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Training & development dhanu

  3. 3. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT DECLARATION I hereby declare that the study was carried out by me in the year 2010-2011 as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Masters’ degree in SocialWork (M.S.W) in Mangalore University, under the guidance ofMr.Pradeep.M.D B.A.(Law), LL.B., M.S.W., (LL.M) Lecturer, Department of SocialWork, Srinivas Institute of Management Studies, Pandeshwar, Mangalore. The research work, either fully or partially, has not previously formed thebasis for the award of any degree, diploma or other similar title in anyorganization/institution/universities.Place: MangaloreDate: /04/2011 DHANARAJ NAIK.P.G. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 3
  4. 4. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT DEDICATED TOMy beloved Parents Gangyanaik, Pujar & Gouribai My Well Wishers And All My Sweet Friends and College Staff SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 4
  5. 5. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Acknowledgement„The value of special people cannot be measured but only treasured‟At the outset I would like to express my sincere appreciation thanks and gratitudeto my guide, Mr.Pradeep.M.D B.A. (Law), LL.B., M.S.W., (LL.M) Lecturer,Department of Social Work, Srinivas Institute of Management Studies, for inputguidance, valuable suggestions, content, encouragement and appreciationthroughout the period of study.I express my sincere gratitude to Mr. P. Tamilvanan, Chairman, NewMangalore Port Trust and Mr. C. Harichandran, Secretary, New MangalorePort Trust, for giving me an opportunity to carry out the research project in theiresteemed organization.I also extend my thanks to Mr. T. Khalid, Statistical and Research Officer,Management Services Division, New Mangalore Port Trust, Mr. OsmondFernandez, Senior Research Assistant, Mr. Sadashiva B. R., Deputy TrafficManager, HRD cell of NMPT and employees and staff of New Mangalore Porttrust.My heartfelt thanks to all my friends, field mates and class mates for helping andsharing materials in success of my study.Last but not the least, I would say that it is the love and prayer of my parents,my sister, my friend and my family and also their moral support and a lot morethan words can express to complete this dissertation work.Place: MangaloreDate: /04/2011 DHANARAJ NAIK P.G. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 5
  7. 7. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT LIST OF TABLESSI. NO Title Page. No 46-87 01 Sex of the Respondents. 46 02 Age of the Respondents. 47 03 Marital status of the Respondents. 48 04 Educational Qualification. 49 05 Work experience 50 06 Training programmes are conducted. 51 07 Necessary for the Training Programme 52 08 Opinion regarding duration of Training programme. 53 09 Opinion to get trained in the areas of their preference. 54 10 Kind of Training getting from the organization. 55 11 Adequate importance is given for the training 56 12 Senior line managers are eager in helping juniors to 57 develop them through training. 13 Adequate free time is given to the employees to reflect 58 and plan for improvement after the training. 14 Training programmes are organized well. 59 15 Evident change in the performance after getting 60 training. 16 Training programmes will provide an opportunity to 61 bring out the hidden skills. 17 Aware of the selection procedure for training. 62 18 Development of the personality after attending the 63 training. 19 Procedure of training need to be changed. 64 20 Interest that will be considered while setting the 65 objectives of the training programme. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 7
  8. 8. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT21 Training will improve confidence in work. 6622 Trained on safety measures. 6723 Developments after getting the training. 6824 Training centre is well equipped to organize the training 69 programmes.25 Resource person of the training progrmme are efficient. 7026 The organization considers training as a part of 71 organizational strategy.27 Number of training programmes attended in a year. 7228 Trainings are more for. 7329 Important barriers to training and development 74 progarammes.30 Mode of training method used. 7531 Enough practicals are conducted during the training 76 sessions.32 Employees are motivated to attend the training 77 programmes.33 Duration needed for the implementation of the training 78 programmes.34 The kind of training imparted for the newly recruited 79 employees.35 Training and development programmes needed to make 80 their carrier aspirations to come true.36 The conditions that have to be improved during the 81 training session.37 Skills that should be possessed by the trainer to make it 82 effective.38 Reason for the shortage of skilled man power at 83 workplace.39 Training needed to perform other jobs. 8440 General complaints about the training sessions. 8541 Degree to which the training objective is met. 8642 Come across with any problems during the training 87 sessions. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 8
  10. 10. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTINTRODUCTIONTraining and Development is the framework for helping employees to developtheir personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. The focus of allaspects of Human Resource Development is on developing the most superiorworkforce so that the organization and individual employees can accomplish theirwork goals in service to customers. All employees want to be valuable and remaincompetitive in the labour market at all times, because they make some demand foremployees in the labour market. This can only be achieved through employeetraining and development. Hence employees have a chance to negotiate as well asemployer has a good opportunity to select most suitable person for his vacancy.Employees will always want to develop career-enhancing skills, which will alwayslead to employee motivation. There is no doubt that a well trained and developedstaff will be a valuable asset to the company and thereby increasing the chances ofhis efficiency in discharging his or her duties. Trainings in an organization can bemainly of two types; Internal and External training sessions. Internal traininginvolves when training is organized in-house by the human resources departmentor training department using either a senior staff or any talented staff in theparticular department as a resource person.The game of economic confutation as rules. This requires responding to customers‟needs for quality, variety, customization convince timeliness. Meeting these newstandards requires a workforce that is technically trained in all respects. It requirespeople who are capable analyzing solving job related problem workingcomparatively in teams and „changing hats‟ and shifting from job as well. Traininghas in increased in importance in today‟s environment where jobs are complex and SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 10
  11. 11. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTchange rapidly. Companies that pay lip-service to the need for training, by lazilysetting aside a few hours a year, will soon find themselves at the receiving endwhen talented employees leave in frustration and other employees find it difficultto beat rivals with new products, sophisticated designs and improving ways ofselling .to survive and flourish in the present day corporate jungle companiesshould invest time and money in upgrading the knowledge and skills of theiremployees constantly. For any company that stops injecting itself with intelligenceis going to die.Every organization needs to have well – trained and experienced people to performthe activities that have to be done. The effective functioning of any organizationrequires that employees learn to perform their jobs at satisfactory level ofproficiency. An effective organization wishes to have amongst its ranks individualsthat are qualified to accept increasing responsibilities. So that organization needs intheir present jobs, but also to develop their capabilities of other jobs, for whichthey might later be considered.Training enables the employee to get acquainted with jobs and also increase theiraptitude, skills and knowledge. It makes newly recruited employees fullyproductive in the minimum of time. Even for the old workers, it is necessary torefresh them and to enable them to keep up with new methods and techniques aswell as new machine and equipments for doing the work. Thus, training is not a„One step process‟ but it is a „continuous or never ending process‟ because itincrease the knowledge and skills of new employees in performing their jobs andserves as a refresher course for the old employees training job will never befinished as long as organization remains operation. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 11
  12. 12. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTTraining can be introduced simply as a process of assisting a person for enhancinghis efficiency and effectiveness to a particular work area by getting moreknowledge and practices. Also training is important to establish specific skills,abilities and knowledge to an employee. For an organization, training anddevelopment are important as well as organizational growth, because theorganizational growth and profit are also dependent on the training. But thetraining is not a core of organizational development. It is a function of theorganizational development.Training is different form education; particularly formal education. The educationis concerned mainly with enhancement of knowledge, but the aims of training areincreasing knowledge while changing attitudes and Competences in good manner.Basically the education is formulated with in the framework and to syllabus, butthe training is not formed in to the frame and as well as syllabus. It may differ fromone employee to another, one group to another, even the group in the same class.The reason for that can be mentioned as difference of attitudes and skills from oneperson to another.Even the situation is that, after good training programme, all different type skilledone group of employees can get in to similar capacity, similar skilled group. Thatis an advantage of the trainings .In the field of Human Resources Management,Training and Development is the field concern with organizational activities whichare aimed to bettering individual and group performances in organizationalsettings. It has been known by many names in the field HRM, such as employeedevelopment, human resources development, learning and development etc.Training is really developing employees‟ capacities through learning andpracticing. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 12
  13. 13. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTOn the other hand external training is normally arranged outside the firm and ismostly organized by training institutes or consultants. Whichever training, it isvery important for all staff and helps in building career positioning and preparingstaff for greater challenges in developing world. However the training is costly.Because of that, people who work at firms do not receive external trainings most oftimes. The cost is a major issue for the lack of training programmes in Sri Lanka.But nowadays, a new concept has come with these trainings which is “Trainersthrough trainees”. While training their employees in large quantities, manycountries use that method in present days to reduce their training costs. The theoryof this is, sending a little group or an individual for a training programme under abonding agreement or without a bond. When they come back to work, theexternally trained employees train the employees who have not participated forabove training programme by internal training programmes.Employers of labour should enable employees to pursue training and developmentin a direction that they choose and are interested in, not just in company-assigneddirections. Companies should support learning, in general, and not just in supportof knowledge needed for the employees current or next anticipated job. It shouldbe noted that the key factor is keeping the employee interested, attending, engaged,motivated and retained.For every employee to perform well, especially Supervisors and Managers, there isa need for constant training and development. The right employee training,development and education provides big payoffs for the employer in increasedproductivity, knowledge, loyalty, and contribution to general growth of the firm. Inmost cases external trainings for instance provide participants with the avenue tomeet new set of people in the same field and network. The meeting will give them SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 13
