Working Paper series on Education   PRAGMATIC PARADIGM OF SETTING UP SCHOOLS –                                            ...
IntroductionKerala has witnessed widest amplitudes in the sector of education compared to any othersectors. What makes the...
hopes to find out how the system works on this day and to what extend KER is culpable forit.1. Application for setting up ...
vi) Sketch plan of the proposed                                         where the possibility ofbuilding with a Declaratio...
1860.If it is a Panchayath or       the Trust Act. It is the        aided schools with thea Municipality or a Co-         ...
Establishment      in    the                                                                   Societies and Registration ...
appointed.                            appointment. The PTA is to                                      be constituted from ...
recognition to a school:The Educational Agency inwhose favour it is issued,the grade of the school, theStandards       to ...
case of aided schools it is     arise. Even the Recognition                                    about Rs 40.               ...
per Government of India             the money factor and          under the connivance of allgradation shall be made by   ...
Government       in  each                                             others, some schools mayfinancial year. The Grants  ...
(SSA) and National Policy of                                                                      Education (NPE). There a...
CONCLUSIONWhat gives the Kerala Schools a definite edge over the schools in other places interms of administration, effici...
Under these circumstances, it has been proved that over the years, the Governmentdecisions and policy initiatives sometime...
Unrecognised School :An unrecognised school is that which is not recognised but runregular classes in the pattern of recog...
ANNEXURE 1                                    Kerala Education Rules                                            FORM 1    ...
8.    Whether the school will be open to all      the classes of the community.9.    Details of the guarantees, the applic...
ANNEXURE II                                    Kerala Education Rules                                            FORM 2   ...
Name of Teacher                             1Designation                                 2Salary assigned or to be assigne...
comply with all the conditions relating to the recognition of Schools affording publicinstruction and other matters which ...
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Pragmatic paradigm of setting up school kerala experience


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Pragmatic paradigm of setting up school kerala experience

  1. 1. Working Paper series on Education PRAGMATIC PARADIGM OF SETTING UP SCHOOLS – * KERALA EXPERIENCE By Madhu S & D.Dhanuraj Supported by a grant from Centre for Civil Society, New Delhi June 2007 Centre for Public Policy Research Nadakkavu Post, Cochin Ernakulam District, Kerala India – 682 307 Website: Email: Tel: 91 4846469177, 91 9868366374 © Copy rights reservedCentre for Public Policy Research 1
  2. 2. IntroductionKerala has witnessed widest amplitudes in the sector of education compared to any othersectors. What makes the Kerala Education Sector standout from other states is the highamount of awareness for the need of education. The resultant spurge of Education can beattributed to the work of Christian Missionaries who started setting up schools even in theremote corners of the state from the eighteenth century onwards. The Government and thepeople of Kerala have always kept high standards in the field of education. The State ofKerala is indebted to be the first fully literate state in India and now also stands top in theliteracy level. High density of schools has contributed significantly to this achievement.Interestingly, it is the spread out of schools privately managed which make up a major partin the education sector of Kerala1.The Kerala Education Bill of 1958 was one of the first legislations in India which providedfor a basic framework for establishment of schools, its management, approval, recognitionand the likes. This was as a result of the strong need for a basic framework with regard tothe education sector in Kerala which was predominantly in the hands of a few privatecitizens, Trusts (religious and non-religious), and other institutions. The Kerala EducationBill, 1958 brought by Joseph Mundassery2 is famous for the controversies as it provisioneda controlling regime in appointment of teachers, the salary to be given to them, the fees tobe levied. This was opposed by many of the high-spirited citizens who criticized the Bill asviolating their fundamental rights as provided by the Constitution of India which eventuallyled to the dismissal of the Government in 1959. Contrary to the expectations, the KeralaEducation Rules (KER) framed on the sidelines of the Act of 1957, encouraged the entry ofmany individuals and interested parties to venture into education sector which resulted inthe proliferation of schools in every nook and corner of the state.Though Kerala invests fewer amounts for Education compared to other states, it has alwaysbeen able to utilize the money for the advancement of education. Statistics show that therehas been an upward swing in the number of schools established and the number ofstudents enrolled in these schools. The state has also been able to maintain a consistentteacher-pupil