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Online Virtual Chat LibraryOnline Virtual Chat LibraryReference Service:Reference Service:A Quantitative and QualitativeA ...
OutlineOutline1.1. Purpose of the StudyPurpose of the Study2.2. Research QuestionsResearch Questions3.3. MethodologyMethod...
Purpose of the StudyPurpose of the Study Virtual chat reference augments face-to-Virtual chat reference augments face-to-...
Research QuestionsResearch Questions1. What measurable indicators are found for virtual1. What measurable indicators are f...
MethodologyMethodology Two-and-a-half years of archived academic library chatTwo-and-a-half years of archived academic li...
Methodology (cont.)Methodology (cont.)
VariablesVariables Research Question 1 answered:Research Question 1 answered: 16 independent variables16 independent var...
Quantitative IVsQuantitative IVs1. Librarian’s initial contact time (1. Librarian’s initial contact time (hold timehold ti...
Qualitative IVsQualitative IVs1. The question’s difficulty (seven-point scale)1. The question’s difficulty (seven-point sc...
Dependent VariableDependent VariableCoders Qualitative JudgmentsCoders Qualitative Judgments Service QualityService Qualit...
Dependent Variable (cont.)Dependent Variable (cont.)Coders Qualitative JudgmentsCoders Qualitative Judgments Service Quali...
Significant FindingsSignificant FindingsSummarySummary Research Question 2 answered: yesResearch Question 2 answered: yes...
Significant FindingsSignificant FindingsAnswer AccuracyAnswer AccuracyAnswer Accuracy as Judged by Coders (N=331)Answer Ac...
Significant FindingsSignificant FindingsBest PracticesBest PracticesResearch Question 3 answered: yesResearch Question 3 a...
Significant FindingsSignificant FindingsBest Practices (cont.)Best Practices (cont.)5. Be careful about beginning the ques...
Significant FindingsSignificant Findings1. Gaps1. Gaps Keep time gaps between sendingKeep time gaps between sendingrespon...
Significant FindingsSignificant Findings1. Gaps1. GapsLongest Librarian GapLongest Librarian GapQuartiles (min.) Acc. Mean...
Significant Findings:Significant Findings:2. Service Time2. Service Time Maintain a total chat transaction time ofMaintai...
Significant FindingsSignificant Findings2. Service Time2. Service TimeService Time of TransactionsService Time of Transact...
Significant Findings:Significant Findings:3. Keystrokes3. Keystrokes Keep total keystrokes per transactionKeep total keys...
Significant FindingsSignificant Findings3. Keystrokes3. KeystrokesKeystrokesKeystrokesKeystroke Quartiles Accuracy Mean Si...
Significant FindingsSignificant Findings4. Twice the Typing4. Twice the Typing Expect to type twice as many characters as...
Significant FindingsSignificant Findings5. Open-ended Questions5. Open-ended Questions Be careful about beginning the que...
Significant FindingsSignificant Findings5. Open-ended Questions5. Open-ended QuestionsOpen-ended QuestionsOpen-ended Quest...
Significant Findings:Significant Findings:6. Closed-ended Questions6. Closed-ended Questions Ask closed or clarifying que...
Significant FindingsSignificant Findings6. Closed-ended Questions6. Closed-ended QuestionsClosed and/or Clarifying Questio...
Significant FindingsSignificant Findings7. Follow-up Question7. Follow-up Question At the end of the reference transactio...
Significant FindingsSignificant Findings8. Question Difficulty8. Question DifficultyQuestion DifficultyQuestion Difficulty...
Significant FindingsSignificant Findings8. Question Difficulty8. Question DifficultyQuestion Difficulty and Accuracy (repo...
5. Conclusions5. Conclusions Virtual reference lacks a statistically sound conceptualVirtual reference lacks a statistica...
6. Questions6. Questions&&AnswersAnswers
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Online Virtual Chat Library Reference Service : A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis by Dave Harmeyer

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This is a March 12, 2008 PowerPoint presentation I did at UCLA’s Graduate School of Education and Information Science on the results of my dissertation “Online Virtual Chat Library Reference Service: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis.” I was invited by Dr. John V. Richardson, my mentor, to speak in one of his graduate library classes. My Doctor of Education in Educational Technology is from Pepperdine University, class of 2007.