  14. 14. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTthe chance to compare issues and find out what is obtainable in each othersenvironment. This for sure will introduce positive changes where necessary.It is not mentioned in any where that the employers, managers and supervisors arenot suitable for training programmes. They also must be highly trained if they areexpected to do their best for the organization. Through that they will have bestabilities and competencies to manage the organization. Training employees notonly creates a more positive corporate culture, but also add a value to its keyresources.Raw human resources can make only limited contribution to the organization toachieve its goals and objectives. Hence the demands for the developed employeesare continuously increasing. Thus the training is a kind of investment.CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKTraining often has been referred to as teaching specific skills and behavior. It isusually reserved for people who have to be brought up to performing level in somespecific skills. The skills are almost always behavioral as distinct from conceptualor intelligence.Development, in contrast is considered to be more general than training and moreoriented to individual needs in addition to organizational needs and it is most oftenaimed towards management people. There is more theory involved with sucheducation and hence less concern with specific behavior than is the case withtraining. Usually the intent of development is to provide knowledge andunderstanding will enable people to carry out non technical organizationalfunctions more effectively such as problem solving, decision making and relatingto people. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 14
  15. 15. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTMeaningThe term „Training‟ is concerned with impacting specific skills for a particularpurpose. Training refers to a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees‟learning of job-related competencies. These competencies include knowledge,skills, or behaviours that are critical for successful job performance in theimmediate term or near future. This is in contrast with development, which istraining that provides employees with competencies for anticipated future jobs androles. The goal of training is for employees to master the knowledge, skill, andbehaviours emphasized in training programs and to apply them to their day-to-dayactivities.High-leverage training is linked to strategic business goals and objectives, usesan instructional design process to ensure that training is effective, and compares orbenchmarks the company‟s training programs against training programs in othercompanies. High-leverage training practices also help to create working conditionsthat encourage continuous learning. Continuous learning requires employees tounderstand the entire work system, including the relationships among their jobs,their work units, and the company. Employees are expected to acquire new skillsand knowledge, apply them on the job, and share this information with otheremployees. Managers take an active role in identifying training needs and help toensure that employees use training in their work. To facilitate the sharing ofknowledge, managers may use informational maps that show where knowledge lieswithin the company (for example, directories and/or skills inventories that list whatindividuals do as well as the specialized knowledge they possess) and use SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 15
  16. 16. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTtechnology such as groupware or the internet that allows employees in variousbusiness units to work simultaneously on problems and share Information.Training is used to improve employee performance, which leads to improvedbusiness results. Training is seen as one of several possible solutions to improveperformance. Other solutions can include such actions as changing the job orincreasing employee motivation through pay and incentives. Today there is agreater emphasis on:• Providing educational opportunities for all employees.• An ongoing process of performance improvement that is directly measurablerather than organizing one-time training events.• The need to demonstrate to executives, managers, and trainees the benefits oftraining.• Learning as a lifelong event in which senior management, trainer managers, andemployees have ownership.• Training being used to help attain strategic business objectives, which helpcompanies, gains a competitive advantage.Measuring the return on investment in research and development, marketing, sales,and human resources is key for demonstrating the value to the business. Each ofMedtronic‟s businesses uses a scorecard to measure success and return oninvestment. Medtronic is currently developing metrics to measure how trainingcontributes to the company‟s success.Definitions:“Edwin. B.Ellppo” has defined “Training as the cut of increasing the knowledgeand skills of an employee for doing a particular job”. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 16