ratio in schools. Towards the end of twentieth century, a new paradigm shiftappeared in the education sector of Kerala. A spurt of recognized but not aided schoolscame into the picture. Though these are recognized by KER, vested interests and politicalequations vitiated the sector. Government orders (GO’s) have become frequent on theseschools. The issue of ‘un economic schools’ has been a pinch in the already misled sector.The issue of private study also cropped up during this time. Thus a sector which has laidthe foundation for the overall growth of the state for decades faces a litmus test today.Policies and initiatives of the Governments are either misleading or misrepresenting.This Paper seeks to analyse how the Rules i.e., the Kerala Education Rules helps in realityfor the setting up of schools in Kerala which helped the establishment of both private andpublic schools on a spree over the decades. It tries to find out the real position with respectto what the law actually speaks and also what makes Kerala standout from other states inSchool Education. It is designed in the context of KER Review committee formed by thepresent ruling dispensation on the grounds of stated policy of the ruling regime. This paper1 2004- 2005 Economic Review of Kerala shows 70 % of the total schools are aided. i.e., not managed bygovernment.2 Joseph Mundassery was the Minister of Education in Kerala Cabinet from 1957 to 1959Centre for Public Policy Research 2
  3. 3. hopes to find out how the system works on this day and to what extend KER is culpable forit.1. Application for setting up of SchoolWHAT THE LAW STATES WHAT THE REALITY IS COMMENTSThe Application should be sent The Applicant need to show Though the KERto the DEO3 in response to the the “educational need” stipulates manyNotification. Any one can submit before the Government in conditions for anan application before the DEO order to get permission for Applicant; they are notemphasizing the need of a setting up of a School. No looked into in reality. Inschool in a particular place. The other school should be addition to this, theApplication form is to be present within 3 Kilometres “education necessity”forwarded within the specified from the vicinity of the clause is ambiguous intime as prescribed in the proposed school. A Welfare its nature. EducationalNotification. These are usually in Committee comprising of the necessity is verified by athe months of February (for local people who are Departmental inquiryNotification), by March (2nd interested in the affairs of a which is usually neverNotification sanctioning the school has to be setup in the done. According to theapplicant for starting a school) local area to look into the rules, the threeso that classes can start by need of a school, and it is Kilometers radius ruleJune. The DEO will then by they who have to apply for has been proposed forNotification invite applications if the school in the case of the purpose of avoidinghe finds that there is an Government schools. A unfair competition in aeducational need in that place. Departmental Inquiry is particular area. If theThis is done by the DEO to make conducted after receiving number of schools in ansure that the Applicant has Application from the area is more than whatapplied for the school in a place interested parties which is is required, it can createwhere such a school needs to be usually not done. If the DEO difficulties in theestablished. is satisfied that all the sustaining of existing minimum requirements are school. But this Rule met (especially for private should be avoided if theDocuments needed: schools) then they accept it; population of an area is mainly because the DEO more and there is ai) the Chelan receipt for the cannot physically check the need for more schoolsapplication fee site due to the lack of time. to meet the demands ofii) a sketch plan of the site of education in thatthe proposed school particular area.iii) Sketch plan of the locality Moreover if new schoolswith the distance from the can improve the qualityneighbouring school of education in an area,iv) Declaration regarding the then they should bedepositing of Financial encouraged. It is notGuarantee clear why the rulesv) Documentary evidence restrict the entry of newshowing the applicants absolute players in educationownership or right to exclusive sector essentially in apossession for 6 years of the site literate state like KeralaCentre for Public Policy Research 3
  4. 4. vi) Sketch plan of the proposed where the possibility ofbuilding with a Declaration of its competition can result incompletion on a specified date improving the quality ofvii) Declaration that the education. Thisproposed unaided school will not restriction diminishesbe converted into aided school the scope for a vibrantviii) Declaration that the education sector inApplicant will absorb qualified Kerala which is the needteachers/non-teaching staff from of the hour. (Seeany aided schools after putting Annexure I)in service of 2 years.Certificates that are needed for the establishment of a school-As per the KER4 many Certificates are demanded by the DEO. A Fitness Certificate from theAssistant Executive Engineer of the PWD5 with regard to the Building along with theparticulars prescribed in the Rules. The applicant has to remit the prescribed fee for gettingthe Certificate at the earliest and in cases where the requirements are not duly compliedwith; by bribing him. What the DEO would look into is whether