QUESTIONNAIREPRESENTED BY:MOHAMAD AIZAT BIN AHMAD (2011106699)SITI HAJAR BINTI ANIP (2011937431)NURUL HANA BINTI MOHD NAZRI (2011146955)
INSTRUMENTATION The whole process of preparing to collect data which includes: Selection or design of the instruments Location Time Frequency Administration
Consideration in selecting aresearch instrument Validity- measures what it is supposed to measure Reliability- gives consistent result Objectivity- absence of subjective judgments Usability- convenience instrument
What is Questionnaire? A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.
Getting started Plan the survey as a whole Objectives - what you want your questionnaire to achieve Data needs - your research goals, and think about what information you need to elicit from respondents to meet those goals.
Getting startedo Analysis - how you are going to analyse each question to get the results you need. Remember there is a difference between things you need to know, and those it would be nice to know
Introduction The introduction of the questionnaire is very important because it outlines the pertinent information about the survey. The introduction should: provide the title or subject of the survey explain the purpose of the survey request the respondent’s co-operation inform the respondent about confidentiality issues, the status of the survey (voluntary or mandatory) and any existing data- sharing agreements with other organizations.
Formatting The Questions Appropriate format for each question has to be ascertained Each of the formats serves specific purposes that coincide with the researcher’s information and data analysis needs
Likert Scale Usually used to measure the strength of an attitude or an opinion respondents specify their level of agreement or disagreement on a symmetric agree-disagree scale for a series of statements
Likert Scale The respondent is presented a sentence and is asked to agree or disagree on a 3,5 or 7 point scale. It provides an excellent means of gathering opinions and attitudes When writing the scale, you must include instructions that describe how to complete it
Likert Scale On a survey or questionnaire, a typical Likert item usually takes the following format: 1 2 3 4 5Strongly Disagree Neither agree Agree Stronglydisagree nor disagree agree "balanced" because there are equal amounts of positive and negative positions
Sample 1 Strongly Not Strongly disagree Disagree sure Agree agreeI use researchmethods in myjob
Rating Questions Ratings are assigned solely on the basis of the score’s absolute position within a range of possible values Easy to write, easy to answer Provide a level of quantification that is adequate for most purposes
Sample Select the choice that best describes your actions in the first five minutes of the classes you teach5= always, 4= almost always, 3= about half the time, 2= rarely, 1= never_____ state lesson objectives and overview at start of the lesson______ state lesson objectives but no overview at start of the lesson______ don’t state objectives or overview at start of the lesson
Ranking Questions The respondent is given a list of items and asked to rank them in order of importance
Sample: Rank in order of importance the following five weaknesses of thetraining program. That is, place 1 beside the weakness you consider mostimportant, 2 beside the next most important weakness and so forth, until youhave ranked all five weaknesses. Rank The training program was too short. ____ The content did not suit my needs. ____ The content was too theoretical. ____ The training group was too large. ____ The training methods were poor. ____
Open-Ended Questions Easy to write Do not require an extensive knowledge of the subject
Sample1. What do you understand by the term ‘e-Learning’?2. Give some examples of e-learning activities carried out in your faculty.3. What is your opinion regarding the integration of ICT into university teaching and learning?4. What suggestion(s) do you have to further improve the integration of ICT into university teaching and learning?
Open-Ended Questions Incomplete and ambiguous answers Hard to analyze Respondent may produce various answers Cannot be subjected to machine- processing “content analysis”- read and reread
Open-ended Questions People are uncertain about what the questions means and how they are expected to answer Increase respond burden- quality varies with respondent’s literacy, people are 10 times less likely to answer open-ended questions
Pilot-test the Questionnaire WHY? It is difficult to criticize your own written work It is essential to obtain comments from at least a small group of the intended respondents It identifies the ambiguities in the instructions It clarifies the wording of the questionnaire It alerts you to the omissions or anticipated answers in MCQ or ranking questions
HOW? Assemble a group of volunteers (6 to 12), have them complete the questionnaire individually Encourage them to write comments on the actual questionnaire After the pilot-test, review the verbal and written comments and evaluate its effectiveness Revise the instrument If necessary, second pilot-test is advisable
Questionnaire Considerations Be sure to commit the study goals to writing. Whenever you are unsure of a question, refer to the study goals and a solution will become clear. Ask only questions that directly address the study goals.
Cont.. Keep your questionnaire short. Response rate is the single most important indicator of how much confidence you can place in the results. A low response rate can be devastating to a study. One of the most effective methods of maximizing response is to shorten the questionnaire.
Cont.. Try to eliminate questions. If the information will be used in a decision-making process, then keep the question... its important. To include other experts and relevant decision-makers in the questionnaire design process. Their suggestions will improve the questionnaire. Formulate a plan for doing the statistical analysis during the design stage of the project. Know how every question will be analyzed and be prepared to handle missing data.
Cont.. Make the envelope unique. Provide a well-written cover letter. Give your questionnaire a title that is short and meaningful to the respondent. Include clear and concise instructions on how to complete the questionnaire. Be sure to print the return address on the questionnaire itself (since questionnaires often get separated from the reply envelopes). Begin with a few non-threatening and interesting items.
Cont.. Use simple and direct language. This will reduce misunderstandings and make the questionnaire appear easier to complete. One way to eliminate misunderstandings is to emphasize crucial words in each item by using bold, italics or underlining. Leave adequate space for respondents to make comments. Leaving space for comments will provide valuable information not captured by the response categories. Place the most important items in the first half of the questionnaire.
Cont.. Hold the respondents interest. We want the respondent to complete our questionnaire Provide incentives as a motivation for a properly completed questionnaire. Use professional production methods for the questionnaire--either desktop publishing or typesetting and key lining. Make it convenient. The easier it is for the respondent to complete the questionnaire the better. The final test of a questionnaire is to try it on representatives of the target audience.
Advantages Very cheap – only for printing Very close to 100% of response. Can be posted or by e-mail.
Disadvantages Less honest response. Rush to complete. E-mail – maybe answered by other person, low level in computer literacy Some people are not able to read and write. By post – quite expensive. By hand – time consuming.
Preparing Data for AnalysisResearcher must score the data that have been collectedand then organize it to facilitate analysis.-Collected data must be scored accurately and consistently.If not, any conclusions from the data may be erroneous ormisleading.-The data usually done by transferring data to some sort ofsummary data sheet or card.Example: Table 7.3 ( according to the textbook)
Table 7.3: Hypothetical Results of Study Involving a Comparison of Two Counseling MethodsScore for Method A Method B“Rapport”91-100 1 481-90 1 271-80 3 561-70 4 251-60 5 541-50 6 131-40 4 121-30 1 711-20 3 51-10 4 1 N=33 33
Data Analysis1. Computing the basic statistics for all items on the questionnaire - frequency distributions, means, standard deviations 2. Comparing groups (e.g males vs females) using cross-tabulations or graphs 3. Examine interrelationships among variables using correlations and related statistics
Conclusion Well constructed questionnaires permit researchers to gather reasonably valid quantitative and qualitative data in simple, timely and costly efficient manner. Questionnaires lend themselves to logical and organized data entry and analysis. Developing the questionnaire requires thought, care and time. But the end product can be satisfying.