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Online Virtual Chat Library Reference Service : A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis by Dave Harmeyer

  1. 1. Online Virtual Chat LibraryOnline Virtual Chat LibraryReference Service:Reference Service:A Quantitative and QualitativeA Quantitative and QualitativeAnalysisAnalysisDave Harmeyer, M.L.S., Ed.D.Dave Harmeyer, M.L.S., Ed.D.Director of Research & DevelopmentDirector of Research & DevelopmentUniversity LibrariesUniversity LibrariesAzusa Pacific UniversityAzusa Pacific UniversityMarch 12, 2008March 12, 2008UCLA, GSE&ISUCLA, GSE&IS
  2. 2. OutlineOutline1.1. Purpose of the StudyPurpose of the Study2.2. Research QuestionsResearch Questions3.3. MethodologyMethodology4.4. Variables (I.V., D.V.)Variables (I.V., D.V.)5.5. Significant FindingsSignificant Findings6.6. ConclusionsConclusions7.7. Questions & AnswersQuestions & Answers
  3. 3. Purpose of the StudyPurpose of the Study Virtual chat reference augments face-to-Virtual chat reference augments face-to-face reference interviewface reference interview Library reference literature lacks research-Library reference literature lacks research-based findings to back up recommendedbased findings to back up recommendedpracticespractices This study fills the void with a theoreticalThis study fills the void with a theoreticalconceptual model based on an empiricalconceptual model based on an empiricalstudy of chat reference transactionsstudy of chat reference transactions
  4. 4. Research QuestionsResearch Questions1. What measurable indicators are found for virtual1. What measurable indicators are found for virtualchat reference transactions, looking exclusivelychat reference transactions, looking exclusivelyat data created from the chat referenceat data created from the chat referencetranscripts?transcripts?2. Do published reference interview guidelines from2. Do published reference interview guidelines fromRUSA, a set of other strategies and the nature ofRUSA, a set of other strategies and the nature ofthe query contribute to an accurate answer?the query contribute to an accurate answer?3. What conceptual model of best practices can be3. What conceptual model of best practices can besuggested by an analysis of the data?suggested by an analysis of the data?
  5. 5. MethodologyMethodology Two-and-a-half years of archived academic library chatTwo-and-a-half years of archived academic library chattranscripts using Krippendorff’s (2004) content analysistranscripts using Krippendorff’s (2004) content analysis 333 random transcripts from 2,500333 random transcripts from 2,500 Analyzing 16 independent variables and their relationshipAnalyzing 16 independent variables and their relationshipwith one dependent variable of an accurate referencewith one dependent variable of an accurate referenceansweranswer Pearson correlations and ANOVA variance testsPearson correlations and ANOVA variance tests 120 virtual librarians at 43 American institutions120 virtual librarians at 43 American institutions 320 remote patrons accessing the service through one320 remote patrons accessing the service through oneSouthern California undergraduate/masters universitySouthern California undergraduate/masters university
  6. 6. Methodology (cont.)Methodology (cont.)
  7. 7. VariablesVariables Research Question 1 answered:Research Question 1 answered: 16 independent variables16 independent variables 1 dependent variable - question accuracy1 dependent variable - question accuracy Influence on question accuracyInfluence on question accuracy Observed in content analysis of chatObserved in content analysis of chattranscriptstranscripts Derived from RUSA guidelinesDerived from RUSA guidelines Derived from literature reviewDerived from literature review
  8. 8. Quantitative IVsQuantitative IVs1. Librarian’s initial contact time (1. Librarian’s initial contact time (hold timehold time, in, inseconds)seconds)2. Total time of transaction (2. Total time of transaction (service timeservice time, in seconds), in seconds)3. Longest time gap by librarian (in seconds)3. Longest time gap by librarian (in seconds)4. Number of URLs co-browsed with the patron4. Number of URLs co-browsed with the patron5. Keystrokes by librarian5. Keystrokes by librarian6. Keystrokes by patron6. Keystrokes by patron7. Keystrokes by both7. Keystrokes by both
