INTRODUCTION                                                   1                                             Introduction1...
INTRODUCTIONcompiled and presented in the status paper entitled              1.3.5   Impact of farm mechanization         ...
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06035 01-15052006


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06035 01-15052006

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Introduction1.1 BACKGROUND equipment, seeders and planters, plant protection The progress of agricultural mechanization has been equipment, threshing and harvesting equipment andclosely linked with the overall development in tractor-trailers. This increase in numbers indicating theproduction agriculture. Till 1950, very few farmers phenomenal growth of agricultural mechanization inpossessed prime movers like tractors, engines and agriculture in India has been entirely driven by the needsmotors. Heavy agricultural tractors and machinery were of the farmer who adopted new production technology.imported by government organizations mainly for land The annual investment on agricultural machinery andreclamation and development of large government farms. prime movers which was less than Rs 1,000 crores inThe picture changed quickly during the early sixties with 1950–51 has risen to about Rs 50,000 crores in 2004–the introduction of high yielding varieties of wheat and 05 (Appendix-B). This investment is higher than the totalother crops which needed irrigation facilities. The investment on certified seeds, fertilizers and plantprogressive farmers soon realized that the traditional protection chemicals.water lifts, which were driven by draught animals or While the progressive Indian farmers supported byoperated manually, could not meet the water requirement agricultural machinery and tractor manufacturers playedof the high yielding varieties of different crops. Lift the key role in the growth of agricultural mechanization,irrigation was, therefore, quickly mechanized through an equally important contribution to this growth wasthe use of electric motor or diesel engine powered pumps. made by the central and State governments and their The rising production of foodgrains resulting from various organizations through a large number ofthe extending area under high yielding varieties could programmes to facilitate transformation of Indiannot be handled within the normal harvesting and agriculture into an efficient production machinery. Thethreshing periods. The farmers in North India suffered Central Tractor Organization, the Tractor Testingheavy losses as a result of damage to harvested wheat Centres, State Agro Industries Corporations, theduring the late sixties and early seventies because the Agricultural Universities, Krishi Vigyan Kendras,threshing of increased wheat production could not be Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopalcompleted before the onset of pre-monsoon rains. Large (CIAE); Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineeringscale adoption of threshers operated by electric motors, and Technology, Ludhiana (CIPHET) and theengines and tractors that followed in early seventies Commodity Research Institutes of Indian Council ofonwards was a result of the need to complete threshing Agricultural Research (ICAR) contributed their share tooperation quickly. Then came the extensive use of the development and progressive acceptance oftractors for primary tillage and transport and the use of agricultural mechanization in India. All Indiatractor powered or self-propelled harvesting equipment. Coordinated Research Projects of ICAR on FarmIn the year 1961–62, when the high yielding varieties Implements and Machinery, Power Tillers, Utilisationbased agriculture technology started picking up, India of Animal Energy, Post-Harvest Technology, and Energyproduced 880 tractors and imported another 2,997 Requirement in Agricultural Sector, along with the largetractors (Randhawa, 1986), thus adding nearly 4,000 number of agricultural engineering research programmestractors to their small existing population in the country. of the agricultural universities produced a wide range ofIn the year 2004–05, India produced about 2.5 lakh modern and efficient agricultural equipment andtractors and the number of tractors in use on Indian farms machinery as well as techniques for efficientwas estimated to be around 30 lakhs. The number of management of agricultural mechanization. In additionirrigation pumps both energized and diesel engine to the above, the central government took many policypowered, stands at 160 lakh. There has been a similar decisions to support and facilitate progressiveincrease in the number of different types of tillage mechanization of agriculture. 1
