Dna Fingerprinting And Forensic Applications

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Dna Fingerprinting And Forensic Applications

  1. 1. DNA FINGERPRINTING AND FORENSIC APPLICATIONS
  2. 2. DNA(DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID) <ul><li>DNA is a chemical structure that forms the genes. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is a double helix, two strands of genetic material spiraled around each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Adenine, Guanine, Thymine ,Cytosine </li></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT IS DNA FINGERPRINTING ? <ul><li>The chemical structure of everyone DNA is same but the difference lies in the base pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Using base pairs everyone can be solely identified but it is time consuming as there are millions of base pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, scientists are able to use a shorter method, because of repeating patterns in DNA </li></ul><ul><li>They are able to determine whether two DNA samples are from the same person, related people, or non-related people. </li></ul>
  4. 4. PROCESS OF DNA FINGERPRINTING <ul><li>It involves six steps </li></ul><ul><li>The process begins with the cell or sample from which the DNA is extracted. </li></ul><ul><li>The DNA is cut into fragments using restriction enzymes , The fragments are then separated into bands by electrophoresis through agarose gel . </li></ul><ul><li>The DNA band pattern is transferred into a nylon membrane . </li></ul>
  5. 5. ELECTROPHORESIS
  6. 6. CONT…. <ul><li>4. A radioactive DNA probe is introduced .The DNA probe binds to specific DNA sequences of the nylon membrane </li></ul><ul><li>5. The excess probe material is washed away leaving the unique DNA pattern </li></ul><ul><li>6. The radioactive DNA pattern is transferred to X-ray film by direct exposure .When developed the resultant visible pattern is DNA fingerprint. </li></ul>
  7. 8. DNA FINGERPRINTING PROCEDURES DAY ONE
  8. 9. DNA FINGERPRINTING PROCEDURES DAY TWO
  9. 10. DNA FINGERPRINTING PROCEDURES DAY THREE
  10. 11. <ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Paternity and also the Maternity . </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal identification and Forensics . </li></ul><ul><li>Personal identification. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Generating a high probability . </li></ul><ul><li>Technical difficulties </li></ul>
  11. 12. FORENSIC DNA <ul><li>DNA Sequences are compared to each other. </li></ul>A G C T A G A T C G TT A TT CC G A G A G C T A G A T C G TT A TT CC G A G Hair found on Suspect Victim Conclusion: Hair may have come from the victim.
  12. 13. FORENSIC DNA (MITOCHONDRIA) <ul><li>DNA Sequences are compared to each other. </li></ul>A G C T A G A TT G TT A TT CC G A G A G C T A G A T C G TT A TT CC G A G Hair found on Suspect Victim Conclusion: Hair did not come from the victim
  13. 14. FORENSIC DNA A G C T A G A TT G TT A TT CC G A G A G C T A G A T C G TT A TT CC G A G Blood butt at crime scene Suspect #1 Conclusion: Blood could be from Suspects #2, #4 or other person with the same sequence. A G C T A G A TT G TT A TT CC G A G Suspect #2 A G C TT G A TT G TT A TT CC G A G Suspect #3 A G C T A G A TT G TT A TT CC G A G Suspect #4
  14. 15. LET’S COMPARE……. blood stain Satheesh Dheva John Ramalingam
  15. 16. DO WE HAVE A MATCH? blood stain Satheesh Dheva John Ramalingam

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