  9. 9. Qualitative IVsQualitative IVs1. The question’s difficulty (seven-point scale)1. The question’s difficulty (seven-point scale)2. Response to a patron’s “are you there” statements (scored2. Response to a patron’s “are you there” statements (scoredas present, not present, not applicable or ambiguous whenas present, not present, not applicable or ambiguous whencoders disagreed)coders disagreed)3. Librarian’s friendliness3. Librarian’s friendliness4. Lack of jargon4. Lack of jargon5. Use of open-ended questions5. Use of open-ended questions6. Use of closed and/or clarifying questions6. Use of closed and/or clarifying questions7. Librarian maintains objectivity7. Librarian maintains objectivity8. Asking if the question was answered completely8. Asking if the question was answered completely9. The type of question (seven categories: ready reference,9. The type of question (seven categories: ready reference,research question, library technology, request for materials,research question, library technology, request for materials,bibliographic verification, other and ambiguous forbibliographic verification, other and ambiguous fordisagreements among coders)disagreements among coders)
  10. 10. Dependent VariableDependent VariableCoders Qualitative JudgmentsCoders Qualitative Judgments Service QualityService Quality88 Librarian gave (or referred) patron to a singleLibrarian gave (or referred) patron to a singlesource with an accurate answersource with an accurate answer ExcellentExcellent77 Librarian gave (or referred) patron to more thanLibrarian gave (or referred) patron to more thanone source, one of which provided an accurateone source, one of which provided an accurateansweranswer Very goodVery good66 Librarian gave (or referred) patron to a singleLibrarian gave (or referred) patron to a singlesource which does not lead directly to ansource which does not lead directly to anaccurate answer but did serve as a preliminaryaccurate answer but did serve as a preliminarysourcesource GoodGood55 Librarian gave (or referred) patron to moreLibrarian gave (or referred) patron to morethan one source, none of which leads directlythan one source, none of which leads directlyto an accurate answer but one which served asto an accurate answer but one which served asa preliminary sourcea preliminary source SatisfactorySatisfactory
  11. 11. Dependent Variable (cont.)Dependent Variable (cont.)Coders Qualitative JudgmentsCoders Qualitative Judgments Service QualityService Quality44 No direct accurate answer given,No direct accurate answer given,referred to another person or institutionreferred to another person or institution Fair / poorFair / poor33 No accurate answer (or referral) givenNo accurate answer (or referral) given(e.g., “I don’t know”)(e.g., “I don’t know”) FailureFailure22 Librarian gave (or referred) patron to aLibrarian gave (or referred) patron to asingle source which did not answer thesingle source which did not answer thequestionquestion UnsatisfactoryUnsatisfactory11 Librarian gave (or referred) patron toLibrarian gave (or referred) patron tomore than one source, none of whichmore than one source, none of whichanswered the questionanswered the question Most unsatisfactoryMost unsatisfactory(Richardson and Reyes, 1995)(Richardson and Reyes, 1995)
  12. 12. Significant FindingsSignificant FindingsSummarySummary Research Question 2 answered: yesResearch Question 2 answered: yes 30 significant relationships (p < .05)30 significant relationships (p < .05) From 9 of 16 variablesFrom 9 of 16 variables 5 found in RUSA guidelines5 found in RUSA guidelines 4 found in other strategies or nature of4 found in other strategies or nature ofonline chatonline chat