  2. 2. STUDY RELATING TO FORMULATING LONG-TERM MECHANIZATION STRATEGY FOR EACH AGRO CLIMATIC ZONE/STATE IN INDIA While the Indian farmer was striving to modernize used in various agricultural operations startinghis operation through the use of more efficient production right from tillage to the post-harvest, doubts arose about the long-term benefits of 4. To study the types and utility of variousmechanization of Indian agriculture. It was feared that agricultural equipment, both conventional andthe use of tractors and machinery would lead to extensive improved ones, presently in use and those neededunemployment in the rural sector. A study entitled in future, for different crops/cropping systems in“Implications of Tractorization for Farm Employment, the Zones.Productivity and Income”, conducted by National 5. To study the impact of farm mechanization onCouncil for Applied Economic Research (1980), employment of labour.however, concluded that although mechanization did 6. To study the cropping pattern, both agriculturalreplace some on-farm labour, this was more than and horticultural, in the Zones, yields in relationcompensated through the mechanization related to the national average, and their growth potential.secondary and tertiary employment opportunities. It was 7. To study and assess the use of farm power perbeing presumed that the benefits of mechanization are hectare, ultimate requirement, ways and meansenjoyed only by large farmers, although studies to fulfil the gaps for various farm operations.conducted in some States including Punjab as well as 8. To study the infrastructural facilities for thethe Input Survey Reports, tend to show that all categories manufacture, marketing, after sale service/repairsof agricultural holdings are sharing these benefits through availability etc. of agricultural equipment.joint ownership of machines and tractors or through 9. To study and assess the adequacy and thecustom operation. It has also been felt that there is a requirement of infrastructure at the central andlarge disparity in the level of agricultural mechanization State levels, for planning, promotion, executionbetween different regions of the country and that the and extension of the various plan programmes onbenefits of mechanization are going only to few States/ agricultural mechanization.regions. 10. To identify new/improved farm equipment that It is well established that agricultural mechanization may be needed by the farmers during next 20is driven by the needs and demands of the farmer and years, i.e. by the year 2020, for carrying outthat it is an essential input for modernizing production different farm operations.agriculture. Its benefits should extend to all categories 11. To formulate strategies and programmes that mayof farmers and to all regions of the country. If this is not be required for mechanization of agriculturehappening, then we should know the reasons and find during the period 2001–2005, 2005–2010, 2010–solutions to overcome the difficulties and obstructions. 2015, 2015–20.Lack of power and equipment should not deprive any The study was assigned to Indian Agriculturalregion of the opportunity to modernize its production Statistics Research Institute (ICAR), New Delhi. It wasagriculture. initiated during July 2000. Taking into consideration these often expressedreservations as also the importance to modernize 1.3 SUMMARY OF ACHIEVEMENTS OF THEagriculture through technological innovations in all OBJECTIVESregions, the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation For formulation of appropriate long-term(DOAC), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, mechanization strategy, it was necessary to know thedecided to sponsor a comprehensive study with the status of farm mechanization in the country. Accordingly,following objectives: a document entitled “Status of Farm Mechanization in India”, comprising 10 status papers on topics related1.2 OBJECTIVES to different objectives of the study was prepared by The broader objectives of the study were as follows: experts identified for the purpose. The document which 1. To study the soil types, land topography. was submitted to the DOAC, Ministry of Agriculture, 2. To study the socio-economic conditions (financial GOI, has been approved and published. status) of the farmers and farm labourers and The Objective-wise achievements of the study are assess their capabilities for acquiring and adopting summarized below: the needed agricultural equipment/machinery. 3. To study the present status, ultimate potential, the 1.3.1 Soil types and land topography gaps, highlighting critical ones; for equipment Information on soil types and land topography was 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONcompiled and presented in the status paper entitled 1.3.5 Impact of farm mechanization on“Agro-ecological zones, their soil resource and employment of labourcropping systems” by Dr KS Gajbhiye. Soil types and Information on this aspect was compiled andland topography have also been described in strategy presented in the Status Paper entitled “Impact ofpapers for different agro-climatic zones in Chapter IV. Agricultural Mechanization on Production,1.3.2 Socio-economic conditions of the farmers Productivity, Cropping Intensity, Income Generation and farm labourers and Employment of Labour” by Dr SR Verma. Information on this aspect was compiled and 1.3.6 Cropping pattern in different zones, yieldspresented in the Status Paper entitled “Scope, progress in relation to the national average and theirand constraints of Farm Mechanization in India”, by growth potentialDr Joginder Singh. Information on the cropping pattern, both agricultural Survey results have also shown that, in general, the and horticultural crops, along with yields, gaps and futureholding sizes were small and did not justify individual thrusts was compiled and presented in the Status Paperownership of costly machines. However, such farmers entitled “Cropping pattern—agricultural andwere also taking the advantage of improved agricultural horticultural in different zones, their average