Guided by -
Prof.(Dr.) Y.D. Badgaiyan
Prof. and Head
Dept. of Community Medicine
CIMS , Bilaspur (C.G.).
Conflict is natural and inevitable part of all human social
and professional relationships.
It occurs at all levels of society –
- intra-national and
(Sandole & Staroste, 1987).
Conflict is largely a perceived phenomenon.
Conflict may be either healthy or unhealthy.
No two persons in the world are absolutely
Therefore no two persons can feel or think
The difference between thinking of different
people causes conflict.
Conflict is the root of personal and social
Conflict prevents stagnation. It stimulates
interest and curiosity.
Research reports substantiate that manager or
administrator spend 20 percent of their time in
dealing with conflicts in the organization.
Hence the ability to handle and manage
conflict behaviour has become essential.
“Conflict is a state of opposition, disagreement or
incompatibility between two or more people or
groups of people.”
Conflict is usually based upon a difference over
goals, objectives or expectations between
individuals or groups.
(Sandole & Staroste, 1987) .
TRANSITIONS IN CONFLICT THOUGHT
Traditional View of Conflict
The belief that all conflicts are harmful and
must be avoided.
Human Relations View of Conflict
The belief that conflict is a natural and
inevitable outcome in any group.
Interactionist View of Conflict
The belief that conflict is not only a
positive force in a group but that it
is absolutely necessary for a group
to perform effectively.
1. INTRA-PERSONAL CONFLICTS
This type of conflict is within individual.
Can be analyzed in terms of frustration
Level of conflict depends upon-
- job experience
- individual needs
- motives , goals and belief.
2. INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT
Occurs between two or more individuals who
are in opposition to one another.
3. INTERGROUP CONFLICT
Occurs among members of different teams or groups.
Competition for resources
4. ROLE CONFLICTS
This type of conflicts are due to serious
professional disagreements between their role in
Occur when the communication of task
expectations proves inadequate or upsetting.
5. GOAL CONFLICTS
This type of conflicts are goal related.
May emerge between -
- team members.
- between team and organization.
- between organization and client.
6. ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICTS
1. Status related -
- Between MBBS and MD.
- Between Nurse and Doctor.
2. Functional conflicts –
- Various dept of hospital.
3. Hierarchical conflicts.
ANALYZING INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT
This model can be useful in resolving
It was developed by Joseph Luft and Henry
Igham (1955) to analyse the dynamics of
interaction between self and others.
Four types of area of behaviour.
ANALYZING INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT
Undiscovered SelfBlind Self
Known to others
Known to self
Unknown to others
This method indicates absence of any action.
This also includes withdrawal and suppression.
Strengths: This is perhaps the easiest method
to adopt. At time of avoidance can be used for
analysis of the problem.
Weaknesses: By this method, one can only
temporarily get out of conflict, as conflict is not
2. AUTHORITATIVE COMMAND OR IMPOSING A
This method forces the conflicting parties to
accept a solution which is devised by the
higher-ups in the hierarchy.
This becomes possible by virtue of formal
positional hierarchy and authority that exist in
This strategy involves postponement or
delaying the decisions with a view to cool down
This approach involves focusing on
unnecessary issues, thereby avoiding the main
problem for sometime.
4. ALTERING STRUCTURAL VARIABLES
This approach changes structural variables.
It includes transferring and exchanging group
members and expanding the group or
This approach requires each party to give up
something of value.
Negotiation is an approach where both sides
walk towards each other to reach a mutually
6. PROBLEM SOLVING / CONFRONTATION /
This method seeks resolution through face-to-face
confrontation of the conflicting parties.
The conflicting parties seek mutual problem
definition, assessment of the problem, and the
In this approach, there is an open expression of
feelings as well as exchange of task-related
7. REDUCING TASK INTER-DEPENDENCE
Reducing task interdependence between
groups and assigning clear work
responsibilities to each group is one of the
ways of redesigning organizations.
This is an effective method to resolve inter-
8. EXPANSION OF RESOURCES
One of the ways to manage conflicts which are
arising due to limited resources, is to expand or
increase the availability of resources.
Strengths: This method facilitates each
conflicting party to be victorious.
Weaknesses: Resources rarely exist in such
quantities that they can be expanded so easily.
9. ALTERING THE HUMAN VARIABLE
This method helps to change the attitudes and
behaviour of one or more of the conflicting
This includes use of education, sensitivity and
awareness training, and human relations
10. ESTABLISHING RULES AND PROCEDURES
This approach calls for establishing, in advance, a
set of formalized rules and procedures that will
specify how group members are to interact with
Strengths: This approach is most simple and least
Weaknesses: Rules and Procedures minimize the
information flow between departments or work
(CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLUTION)
It is most desirable strategy which aimed at
solving problem rather than defeating the other
It sublimates antagonistic feelings so both
parties receive rewarding outcome.