the applicant has compliedwith the minimum requirements needed for the establishment of a school.A copy of the Adharam (ownership certificate of the land ) of the property in the hands ofthe Educational Agency has to be sent to the DEO. There is no need for a Certificate withregard to water, safety requirements. What is actually looked into is whether sufficientlight, air and water are provided. The measurement of the furniture to be provided to thestudents should meet the minimum standards set out in the Rules. In the case of Privateschools, not even that is looked into. This shows a sharp departure from the Rules in thecase of Private Schools. As the burden of setting up a Private School is on the person whois interested in establishing the school; the Government has shown enough flexibility inverifying such schools when compared to Government schools.The DEO is vested with enormous powers and he shall not be influenced or dictated byanother authority like Government.6 This shows that the decisions of the DEO are notdictated by the Government even if there is a change in power equations at the politicallevel. The DEO is to make all enquiries and check the correctness of statements made inthe application. A decision on the Applications for opening of new schools and upgrading of 7existing schools are done by the DEO under the powers conferred on him by the KER and,any decision taken there under cannot be cancelled by Government even if it is for a policydecision.82. Who can apply?Any person or body of Any person can apply. It is The KER shows enoughpersons (corporate also not mandatory that the flexibility for establishmenteducational agency) who is Body who is interested in of schools to any person orto be registered as a Society setting up the school should body of persons. Evenor as a Trust under the be Registered under the Panchayaths andSocieties Registration Act, Societies Registration Act or Municipalities can establishCentre for Public Policy Research 4
  5. 5. 1860.If it is a Panchayath or the Trust Act. It is the aided schools with thea Municipality or a Co- Manager who is vested with sanction of theoperative society which calls the powers in relation to Government. The policy ofthe attention of the need of a starting a school who is the Government hasschool, they can do so appointed by the always been inprovided they are Registered. Educational Agency encouraging privateThe Government then (owner). The Manager is to participation inappoints the Panchayath be appointed by a Bye-law establishment of schools.Secretary or Municipal which is to be recognized This has increased recentlySecretary as the case may be by the DEO. The with the enormousas the Manager of the Application form is to be competition in theschool. A company registered forwarded within the education sector and theunder the Companies Act can specified days as prescribed lack of funds for thestart a school for the children by the Notification. These Government to manageof their employees. are usually in the months of the existing and for February (for Notification), starting of new schools.The Educational Agent by March (2nd Notification Moreover there has alwaysshould be solvent and should sanctioning the applicant been the fact that a privatebe one who is interested in for starting a school) so school that has autonomyeducational progress. The that classes can start by in managing the schoolManager should be literate, June. performs well whensolvent and interested in compared to theeducational progress. The solvency of a person is Government schools in determined by the Bank Kerala. The shift of parents Account he has and which to enroll their children in is to be mentioned in the private schools rather than Application. Interest in Government schools have educational progress is truly always been, because of a mere statement which is the deterioration in the difficult to measure. What it quality of education in the signifies is that if the latter when compared to applicant is a person who the former. It would be has experience in the interesting to note that if educational field the Big Corporate Business (experience of setting guns like Narayana Murthy, schools), then he gets Ratan Tata, and Ambanis prominence over others are encouraged in starting who are not. up schools, it would be a big boon in terms of quality and also would increase the employment levels in the sector. The students passing out from these schools would certainly possess good technical skills which would make them competent to work even in international levels. The idea behind registering an EducationalCentre for Public Policy Research 5
  6. 6. Establishment in the Societies and Registration Act has been for the purpose of getting aids from external agencies. The Rajasthan State government and the Gujarat government made a rule as to register all schools in the state under the Act for the sole purpose of getting aids from organizations like World Bank, UNESCO etc. So far Kerala has not witnessed such kind of demand from any management though there are recently opened international schools which happen to operate under a different Board who receive such aid.KER seeks to implement Free and Compulsory Education in schools9, and has been in tunewith the Fundamental Right of Education guaranteed to Children in the age of 8-14 yearsunder Article 21-A of the Constitution of India. It also makes it obligatory on the part of theGuardian to send the children to school