  17. 17. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT“Michael Armstrong” defines “Training as the systematic development of theknowledge skills and attitudes acquired by an individual to perform adequately agiven task or job”.“Michael J.Jucious” “Training is any process by which the attitude, skills andabilities of employees to perform specific jobs are improved”.“Michael Armstrong” “Training is the systematic modification of behaviorthrough learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development.The above definition suggests that training enhance the skill and capabilities of theindividuals in an organization. For training to be successful, the employees have tobe convinced of its utility and effectiveness.A successful training program, which in turn enhance organizational performance.THEORETICAL FRAME WORKThe Efficiency of an organization depends on the capacity and talents of itspersonnel and how motivated they are capability of the depends on his ability towork and type of training he receives. After the employees have been selected forvarious positions in an organization, training them for the specific tasks to whichthey been assigned assumes great importance. It is true in many originations thatbefore employees are fitted into a harmonious working relationship with the otheremployees, he is given adequate training. Training is the act of increasing theknowledge and skills of an employee for performing a particular job. The majoroutcome of training is learning. Trainees learn new habits, refined skills and usefulknowledge during the training that helps him improve performance. Training SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 17
  18. 18. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTenables an employee to do his present job more efficiently and prepare himself fora higher level job.Training is needed to serve the following purposes.  Newly recruited employees require training so as to perform their tasks effectively. Instruction, guidance, coaching help them to handle jobs competently without any wastage.  Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for higher level jobs (promotion).  Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep abreast of the latest development operation. In face of rapid technological changes, this is an absolute necessity.  Training is necessary when a person moves from one job to another (transfer). After training the employee can change jobs quickly, improve his performance levels and achieve career goals comfortable.  Training is necessary to make employees mobile and versatile. They can be placed on various jobs depending on organizational needs.  Training is needed to bridge the gap between what the employees has and what the job demands. Training is needed to make employees more productive and useful in the long run.  Training is needed for employees to again acceptance from peers (learning a job quickly and being able to pull their own weight is one of the best ways for them to gain acceptance.Thus, training is meant for operatives and development is meant for managers.Training tries to improve a specific skill relating to a job whereas development SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 18
  19. 19. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTaims at improving the total personality of an individual. Training is one-shot deal;whereas development is an ongoing continuous process. The scope of training is onindividual employee, whereas eth scope of development is on the entire workgroup or the organization. Training is mostly the result of initiatives taken bymanagement. It is the result of some outside motivation. Training seeks to meet thecurrent recruitment of the jobs and the individual; whereas development aims atmeeting the future needs of the job and the individual. In other words, training is areactive process whereas development is a proactive process. Development isfuture oriented training, focusing on the personal growth of the employee.Learning Training DevelopmentDimension  Meant for Operatives Executives  Focus Current job Current and future jobs  Scope Individual employee Work group or organization  Goal Fix current skill deficit Prepare for future work demands  Initiated by Management The individual  Content Specific job related General knowledge information  Time – Frame Immediate Long termAREAS OF TRAINING:The areas of training in which training is offered may be classified into thefollowing categories. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 19
  20. 20. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTKnowledge:Here the trainee learns about a set of rules and regulations about the job, the staffand the products or service offered by the company. The aim is to make the newemployee fully aware of what goes on inside and outside the company.Technical skills:The employee is taught a specific skill (e.g. operating a machine, handlingcomputer etc) so that he can acquire that shill and contribute meaningfully.Social skills: The employee is made to learn about himself and others, and todevelop a right mental attitude towards the job, colleagues and the company. Theprincipal focus is on teaching the employees hoe to be a teach member and getahead.TYPES OF TRAINING:There many approaches to training. We focus here on the types of training that arecommonly employed in present day organizations.Skills Training:This type of training is most common in the organization. The process here is fairlysimple. The need for training in basic skills (such as reading, writing, computing,speaking, listening, problem soloing, man gaining oneself, knowing how to learn,working as part of a team, leading others) is identified through assessment.Specific training objectives are set and training content is developed to meet thoseobjectives. Several methods are available for imparting these basic skills in modernorganization (such as lecture, apprenticeship, on- the job, coaching etc). SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 20
