Production Date (Characteristics) Production time (Characteristics) Production Line (Characteristics) Shelf Life (Characteristics)When you create a Class, you have to specify the class type, whether it is a batchclass or a material class or any other class type for use in any other modules.Batch class type 022: If you are using Plant Level Batch Maintenance.Batch class type 023: If you are using Material Level Batch Maintenance or ClientLevel Batch Maintenance.You should include a description of the class and the characteristics or specificationsthat should be included in the class. Create Material Master Classification View and assign a Batch ClassExtend or create Material Master Classification view and add a batch class type tothe classification view (Transaction code MM02 or MM01 – Material Master Changeor creation)You can add batch class type 022: If you are using Plant Level Batch Maintenance.You can add batch class type 023: If you are using Material Level BatchMaintenance or Client Level Batch Maintenance.Assigning a batch class to the material classification view would indirectly assign allthe characteristics to the material master. Thus whenever you create a batch for thismaterial through MSC1n or you receive materials in stock from production order orprocess order or purchase order goods receipt you can record values for theseassigned characteristics only.See the illustration below:STEEL_BILLET_123 (Material Master) STEEL_CHEMISTRY (Class type 023) Carbon_Content (Characteristics) Si_Content (Characteristics) Mg_Content (Characteristics) S_Content (Characteristics) P_Content (Characteristics)
Al_Content (Characteristics) Production Date (Characteristics) Production time (Characteristics) Production Line (Characteristics) Shelf Life (Characteristics)Characteristics have a predefined format (character alphanumeric or date or numericformat) and a predefined set of values in the form of direct values or in the form ofallowed tolerance range or no values (without any values suggesting allowed forrandom value entry in batch).Note: There can be situations where the allowed tolerances changes material wise; inwhich case you can leave the values section in Characteristics as blank and maintainthe required tolerances in the characteristics at the material master classification viewfor the batch class.