and even would attract penalty if the child is sentfor employment. But even now, the State has not enacted any law stipulating thecompulsory education for all the Children though it is mentioned in the rules. This reiteratesthe point that even without compulsory laws, high literacy rate can be achieved.3. Stake holdersManagement of every school Manager is the person whois vested with the Manager runs the School and iswho shall be responsible answerable to all actionsbefore the Court in case of arising out of that. In theany violations or complaints. case of aided and un-aidedIn case of Corporate it is the managementManagement, they shall which runs the school. Thedecide over the affairs of the DEO will approve thatschool by meeting together. person as the ManagerFor Aided schools and un- whom the Managementaided schools Manager is appoints. The PTA10 has aappointed by the say in the mattersManagement. In the case of regarding the functioningGovernment school a person of the school but not withwho is fit to the post regard to matters relatingaccording to the DEO is to fees structure,Centre for Public Policy Research 6
  7. 7. appointed. appointment. The PTA is to be constituted from among the parents and teachers of the students of the school according to the Rules.4. RecognitionThe Government recognizes The particulars relating to Recognition is theschools setup by an the financial condition of most important step inindividual or by a Corporate the school are asked for the establishment of aonce they receive a duly determining the school. It is a hecticfilled Application form genuineness of the process and can take acontaining the particulars, applicant. It also seeks to lot of time for initiationthe financial condition11 (i.e. look into whether the of the proceeding as itdetails regarding the site, owner of the school has the is the Government wholanded property of the ability of maintaining a has to grantschool, nature of school. (see Annexure II ) recognition. Mostly thisaccommodation, ready process is eased up bymoney and other These Rules are however the amount one canguarantees), the not applicable to invest in anotherAppointment of teachers Government Schools. The process called bribing.(whether appropriate for Government has the power This in addition toschools already in to establish schools political influence canexistence), acceptance of anywhere, even in remote make it easy for aauditing to be done by the areas for meeting the school to getDirector, the ‘educational needs of education in those recognized by theneeds’ of the locality as areas. Government.mentioned before. In thecase of Aided schools inaddition to the othermentioned requirements hehas to prove the financialsoundness of the schooland apply for providing ofaid. Where the Governmentfinds that the proposedschool cannot run withoutthe aid to be given by theGovernment as demandedby the applicant, thegovernment would sanctionit.Matters to be specified inorder for grantingCentre for Public Policy Research 7
  8. 8. recognition to a school:The Educational Agency inwhose favour it is issued,the grade of the school, theStandards to whichrecognition is granted;location of the school andthe date from whichrecognition will take effect.Unrecognized school:Unrecognized schools are actually not schools in the eyes of law. Still an interesting featureis that there are many unrecognized schools running in Kerala without any aid from theGovernment.Private Study is allowed till Class V who has to write the exams of Class IV to getadmitted in Class V. But the Government has always been liberal till now in giving them anopportunity to write exams including the SSLC exam by applying in various means. Thisprovision has been a blessing in disguise in the mushrooming of so called unrecognisedschools at various places. This has helped many to complete their elementary educationotherwise not possible.5. Role of managementThe management of every There are many roles for The Manager and theaided school is vested in the Manager. The Manager Headmaster have a definitethe Educational Agency in has to run the entire role to play in the overallwhom is also vested the administration of the performance of a school.right of appointing the school. The Management is The efficiency of a schoolManager. In case of vested with the powers of depends upon how good thecorporate management, the appoinment of teachers, Manager and theproprietary body may the salary to be paid to Headmaster is. Thechoose the Manager while them in the case of aided Management’s role isin Government schools the and unaided schools. The supportive in nature to thatDirector has to approve the Teachers who are selected of the Manager.Manager as mentioned by the Management inbefore. aided schools have to get Though it is provided in the the approval of the DEO Rules that the minimum within 15 days of selection. salary to be paid to the teachers in the aided and No Fee shall be levied from un-aided schools should be students in Government the same of that of the Primary Schools. For teachers in the Government Government schools there schools, it is only true in the are only two types of fees, records. It is in the matter admission fee Rs 1 and of salaries that most number Special Fee of Rs 10. In the of complaints and litigationsCentre for Public Policy Research 8