  21. 21. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTRefresher Training:Rapid changes in technology may force companies to go in for this kind oftraining. By organizing short term course which in corporate that latestdevelopment in a particular field, the company may keep its employees up-to-dateand ready to take on emerging challenges. It is conducted at regular intervals bytaking the help of outside consultants who specialize in a particular descriptive.Cross – functional Training:Cross functional training involves training employees to perform operations inareas other than their assigned job. There are many approaches to cross functionaltraining. Job rotation can be used to provide a manager in one functional area witha broader perspective than he would otherwise have. Department can exchangepersonnel for a certain period so that each employee understands how otherdepartment functions.Team Training:Team training generally covers two areas: content task and group processes.Content tasks specify the team‟s goal such as cost control and problem solving.Group processes reflect the way the member function as team – for example howthey interact with other, how they sort out difference, how they participate etc.Diversity Training:Diversity training considers all of the diverse dimensions in the work place – race,gender, age lifestyles, culture, education, ideas, and background- while designingtraining programmes. It aims to create better cross – cultural sensitivity with theaims of fostering more harmonious and fruitful working relationship among firm‟semployees. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 21
  22. 22. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTTRAINING METHODS:Training methods are usually classified by the location of instruction. On the jobtraining is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skill andabilities at the actual workplace. Off-the-job training on the other hand, requiresthat trainees learn at a location other than the real work spot. 1. Job Instruction Training (JIT) The JIT method is a four – step instructional preparation, presentation, and performance try out and follow up. It is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current jobs. A Trainer, supervisor or co- worker acts as the coach. The four steps followed in the JIT methods are: i. The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose and its desired outcomes, with clear focus on the relevance of training. ii. The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employee a model to copy. iii. Next, the employee is permitted to copy the trainer‟s way. Demonstrates by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated until the trainee masters the right way to handle the job. iv. Finally, the employee does job independently without supervision.1. Coaching : Coaching is a kind of daily training and feedback given to employee by immediate supervision. It involves a continuous process of learning by doing. It may defined as an informal, unplanned training and development activity provided by supervisor and peers. In coaching, the supervisor explain things and answer questions; he throws light on why things are done the way they are; SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 22
  23. 23. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT he offers a model for trainees to copy ; conducts lot of decision making meeting with trainees; procedure are agreed upon and the trainees is given enough authority to make divisions and even commit mistakes. Coaching can be taxing job in that the coach may not possess requisite skills to guide the learner in a systematic way. Sometimes, doing a full day‟s work may be more important than putting the learner on track.2. Mentoring: Mentoring is relationship in which a senior manager in organization assumes the responsibility for grooming a junior person. Technical, interpersonal and political skills are generally conveyed in such a relationship from the more experienced person. A mentor is a teacher, suppose, counselor, developer of skills and intellect, host, guide exemplar and most importantly, supporter and facilitator in the realization of the vision the young person has about the kind of life he wants as an adult. The main objective of mentoring is to help an employee attain psychological maturity and effectiveness and get integrated with the organization.3. Job rotation: This kind of training involves the movement of trainee one job to another. This helps him to have a general understanding of how the organization functions. The purpose of job rotation is to provide trainees with a larger organizational perspective and a greater understanding of different functional areas as well as a better sense if their own career objectives and interests. Apart from reliving boredom, job rotation allows trainees to build rapport cooperation among departments. The cross-trained personnel offer a great amount of flexibility for organizations when transfers, promotions or replacement become inevitable. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 23
  24. 24. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT4. Apprenticeship Training: Most croft workers such as plumbers and carpenters are trained through formal apprenticeship programmes. Apprentices are trainees who spend a prescribed amount of time working with an experienced guide, coach or trainer. Apprenticeships and internships are similar to apprenticeship because that also demand high levels of participation from the trainee. An internship is a kind of on the job training that usually combines job training with classroom instruction in trade schools, colleges or universities. It is also likely that it in these of rapid changes I technology, old skills may get outdated quickly. Trainees who spend years learning specific skills may find, upon completion of their programmes, that the job skills they acquired are no longer appropriate.OFF-THE- JOB METHODS: Under this method of training, the trainee is separated from the job situation ad his attention is focused upon learning the materials related to his future job performance. There is an opportunity for freedom of expression for the trainees. Off-the-job methods are as follows: a) Vestibule Training: In this method, actual work conditions are simulated in a class room. Material, files and equipment- those that are used in actual job performance are also used in the training. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semi-skilled jobs. The duration of this training range from a few days to a few weeks. Theory can be related to practice in this method. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 24