  13. 13. Significant FindingsSignificant FindingsAnswer AccuracyAnswer AccuracyAnswer Accuracy as Judged by Coders (N=331)Answer Accuracy as Judged by Coders (N=331)CriteriaCriteria Point FrequencyPoint Frequency %% Cum. %Cum. %Accurate Answer (single source)Accurate Answer (single source)ExcellentExcellent 8.08.0 8888 26.626.6 26.6 (1/4)26.6 (1/4)Accurate Answer (mult. sources)Accurate Answer (mult. sources) 7.57.5 1818 5.45.4 32.032.0Very goodVery good 7.07.0 6464 19.319.3 51.3 (1/2)51.3 (1/2)Preliminary Source (single source) 6.5Preliminary Source (single source) 6.5 99 2.72.7 54.054.0GoodGood 6.06.0 3333 10.010.0 64.0 (2/3)64.0 (2/3)Preliminary Source (mult. sources)Preliminary Source (mult. sources) 5.55.5 77 2.12.1 66.166.1SatisfactorySatisfactory 5.05.0 3535 10.610.6 76.7 (3/4)76.7 (3/4)No Accurate Answer, referredNo Accurate Answer, referred 4.54.5 1111 3.33.3 80.080.0Fair / poorFair / poor 4.04.0 5757 17.217.2 97.297.2““I don’t know,” no referralI don’t know,” no referral 3.53.5 22 0.60.6 97.897.8FailureFailure 3.03.0 33 0.90.9 98.798.7Not Accurate (single source)Not Accurate (single source) 2.52.5 22 0.60.6 99.399.3UnsatisfactoryUnsatisfactory 2.02.0 22 0.60.6 99.999.9Not Accurate (multiple sources)Not Accurate (multiple sources) 1.51.5 00 0.00.0 99.999.9Most unsatisfactoryMost unsatisfactory 1.01.0 00 0.00.0 99.999.9
  14. 14. Significant FindingsSignificant FindingsBest PracticesBest PracticesResearch Question 3 answered: yesResearch Question 3 answered: yesA Conceptual Model for Reference Chat AccuracyA Conceptual Model for Reference Chat Accuracyminor plus est (less is more)minor plus est (less is more)1. Keep time gaps between sending responses to1. Keep time gaps between sending responses topatrons to no more than one-and-a-half minutespatrons to no more than one-and-a-half minutes2. Maintain a total chat transaction time of eight2. Maintain a total chat transaction time of eightminutes or lessminutes or less3. Keep total keystrokes per transaction to within six3. Keep total keystrokes per transaction to within sixand-a-half lines of text (or 480 characters).and-a-half lines of text (or 480 characters).4. Expect to type twice as many characters as the4. Expect to type twice as many characters as thepatronpatron
  15. 15. Significant FindingsSignificant FindingsBest Practices (cont.)Best Practices (cont.)5. Be careful about beginning the question5. Be careful about beginning the questionnegotiation segment of the reference interviewnegotiation segment of the reference interviewwith an open question unless the nature of thewith an open question unless the nature of thepatron’s question explicitly calls for one.patron’s question explicitly calls for one.6. Ask closed or clarifying questions when6. Ask closed or clarifying questions whenappropriateappropriate7. At the end of the reference transaction, ask “Does7. At the end of the reference transaction, ask “Doesthis completely answer your question?”this completely answer your question?”8. Even moderately difficult questions decrease8. Even moderately difficult questions decreaseanswer accuracy and not just the medium to highanswer accuracy and not just the medium to highdifficult questionsdifficult questions
  16. 16. Significant FindingsSignificant Findings1. Gaps1. Gaps Keep time gaps between sendingKeep time gaps between sendingresponses to patrons to not much more thanresponses to patrons to not much more thanone-and-a-half minutesone-and-a-half minutes Reinforces RUSA’sReinforces RUSA’s interestinterest guideline (2.6),guideline (2.6),time away from the patron short, maintaintime away from the patron short, maintain“word contact” (RUSA, June 2004)“word contact” (RUSA, June 2004) Anything nearing two minutes or higher isAnything nearing two minutes or higher islikely to decrease answer accuracylikely to decrease answer accuracy
  17. 17. Significant FindingsSignificant Findings1. Gaps1. GapsLongest Librarian GapLongest Librarian GapQuartiles (min.) Acc. Mean Sig. of Diff. (p)_____Quartiles (min.) Acc. Mean Sig. of Diff. (p)_____1st 0 --1st 0 -- 1.851.85 6.686.682nd2nd 1.87 – 2.831.87 – 2.83 5.975.97 .016.016 (1st & 2nd)(1st & 2nd)3rd 2.85 – 4.453rd 2.85 – 4.45 6.316.31 .403 (1st & 3rd, no sig.).403 (1st & 3rd, no sig.)4th4th 4.47 --4.47 -- 6.036.03 .036.036 (1st & 4th)(1st & 4th)Diff=.71Diff=.65Diff=.71