  9. 9. case of aided schools it is arise. Even the Recognition about Rs 40. of a school can be cancelled in the event of non-payment of the salary. But as the competition increased and there is a quantitative shift of the students to better schools, the management has no other way but to give the best salary to the qualified teachers.Fee Structure: The fee to be levied from each student is clearly provided in the KER forgovernment and Aided Schools. An Admission fee of Rs 1 shall be realised from thestudent. While the tuition fee in recognized schools is Rs1000 per pupil per year for lowerprimary and Rs.1500 for Upper Primary Pupils. Special fees can also be collected from themwhich shall not exceed one third of the above rates. For this a Special Fee Fund also hasbeen created. A Committee consisting of senior most teachers, Physical Training Instructor,School Leader, Manager, Senior Scout Master and senior most Craft Teacher will advice theHeadmaster for the proper utilisation of the special fees. The fees are utilized separately forScouting, Excursion, Junior Red Cross Ambulance and Youth Festival. Other fees like AudioVisual Fee, Travelling fee are also included. For all these purposes there should be anaccount created which should be kept for annual audit.Though capitation fee is not allowed, it is an open secret that most of the private and to anextent the aided schools levy such a ‘fee’. Everyone is aware of such a thing happening butnone either complains about it or the complaints are never heard. The Supreme Court innumber of cases has said a big no to such capitation fees and has heavily discouraged fromlevying it. The KER also says that no Capitation fee shall be recovered from anyone. If theparents are willing to pay this capitation fees to get better education to their children inKerala which has a high density of schools it shows the dismal picture of the rest of theschools.7. Appointment of teaching and non teaching staffAppointments of Teachers Though appointment should The Appointments areare done by looking into be done in the most flexible always marred inthe Rank list published by manner; it is never the case controversy. People payPSC12 in Government so. Many complaints arise bribes of large amounts forschools. In case of aided by ways of Seniority, getting appointed even inand unaided schools a Reservation in the matters schools. There is no fool-minimum Qualification is of employment. proof mechanism to regulateprescribed under the Rules. The Appointments in Aided such things. Such things areAll appointments to all and Un-aided private hard to be traced as theycategories of employees as schools are determined by are either done secretly orCentre for Public Policy Research 9
  10. 10. per Government of India the money factor and under the connivance of allgradation shall be made by political influence. It is an the authorities. In thisManaging Committee either open secret that large aspect the Governmentby direct recruitment or by amounts of money are schools arepromotion through a rolled into the hands of the on the upper hand as theSelection Committee authorities for appointment appointments of Teachersconstituted by the School of teachers and Non- are done through the RankSociety/ Trust and in teaching staff. list published by the PSCaccordance with and upon which is done in pursuancesuch conditions as the Though the DEO has the of the PSC Exam; whileManaging Committee may ultimate power for appointments in aided anddecide, which shall be sanctioning of an un-aided schools are doneconsistent with the norms appointment of a teacher or under the sole discretion ofof the Board/Government if a non-teaching staff, he the Management.statutory provision exists. hardly has any time to doIn the case of Non-teaching so; he usually signs it Though the rules in KERstaff in a Government without even looking into it. mentions the probation ofschool there is clear-cut newly appointed teachers,provisions for their the practise is thatqualifications in the Rules. management seldom invokeAll the appointments are those provisions. But as themade after an interview by competition among thea Board consisting schools increase, theseauthorities of the provisions will be invoked.Educational Department.The appointments rightfrom the peon to theHeadmaster has to be inaccordance with the Rulesand should be sanctionedby the DEO within 15 daysof the appointment.8. GrantThe Government may make The Grants or Grant-in-aid Grant-in-aid is a novel“Grants-in-aid” which as defined is granted concept in Kerala. It is usedmeans aid in the form of equally to all the to improve themaintenance from State Government schools and infrastructural requirementsGovernment or Local Aided schools. The Manager of a school. In the case ofAuthority for the purchase, has to specify the Government and aidedimprovement and repairs of particulars (be it furniture school, the Manager shouldany land, building or or building) which are apply to the DEO for theequipment to the Manager required to be repaired or Grant along with otherwho shall maintain proper improved before the DEO particulars. But under whatrecords of the same. The which is to be sanctioned procedure the Grant isgrant in the case of by him and due records be made is difficult to analyze.Government schools would kept. Some schools may getbe specified by the more grant compared toCentre for Public Policy Research 10
