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Geographic information system and remote sensing


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this ppt contains information about gis, remotesensing, photogrammetry and surveying.

Geographic information system and remote sensing

  1. 1. Geographical information system A.D.I.T PREPARED BY:DHIREN P PATEL 5TH SEM MECH.ENGG. (120013119002)
  3. 3. Remote sensing system • The gathering of information from an object or surface without direct contact.
  4. 4. History • 1858 Balloonist G.Tournachon made photographs of Paris from his balloon. • Systematic aerial photography developed for military and reconnaissance purposes beginning in World War I and reaching a climax during the Cold War . • Artificial satellites in the latter half of the 20th century.
  5. 5. Types • Passive Remote Sensing • Photography • Radiometers • Infrared • Active Remote Sensing • RADAR • LiDAR
  6. 6. Applications • Forestry • Agriculture • Hydrology • Sea Ice • Land Cover & Land Use
  7. 7. Techniques  Spectral Signatures  Image Acquisition  Spatial Resolution  Spectral Resolution  Multispectral Images  Radiometric Resolution
  8. 8. High Resolutions Low Resolution Multi Spectral Hyper Spectral:
  9. 9. System Used • Optical System • • • • Panchromatic imaging system Multispectral imaging system Super spectral Imaging System Hyper spectral Imaging System • RADAR System • LiDAR System
  10. 10. Optical Remote System • Optical remote sensing makes use of visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared sensors to form images of the earth's surface by detecting the solar radiation reflected from targets on the ground.
  11. 11. Panchromatic Imaging System • A single channel sensor is used to detect radiation • If range of wavelength and the visible range become same then the imagery will appear as a black and white photograph taken from space
  12. 12. Multispectral Imaging System • Uses a multi channel detector and records radiation with a narrow range • Brightness and color informatics are available
  13. 13. Super Spectral Imaging System • Finer spectral feature that capture by the sensors.
  14. 14. PHOTOGRAMMETRY an introduction…
  15. 15. Photogrammetry is the technique of measuring objects (2D or 3D) from photographs Its most important feature is the fact, that the objects are measured without being touched.
  16. 16. Photogrammetry • objects are measured WITHOUT TOUCHING. • It is a REMOTESENSING technique. • It is a close range method of measuring objects. • It is a 3-dimensional coordinate measuring technique that uses PHOTORAPHS as the fundamental medium for measurement.
  17. 17. Principle • The main principle is “TRIANGULATION”. • Eyes use the principle of TRIANGULATION to gauge distance (depth perception). • TRIAGULATION is also the principle used by theodolites for coordinate measurement.
  18. 18. Triangulation By taking photographs from at least two different locations, so-called "lines of sight" can be developed from each camera to points on the object. These lines of sight (sometimes called rays owing to their optical nature) are mathematically intersected to produce the 3-dimensional coordinates of the points of interest.
  19. 19. Introduction To Surveying • Definition: Surveying is the science and art of determining the relative positions of points above, on, or beneath the earth’s surface and locating the points in the field.
  20. 20. The Work Of The Surveyor Consists Of 5 Phases: 1. Decision Making – selecting method, equipment and final point locations. 2. Fieldwork & Data Collection – making measurements and recording data in the field. 3. Computing & Data Processing – preparing calculations based upon the recorded data to determine locations in a useable form. 4. Mapping or Data Representation – plotting data to produce a map, plat, or chart in the proper form. 5. Stakeout – locating and establishing monuments or stakes in the proper locations in the field.
  21. 21. 2 Categories of Surveying: 1. Plane Surveying – surveying with the reference base for fieldwork and computations are assumed to be a flat horizontal surface. – Generally within a 12 mile radius the pull of gravity is very nearly parallel to that at any other point within the radius and thus horizontal lines can be considered straight. 2. Geodetic Surveying – surveying technique to determine relative positions of widely spaced points, lengths, and directions which require the consideration of the size and shape of the earth. (Takes the earth’s curvature into account.)
  22. 22. 7 Types of Surveys: 1. Photogrammetry – mapping utilizing data obtained by camera or other sensors carried in airplanes or satellites. 2. Boundary Surveying – establishing property corners, boundaries, and areas of land parcels. 3. Control Surveying – establish a network of horizontal and vertical monuments that serve as a reference framework for other survey projects. 4. Engineering Surveying – providing points and elevations for the building Civil Engineering projects.
  23. 23. 7 Types of Surveys: 5. Topographic Surveying – collecting data and preparing maps showing the locations of natural man-made features and elevations of points o the ground for multiple uses. 6. Route Surveys – topographic and other surveys for long – narrow projects associated with Civil Engineering projects. – Highways, railroads, pipelines, and transmission lines. 7. Hydrographic Surveying – mapping of shorelines and the bottom of bodies of water. – Also known as bathymetric surveying.
  24. 24. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) • GIS are computer programs that allow users to store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze and display spatial data • Spatial Data (Geographic data) – any data that represents information about the Earth GIS components – Recent definitions of GIS suggest that is consists of: 1. Hardware (computer and operating system) Geographic/Spatial 2. Software 3. Data Non-Geographic/Aspatial/Attribute 4. Human Operators and Institutional Infrastructure
  25. 25. GIS Data Structures • Vector – Made up of points, lines, and polygons
  26. 26. GIS Data Structures • Raster (Grids) – Made up of pixels of computer screen
  27. 27. GIS Data Structures • DEM (Digital Elevation Model) – Digital terrain representation technique, where elevation values are stored in raster cells
  28. 28. Future of Surveying • Major advances in future – Remote Sensing (Government and Military) – Arial Photographs • Design Professions – Every 10 years, must justify to Legislature that need for our license exists – Surveyor have ULTIMATE liability – Standards → Laws – Continuing Education – Enough points every 2 years
  29. 29. REFERENCES • • •