  18. 18. Significant Findings:Significant Findings:2. Service Time2. Service Time Maintain a total chat transaction time ofMaintain a total chat transaction time ofeight minutes or lesseight minutes or less Average = 16.0 minutes (n = 331)Average = 16.0 minutes (n = 331) 7 minutes more than Richardson’s (2002)7 minutes more than Richardson’s (2002)8.9 minutes (n = 20,000)8.9 minutes (n = 20,000) However, similar to six f2f studies with meanHowever, similar to six f2f studies with meanservice time ranging from 10 to 20service time ranging from 10 to 20
  19. 19. Significant FindingsSignificant Findings2. Service Time2. Service TimeService Time of TransactionsService Time of TransactionsQuartiles (min.) Accuracy Mean Sig. of Diff. (p)Quartiles (min.) Accuracy Mean Sig. of Diff. (p)1st 0 – 8.31st 0 – 8.3 6.826.822nd 8.32 – 13.082nd 8.32 – 13.08 6.026.02 .005 (1st & 2nd).005 (1st & 2nd)3rd 13.1 – 20.753rd 13.1 – 20.75 6.046.04 .007 (1st & 3rd).007 (1st & 3rd)4th 20.77 --4th 20.77 -- 6.126.12 .020 (1st & 4th).020 (1st & 4th)Diff=.78Diff=.70Diff=.80
  20. 20. Significant Findings:Significant Findings:3. Keystrokes3. Keystrokes Keep total keystrokes per transactionKeep total keystrokes per transactionto within six and-a-half lines of text (orto within six and-a-half lines of text (or480 characters)480 characters) Application to virtual software vendorsApplication to virtual software vendors(add a timer)(add a timer) Anything over 15 lines of text willAnything over 15 lines of text willdecrease accuracydecrease accuracy
  21. 21. Significant FindingsSignificant Findings3. Keystrokes3. KeystrokesKeystrokesKeystrokesKeystroke Quartiles Accuracy Mean Sig. of Diff. (p)Keystroke Quartiles Accuracy Mean Sig. of Diff. (p)LibrarianLibrarian1st 0 – 480 (6.5 lines)*1st 0 – 480 (6.5 lines)* 6.586.584th 1128 (15 lines) --4th 1128 (15 lines) -- 5.935.93 .041 (1st & 4th).041 (1st & 4th)PatronPatron1st 0 – 188 (2.5 lines)1st 0 – 188 (2.5 lines) 6.656.654th 545 (7.5) --4th 545 (7.5) -- 5.965.96 .023 (1st & 4th).023 (1st & 4th)Both Librarian & PatronBoth Librarian & Patron1st 0 – 690 (9 lines)1st 0 – 690 (9 lines) 6.636.634th 1668 (22.5 lines) --4th 1668 (22.5 lines) -- 5.995.99 .041 (1st & 4th).041 (1st & 4th)*measured at 74 keystrokes per line of text*measured at 74 keystrokes per line of text
  22. 22. Significant FindingsSignificant Findings4. Twice the Typing4. Twice the Typing Expect to type twice as many characters asExpect to type twice as many characters asthe patronthe patron Appeared across all four quartile segmentsAppeared across all four quartile segmentsbetween librarian and patron.between librarian and patron.
  23. 23. Significant FindingsSignificant Findings5. Open-ended Questions5. Open-ended Questions Be careful about beginning the questionnegotiation segment of the reference interviewwith an open question unless the nature of thepatron’s question explicitly calls for oneFrequency of Open-ended QuestionsCategoryCategory FrequencyFrequency PercentPercentPresentPresent 112112 3333Absent (but should) 75Absent (but should) 75 22.522.5Not ApplicableNot Applicable 7676 22.822.8AmbiguousAmbiguous 6767 20.120.1
  24. 24. Significant FindingsSignificant Findings5. Open-ended Questions5. Open-ended QuestionsOpen-ended QuestionsOpen-ended QuestionsCategory Accuracy Mean Sig. of Diff. (p)Category Accuracy Mean Sig. of Diff. (p)Not ApplicableNot Applicable 6.726.72PresentPresent 5.975.97 .008 (3 & 1).008 (3 & 1)
  25. 25. Significant Findings:Significant Findings:6. Closed-ended Questions6. Closed-ended Questions Ask closed or clarifying questions whenappropriateFrequency of Closed-ended and/or Clarifying QuestionsFrequency of Closed-ended and/or Clarifying QuestionsCategoryCategory Frequency PercentFrequency PercentPresentPresent 183183 55.055.0AbsentAbsent 4848 14.414.4Not ApplicableNot Applicable 5656 16.816.8AmbiguousAmbiguous 4444 13.213.2