  11. 11. Government in each others, some schools mayfinancial year. The Grants not even get the grant.are made turn by turn foreach school.Insurance: In addition to the Insurance to the Teachers, the Kerala Government hasintroduced Insurance to children also called the ‘Group, Personal Accident Insurancescheme’. This novel scheme has been extended to all schools including the VocationalHigher Secondary Schools (VHSS).9. Maintenance and supportMaintenance to the Maintenance is usually not Inspection of the schoolsbuildings is to be done done in Government are usually not done, unlessAnnually and for which a schools either because of in certain circumstances.Maintenance Grant is the lack of funds or The Government of Keralaprovided. because of red-tapism and has brought in the concept on a few occasions because of Super check. The SuperThe supports are usually of the ignorance of the Check Officer used todone by the Government as concerned school agency. conduct surprise inspectionper the policies they frame The private schools usually in aided schools to verifyat the beginning of the do maintenance work when the strength of pupils andfinancial year. Maintenance they think so or in times of call for the records from thegrant will be given to inspection from the Board school authorities andManagers at the rate of or when there is a strong Educational Officers andRs.3.25 per pupil in the hue and cry to do so by the such other acts as may beLower Primary and Upper PTA. deemed necessary.Primary and Rs.5 in theHigh School classes. The Free mid-day meal in The Noon Day MealEducational Officers will schools has been observed Program is running well ininspect whether the successfully in every school the schools which have tomaintenance work has been in Kerala for classes till 7th. be supervised by the AEO13properly done and verify The various amenities and the DPI14. In additionand scrutinize the accounts. provided are 60gm of Rice to the regular noon feeding 30gm-Peas, 1 gm palmolien in schools special rice 5 Kilo oil and condiments (now gram per pupil is supplied not given) and 1 egg or to the students of each banana given once a week. school during Onam, Xmas and Ramzan through Maveli Stores and Civil Supplies15. It was started from the Academic year 1997-98 and is still continuing. These are all add-ons by the Kerala Government to the other Programs started by the Central Government like Sarva Shisksha AbhyanCentre for Public Policy Research 11
  12. 12. (SSA) and National Policy of Education (NPE). There are reports of diversion of funds and mismanagement of these schemes.10. ScholarshipsThe Government can by There are provisions for The provision forway of Notification in the granting scholarships to poor Scholarships to theGazette make provisions for students, SSLC rank holders. deserving students is oneScholarships There is a Scholarship exam of the most important namely Lower Primary School aspects of the Kerala Scholarship Exam (LSSE) for Education. This is in students till 7 Standard addition to special whereby an amount of Rs consideration given to the 100 monthly is given to the Handicapped children for student who has attained the their education. scholarship. Similarly there is Upper Primary School Scholarship Exam (USSE) for 7 to 10 standard students of amount Rs 150. National Talent Search Examination (NTSE) for High School students is Rs 600. For SC/ST students the Tribal Welfare Department pays a stipend of Rs 100 per month for SC and for ST an amount of Rs 300 per year in addition to the other. For Muslim girls an amount of Rs 150 per month is provided from 5 to 10 classes which has to be sanctioned by the DEO. There are other provisions which the Government specifies by Notification in the Gazette for providing of a House to a financially weak student by looking into the annual income of the parents of the studentCentre for Public Policy Research 12
  13. 13. CONCLUSIONWhat gives the Kerala Schools a definite edge over the schools in other places interms of administration, efficiency and quality? 1) Flexibility - The KER is not as rigid as it stands. It gives scope for private players to start schools and manage it without the Governments interference. A nominal amount of Rs 15000 is enough to show to the Government that the applicant has the financial credibility to start a school. Though the rules are not applicable to the Government schools while starting new ones, the rules have set minimum standards to the education sector. Thus the role of the Government has been that of a regulator in the modern times. 2) Aid – Provisions of salary to the teachers and management of a private body is a unique example for better results in Education sector. By doing so, the teachers are accountable to the management and to the state also. The management cannot bear the loss of fame of the school due to lack of accountability, responsibility and devotion of the teachers. This system is another way of utilizing public money under the auspices of the private management. 3) Hearing- Gives scope for Hearing in all levels in cases of complaints. The DEO will personally hear all complaints and look forward for suggestions which are a unique aspect in Kerala. This has made the system transparent compared to other sectors. This has set a norm for the subsequent decisions also. 4) Autonomy- It gives schools freedom to decide matters internally. Especially in the case of aided schools. the Government shall not interfere in the internal matters of the schools. In this respect, the Government has played the role of a facilitator. This has been a huge success in Kerala over the decades. 