  25. 25. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTb) Role playing: It is defined as method of human interaction that involves realistic behavior in imaginary situations. This method of training involves action, doing and practice. The participants play the role of certain characters such as the production manager, mechanical engineer, superintendents, maintenance engineer, quality control inspector, foremen, workers and the like. This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations.c) Lecture method: The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. The instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. An advantage of lecture method is direct and can be used for a large group of trainees. Thus, costs and time involved are reduced. The major limitation of the lecture method is that it does not provide for transfer of training effectively. d) Conference / discussion approach: In this method, the trainers deliver a lecture and involve the trainee in a discussion so that his doubts about the job get clarified. When big organization use this method, the trainer uses audio-visual aids such as black board, mock ups and slides; in some cases the lecture are videotapes or audio taped. Even the trainee‟s presentation can be taped for self confrontation and self- assessment. The conference is, thus a group-centered where there is a clarification of ideas, communication of procedures and standards to the trainees. Those individuals who have a general educational background and whatever specific skills are required- such as typing, shorthand, office equipment operation, filling, indexing, recording etc- may be provided with specific instructions to handle their respective jobs. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 25
  26. 26. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT e) Programmed Instruction: This method has becomes popular in recent years. The subject matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. These units are arranged from simple to more complex levels of instructions. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. This method is, thus, expensive and time-consuming.NEED FOR TRAINING: Training is the act of improving one‟s knowledge and skill to improve his/her job performance. Training is job – oriented. It bridges the gap between what the employee has and what the job demands. For that matter, imparting to employees working in all organized sectors of human activity is longer a matter of debate. The need for training has been recognized as essential activity not only in the business organizations, but also in academic institution, professional bodies and the government department. IMPARTANCE OF TRAINING: The importance of training can best be appreciated with the help of various advantages it offers to both employees and employer. 1. Better performance: Training improves employee‟s ability and skills, in turn improves employee‟s performance both in quality and quantity. Better or increased employee performance directly leads to increased operational productivity and increased SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 26
  27. 27. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT organizational profits. Improvements in employee performance / productivity in development countries lend support to this statement. 2. Improved Quality: In formal training programmes, the best methods of performing jobs are standardized and then taught to employees. This offers two – fold benefits. Firstly uniformity in work performance helps improve the quality of work or service. Secondly better informed or say trained workers are less likely to make operational mistakes. 3. Less supervision: A trained worker is self reliant. He knows his work and way to perform it well. Therefore, his work requires less supervision. The supervision can devote his time on more urgent works. 4. Less learning period: A well planned and systematically organized training programmes reduces the time and cost involved in learning. Training enables to avoid waste of time and efforts in learning through trial and error method. 5. High morale: Training not only improves the ability and skills of the employees, but also changes employees‟ attitude towards positive. Higher performance, job satisfaction, job security and avenues for internal promotion lead to high morale among the employees. High morale, in turn, makes employees more loyal to the organization.6. Personal Growth: Training improves employee‟s ability knowledge and skills and thus, prevents employee‟s obsolesce. This makes employees growth- oriented.7. Favorable Organizational Climate: SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 27
  28. 28. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT The aforesaid advantage combined lead to improves and favorable organizational climate characterized by better industrial relation and disciplines, reduced resistance to change, reduced absenteeism and turnover of employees and improves stability of organization.STEP IN TRAINING PROGRAMMES The various step activities involved in developing training programmes can be broadly classified into five steps as follows; 1. Identification of training needs 2. Setting training objectives 3. Designing training methods 4. Administration of training programmes 5. Evaluation of training Training could be traced far back at the Stone Age when people used to transfer knowledge in particular activity through signs and deeds to others. It was only during industrial revolution the formal and vocational training was started to instruct the apprentices about the about the operation of machines. Since then there is no looking back in this regard. Today training has become the most important organizational activity not only in the business organizations but in the educational institution also. It is fact that many organizations have realized the need of the training created infrastructure and provided financial support. The result of many training programmes have been far less than the desired ones because of non-alignment of training programmes with the overall human resources development (HRD) strategies of the organization. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 28