  26. 26. Significant FindingsSignificant Findings6. Closed-ended Questions6. Closed-ended QuestionsClosed and/or Clarifying QuestionsClosed and/or Clarifying QuestionsCategoryCategory Accuracy Mean Sig. Of Diff. (p)Accuracy Mean Sig. Of Diff. (p)3. Not Applicable3. Not Applicable 6.696.692. Absent2. Absent 5.915.91 .065 (3 & 2, not sig.).065 (3 & 2, not sig.)Ambiguous filteredAmbiguous filtered3. Not Applicable3. Not Applicable 6.696.692. Absent2. Absent 5.915.91 .040.040 (3 & 2)(3 & 2)
  27. 27. Significant FindingsSignificant Findings7. Follow-up Question7. Follow-up Question At the end of the reference transaction, ask “Doesthis completely answer your question?”Frequency of the Librarian Asking If the QuestionFrequency of the Librarian Asking If the QuestionHad Been Answered CompletelyHad Been Answered CompletelyCategoryCategory FrequencyFrequency PercentPercentPresentPresent 125125 37.537.5AbsentAbsent 4242 12.612.6Not ApplicableNot Applicable 108108 32.432.4AmbiguousAmbiguous 5656 16.816.8
  28. 28. Significant FindingsSignificant Findings8. Question Difficulty8. Question DifficultyQuestion DifficultyQuestion DifficultyCriteria Point Frequency %Criteria Point Frequency % Cum. %Cum. %LowLow 1.01.0 5959 17.717.7 17.817.81.51.5 4141 12.312.3 30.230.22.02.0 6666 19.819.8 50.2 1/250.2 1/22.52.5 5555 16.516.5 66.866.83.03.0 2727 8.18.1 74.9 3/474.9 3/4MediumMedium3.53.5 2626 7.87.8 82.882.84.04.0 1717 5.15.1 87.987.94.54.5 1818 5.45.4 93.493.45.05.0 66 1.81.8 95.295.25.55.5 44 1.21.2 96.496.46.06.0 77 6.6%6.6% 2.12.1 98.598.56.56.5 33 0.90.9 99.499.4HighHigh 7.07.0 22 0.60.6 100.0100.0
  29. 29. Significant FindingsSignificant Findings8. Question Difficulty8. Question DifficultyQuestion Difficulty and Accuracy (reporting only significance)Question Difficulty and Accuracy (reporting only significance)CriteriaCriteria Points Accuracy Mean Sig. of Diff. (p)Points Accuracy Mean Sig. of Diff. (p)LowLow 1.01.0 7.247.242.02.0 6.366.36 .035 (1.0 & 2.0).035 (1.0 & 2.0)2.52.5 5.945.94 .000 (1.0 & 2.5).000 (1.0 & 2.5)MediumMedium 3.53.5 5.425.42 .000 (1 & 3.5).000 (1 & 3.5)4.04.0 5.535.53 .001 (1.0 & 4.0).001 (1.0 & 4.0)4.54.5 5.225.22 .000 (1.0 & 4.5).000 (1.0 & 4.5)5.05.0 4.924.92 .009 (1.0 & 5.0).009 (1.0 & 5.0)5.55.5 4.04.0 .001 (1.0 & 5.5).001 (1.0 & 5.5)HighHigh 6.06.0 4.834.83 .006 (1.0 & 6.0).006 (1.0 & 6.0)LowLow 1.51.5 6.956.952.52.5 5.945.94 .041 (1.5 & 2.5).041 (1.5 & 2.5)MediumMedium 3.53.5 5.425.42 .002 (1.5 & 3.5).002 (1.5 & 3.5)4.04.0 5.535.53 .032 (1.5 & 4.0).032 (1.5 & 4.0)4.54.5 5.225.22 .001 (1.5 & 4.5).001 (1.5 & 4.5)5.55.5 4.04.0 .005 (1.5 & 5.5).005 (1.5 & 5.5)HighHigh 6.06.0 4.834.83 .038 (1.5 & 6.0).038 (1.5 & 6.0)
  30. 30. 5. Conclusions5. Conclusions Virtual reference lacks a statistically sound conceptualVirtual reference lacks a statistically sound conceptualmodel to guide the library profession toward improving themodel to guide the library profession toward improving thereference interview through empirical studies which informsreference interview through empirical studies which informsbest practices in professional training and assessment.best practices in professional training and assessment. This study addresses that knowledge void by its discoveryThis study addresses that knowledge void by its discoveryof several statistical relationships between nine behavioralof several statistical relationships between nine behavioralfactors and an acurate answer in the reference interview.factors and an acurate answer in the reference interview. It is hoped that the suggested eight-point rubric and otherIt is hoped that the suggested eight-point rubric and otherresults of this project can be a catalyst for practicalresults of this project can be a catalyst for practicalapplication toward improving the practice of the globalapplication toward improving the practice of the globalcommunity of professionals and stakeholders in the field ofcommunity of professionals and stakeholders in the field oflibrary and information studies.library and information studies.
  31. 31. 6. Questions6. Questions&&AnswersAnswers

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