5) Dynamic Method of Education-The Teachers are encouraged to impart Dynamic Education to all students by way of Practical, Project, Activity and Expression Works. The Work Experience classes and Physical Instruction are the other aspects which are instrumental in better performance of students studying in Kerala Schools. English has always been an accepted language used in the Kerala Schools which give them definite edge over schools in other states. There has been a decision to include sex education for students in the various levels of Schools. The success of dynamic education has been the success of the autonomous management of the majority of the schools in Kerala. 6) Teachers Training-Specific Programs for increasing the quality levels of Teachers are another unique aspect. A unique feature found in Kerala is the provision of Probation of Teachers in schools. The Probation period is for 1 year and the Teacher has to show her quality in teaching during that period. This option is valid in the case of initial appointments of qualified teachers. The Manager can if he is not satisfied with the performance of the Teacher either extend the probation period or discharge he/ she from the Service with the permission of the DEO. 7) Education Movements- History says that the uniqueness of Kerala is in accepting Education as one of the most important areas in the Development of a State. Kerala is the first fully literate state in India which has been successful because of the great educational movements which started during the 1950’s. The “Ernakulam Model” had wide repercussions all over the country. The Kalajathas, a mass awareness program propagated the need for quality education in Kerala and has been successful throughout the State.Centre for Public Policy Research 13
  14. 14. Under these circumstances, it has been proved that over the years, the Governmentdecisions and policy initiatives sometimes had gone in a wrong direction that onlynecessitated the review of KER. The openness and flexibility of KER has been a model forthe rest of the country. Any modification or alteration to KER shall be done with utmostcare and vision. There are many areas where KER needs an amendment like ‘educationneed’ as required for starting a school. At the same time, there are provisions that shall beenlarged like ‘private study’ to higher classes also than blaming it.DEFINTIONSManagement of Schools: The authority, which runs a school, determines its type ofmanagement.Government: A Government school is that which is run by the State Government orCentral Government or Public Sector Undertaking or an Autonomous Organisationcompletely financed by the Government.Local Body: A Local Body School is that which is run by Panchayati Raj and local bodyinstitution such as Zilla Parishad, Municipal Corporation, Municipal Committee Notified AreaCommittee and Cantonment Board. With respect to Kerala, Local Authority means aPanchayath at any level constituted under Kerala Panchayath Act, 1994 or a Municipalityunder the Kerala Municipality Act, 1994.Private Aided: A Private Aided School is that which is run by an individual or a privateorganisation and receives grant from government or local body.Private Unaided: A private Unaided School is that which is managed by an individual or aprivate organization and does not receive any grant either from government or local body.Private School: Means aided or recognised school.Recognised School: A recognised school is that in which the course(s) of study followedis/are prescribed or recognised by the government (Central/State) or a University or aBoard constituted by law or by any other agency authorised on this behalf by the Central orState Government and which satisfies one or more of the authorities e.g. Directorate ofEducation, Municipal Corporation/Committee, Board, etc., with regard to its standard ofefficiency. It runs regular classes and sends candidates for public examination, if any.School Category: School category will be determined as per the state pattern on the basisof the highest class in a school. For example, in a state where classes I-V, VI-VIII, IX-X andXI – XII form primary, upper primary , secondary and higher secondary stagesrespectively, the category of the school will be decided as follows:-  A school having classes up to V will be termed as Primary School.  A school having highest classes VI, VII or VIII will be termed as Upper Primary School.  A school having highest classes either IX or X will be termed as Secondary School.  A school having highest classes either XI or XII will be termed as Higher Secondary School.Centre for Public Policy Research 14
  15. 15. Unrecognised School :An unrecognised school is that which is not recognised but runregular classes in the pattern of recognised schools. This does not include coaching centers.Educational Officer means the District Educational Officer or the Assistant EducationalOfficer having immediate inspectional and administrative control over the school within hisjurisdiction.Classification of schools in Kerala 1. Schools for General education i) Primary- From Std I to Std VII ii) Secondary- From Std VII to X Higher Secondary- From Std VIII to XI 2. Schools for special education- Physical Training schools, Fishery schools, Music, Fine Arts and schools for providing instruction and training for Teachers Certificate Examination. 3. Schools for the education of particular categories of students- Deaf, Dumb, Blind, Mentally handicapped, Leper schools, and schools for polio. 4. Other institutions connected with the educational system of the state- Bharat Scouts and Guides, NCC and ACC, Girls schools.Centre for Public Policy Research 15
