Social learning theories


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Social learning theories

  1. 1. Social Learning Theories INTC 5110 Spring 2010
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Bandura is noted as the founder of Social Learning as a theory </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is achieved by observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others </li></ul><ul><li>Bridges behaviorist and cognitivist paradigms by adding a cognitive component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizes the environment as the only source of stimuli </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Model of Variables <ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>All three impact the others </li></ul>
  4. 4. Facets <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner must pay attention to the features of the modeled behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affected by the characteristics of both the observer and the person being observed and competing stimuli. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If an individual is to be influenced by observing behaviors he or she needs to remember the activities that were modeled at one time or another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagery and language aid in this process of retaining information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans store the behaviors they observe in the form of mental images or verbal descriptions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall the image or description later to reproduce the activity with their own behavior. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Facets <ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converting symbolic representations into appropriate actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral reproduction is accomplished by organizing one's own responses in accordance with the modeled pattern. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A person's ability to reproduce a behavior improves with practice. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives as reinforcers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcers discourage the continuation of the modeled activity. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Related Theories <ul><li>Social Development (Vygotsky) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive development occurs through social interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning occurs in the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learn best from someone who recently learned the same thing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration between learner and more knowledgeable peers and teachers the key (not transmission of information) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Related Theories and Ideas <ul><li>Situated Learning (Lave) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is embedded in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activity, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Context, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge MUST be presented in authentic contexts — settings and situations that involve that knowledge in use. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Related Theories and Ideas <ul><li>Situated Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities of Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of social interaction (collaboration) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Novices enter into community and are helped by experts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Novices eventually take the expert role for others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Apprenticeships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning takes place informally as well as formally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authentic activities that are as much as possible like the actual context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social construction of knowledge base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is shared by the community in which the activity takes place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common base of knowledge for the community is created </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Related Theories and Ideas <ul><li>Activity Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to reach an outcome it is necessary to produce certain objects (e.g. experiences, knowledge, and physical products) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human activity is mediated by artifacts (e.g. tools, documents, recipes, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity is also mediated by an organization or community. Also, the community may impose rules that affect activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The subject works as part of the community to achieve the object. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An activity normally also features a division of effort. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Related Theories and Ideas <ul><li>Affordances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects in our environment afford us uses (activities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So an object’s meaning is dependent upon what it affords us the opportunity to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those affordances are goal-directed – what are we trying to accomplish? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Applications to Instruction <ul><li>Must consider context as much as (if not more than) content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Context defines content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning is a social activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People do not learn completely alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community plays a role in learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is defined by activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meanings associated with uses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: Sociocultural Design Model </li></ul>