yieldsmachinery on custom hiring basis. This showed that the in comparison to national average/critical gaps/size of holding and investing capacity of individual reasons identified and yield potential” by Dr P Das.farmer was not a limiting factor in the progress of These have also been discussed in details in the Strategymechanization. Although the majority of the farmers Papers for different agro-climatic zones in Chapter IV.were not very literate but with proper training anddemonstration, they were able to operate different types 1.3.7 Farm power availability per hectare andof machinery needed for different agricultural operations. future requirement1.3.3 Present status, ultimate potential and gaps Farm Power availability per hectare for different for equipment used in various agricultural region in the year 2001, was computed on the basis of operations the population of agricultural workers, draught animals, tractor, power tiller, engines and electric motors, Information relating to present status for equipment combines, power sprayers and other self propelledused in various agricultural operations was compiled and machinery and presented in the status paper entitledpresented in different status papers and the information “Farm Power Sources, their Availability and Futureon future requirements and gaps have been given in Requirements to Sustain Agricultural Production” bydifferent strategy papers in Chapter IV. Information on Dr NSL Srivastava. Future requirements of farm poweragricultural machinery being used by the farmers and availability per hectare to sustain in the desiredthose needed for future use have been given in agricultural growth rate have been given in strategyAppendix-A. papers for different agro-climatic zones in Chapter IV.1.3.4 Conventional and improved agricultural 1.3.8 Infrastructural facilities available for equipment/machinery in use, and those manufacture, marketing, after sale service/ needed for future in different zones, for repairs of agricultural equipment and different crops/cropping systems machinery Information on the types and utility of various Information on the infrastructural facilities availableagricultural equipment/machinery, both conventional and for the manufacture, marketing, after sale service/repairsimproved ones, being used by the farmers for different of agricultural equipment was compiled and presentedcrops/cropping systems was compiled and presented in in the Status Paper entitled “Agricultural Machinerythe two Status Papers entitled, “Present Status and Industry in India- Manufacturing, Marketing andFuture Requirements of Farm Equipment for Crop Mechanization Promotion”, by Dr Gyanendra Singh.Production” by Dr MM Pandey and “Farm Power Under the study, at district level, the farm machinerySources, their Availability and Future Requirements manufacturers sample covered was limited. Theto Sustain Agricultural Production” by Dr NSL information has been processed. However, in theSrivastava. These have also been discussed in the strategy meantime a more comprehensive report on the status ofpapers for different agro-climatic zones in Chapter IV. farm machinery manufacturing in India entitled 3
  4. 4. STUDY RELATING TO FORMULATING LONG-TERM MECHANIZATION STRATEGY FOR EACH AGRO CLIMATIC ZONE/STATE IN INDIA“Directory of Agricultural Machinery & Manufacturers- presented in the Status Paper entitled “Future RequirementsNATP Mission Mode project on Proto-type of Agricultural Machines for Mechaniszing Agriculture”,Manufacturing of Agricultural Implements” compiled & by Dr Anwar Alam. Information on this aspect has been givenedited by Dr KC Bhardwaj, Dr S. Ganesan; Dr MM in the strategy papers for different agro-climatic zones inPandey & Dr G Singh, has been prepared and published Chapter IV and also in Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopalduring December 2004. It contains detailed information 1.3.11 Strategies and programmes that may beabout 1900 farm machinery manufacturing units in required for mechanization of agriculturedifferent States. It will be logical to utilize the more during next 20 yearsdetailed report for planning purposes. Detailed strategies, programmes and strengthening of infrastructural facilities for different agro-climatic zones1.3.9 Adequacy of existing infrastructure for have been given in Chapter IV. planning, promotion, execution and The report brings out the gaps and needs in terms of extension of agricultural mechanization mechanization and strategies have been suggested. The programmes and need for future rate of implementation of the programme of strengthening mechanization based on the recommendations contained Detailed recommendations in this respect have been in the report has to be decided by the programmegiven in the strategy papers for different agro-climatic implementing agencies which will determine thezones in Chapter IV. provisions to be made for the numbers and quantities of different types of equipment for different 5-year periods.1.3.10 Identification of new/improved farm The rate of implementation will depend on the progress equipment that may be needed by the made in different States to develop the required farmers during next 20 years infrastructure supported with adequate manpower and Information on new/improved equipment to be finances. Only then the quantities of equipment forintroduced and promoted in future was compiled and different periods may be determined. ❑ 4