  16. 16. ANNEXURE 1 Kerala Education Rules FORM 1 [See Rule V-2 (3) and (4)] APPLICATION FOR PERMISSION TO OPEN A SCHOOL OR A NEW STANDARD WITH A VIEW TO ITS SUBSEQUENT RECOGNITION1. (a) Name and address of applicant (b) Whether individual or Corporate. If Corporate, the name of the Corporate Management should be furnished. (c) If Corporate, the number of schools under the Corporate Management and their location2. Position of School Taluk Village3. Position with respect to neighbouring Lower Distance High Distance schools as per enclosed sketch plan of the & from Schools from locality with names of all the schools within Upper the the a radius of 3 miles of the proposed site and Primary Proposed proposed Schools site site their distance from it. The distance from the nearest cemetary or cremation ground:4. (a) Name of the proposed school (b) Class and grade of school with highest standard of instruction intended at opening (c) Whether new or in continuation of the existing school.5. Date on which it is proposed to open the School.6. (a) Nature of tenure of the property by owner (b) Whether the applicant proposes to acquire the site for the school and if so when? (c) Extent of site of the existing school which is proposed to be raised.7. Reason for opening the schoolCentre for Public Policy Research 16
  17. 17. 8. Whether the school will be open to all the classes of the community.9. Details of the guarantees, the applicant a) Site can give of his ability to conduct the school b) Landed property for school successfully from a financial point of view: c) Nature of accommodation d) Ready money e) Other guarantees10. Whether the applicant is already the Educational Agency of any recognized institution under the Department, and if so the name of the institution11. Whether the applicant is prepared to furnish the cash security required by the department12. Whether the applicant intends to run school as an aided Or recognized school13. Whether the applicant or if corporate any member has been convicted of an offence involving moral turptitude by a court of law if so give details14. Whether the applicant is prepared to absorb qualified teachers/non-teaching staff who after putting in service of 2 years and drawing 2 vacation salaries have been retrenched (from any of the aided High schools in the Education District or aided primary schools in the Education Sub-District)]in which the applicant proposes to open/upgrade the school and if so whether an agreement to that effect has been furnished DECLARATION I solemnly declare that the facts stated above are correct.Station…………………………Date…………………………… ApplicantCentre for Public Policy Research 17
  18. 18. ANNEXURE II Kerala Education Rules FORM 2 [See Rule V-16 (1)] APPLICATION FOR RECOGNITION 1. Name of School……………………………………………………………… 2. Taluk……………………….……… Village……………………………….. 3. Class of School……………………….Grade of School……………………. 4. Date of establishment…………………………. 5. No. and Date of order sanctioning opening of School………………………. 6. Name and Address of Educational Agency…………………………………. 7. Name and Address of Manager …………………………………………….. 8. Standards already recognised 9. Standards for which recognition is now sought Standards Strength on date of Standards Strength on date of application application 10. Total area of (a) Class-rooms Length Breadth Height (b) Other Buildings do do do © Playground Length Breadth 11. (a) Number of Class-rooms and superficial and cubic area of each room, with the maximum number of pupils likely to be taught in each room (b) Whether the School introduced shift system. 12. Fees in each standard. 13. STAFFCentre for Public Policy Research 18
  19. 19. Name of Teacher 1Designation 2Salary assigned or to be assigned 3Date of Birth 4No. of licence or permit if any held by 5the teacherStandards and the subjects taught 6 Total ServiceIn the School 7In other recognised Schools, the 8names of such schools being specifiedHighest general educational 9qualification with year of passing andfull particularsHighest Technical Examination passed 10with year and subjectHighest grade of trained teachers 11certificate with yearHighest grade of technical teachers 12certificate with year and subject14. Sanitation, latrine and water supply Ordinary Special 1.15. Furniture, apparatus and appliances. (Information separately for each Standard or class should be given)16. If a library is provided whether a catalogue and a register of books issued are kept.17. The registers maintained, and whether in the prescribed forms.DeclarationOn behalf of the management of the School, I hereby declare that the school fulfils all theconditions specified in the Kerala Education Act and the Rules under it and I promise toCentre for Public Policy Research 19
  20. 20. comply with all the conditions relating to the recognition of Schools affording publicinstruction and other matters which are laid down in the Kerala Education Act and the Rulesunder it.Station : …………………….Date : ……………………….* This study is based on The Kerala Education Act, 1958 and The Kerala Education Rules, 1959. It has taken allthe amendments and latest Government Notifications till 2005 into consideration. Meetings and interactionswith the Education department officials, teachers and school managers helped to compile the findingsCentre for Public Policy Research 20