  31. 31. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTPort is a junction of land and ocean transports and provides a connecting linkbetween land and sea. It acts as a gateway to the land from the as well as a gatewayto the sea from the land. It is through the port that a country‟s foreign trade iscarried on. The exportable surplus or brought to the port for being loaded into theships and sent to other countries. The imports from foreign countries arrive at theport where they are unloaded for distribution inside the country. In fact the mainfunction of a port is to develop country‟s foreign trade, Export and Import.New Mangalore Port Trust Mission: To become a leading liquid and multi-cargo port by adopting stateof the art technology, infrastructure and cargo handling systems, complying withenvironmental, social, safety and security standards. The New Mangalore harbor project started in 1962 was complete in May1974. The New Mangalore Port was declared as the 9th Major port on 4th May 1974 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 31
  32. 32. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTand was formally inaugurated by the former Prime Minister of India, Smt.IndiraGandhi on 11th January 1975. Till 31st March 1980, Government of India centrally administered both theproject and the port. On 1st April 1980, the port trust board was set up under themajor port trust Act 1963 and was inaugurated by the minister for shipping andtransport, Mr. A.P.Sharma on 31st March 1980. Since then, the port has beenfunctioning as the 10th major port trust and is fallen in line with other major porttrusts functioning in the country. New Mangalore Port is well connected by Rail, Road and Air and isstrategically placed. The New Mangalore Port is popularly known as “THEGATEWAY OF KARNATAKA.Historical background: Even though the Minor Port of Mangalore was one among the 19 such portsin the state of Karnataka with a sea-coast of 285 k/ms, the Mangalore Port had along maritime history of its own as is evident from the fact that the geographerPtolemy of second century AD has made a mention of Mangalore in histravelogue. The old port of Mangalore had played a vital role in the golden ore ofKarnataka when it served as an important gateway to the illustrious Hindu Empireof Vijayanagar for brisk trade in silk and spices. Being a natural outlet of strategic importance, Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultanthe former rulers of Mysore maintained a dockyard and arsenal at Mangalore in18th century. The defeat of Tippu Sultan by the British brought this region of southKarnataka under presidency of Madras Province and this position was retained tillthe re-organization of the state in 1956, when the South Kanara and other weremerged with Karnataka state. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 32
  33. 33. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTObjectives  To provide port users a high level of customer satisfaction, i.e., quick, economical, safe, reliable and efficient service.  To achieve a good long term user friendly relationship.  To make a realistic long term traffic and commensurate perspective plan.  To create modern/latest infrastructure facilities to handle projected traffic more efficiently.  To attract continuous general cargo traffic.  To generate and to manage adequate internal resources to attain self sufficiency for understanding various development works and to ensure a fair return on capital employed. Organizational structure: SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 33
  34. 34. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Minister of surface transport is the supreme head representing central government for NMPT. He overall responsibility for efficient management and operation of major ports vests in central government followed by board of trustees with strength of 17 members. Major ports are autonomous bodies run by the Board of trustees, constituted under the major ports act 1963. The trustees, appointed on these boards by the central government, representatives, interests and workers employed in port.Organization structure and responsibilities(i) Civil engineering department: The department maintains and operates all civil maintenance works relatedto port operation and execute revenue and capital works related to infrastructuraldevelopment works as well as management of estate. The department is also incharge of capital and maintenance dredging.(ii) Financial department: The important functions of the financial department are general accounting,revenue collection, establishment costs analysis, budgeting, auditing and advice theChief Executive regarding financial matters. The electronic data processing unitalso functions under this department.(iii) Traffic department: The department administers all cargo handling operation. The departmenttakes care of the marketing functions. The management service division, registeredcargo handling workers, administrative wing and dock safety units are workingunder this department. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 34
  35. 35. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT(iv) Management services division: Management service division of the part is administered by trafficdepartment. Its functions include preparing presentations as a part of the businessdevelopment to highlight the achievements of the port to various port users, tradeand shippers. Besides, this division prepares review reports on various operationalparameters and monitors the port operation to reduce non working time andimprove the turnaround time of the vessels called at the port. Deputy Director isthe head of the port. Deputy Director is the head of the M.S.D. preceded by otherstaff.(v) Marine department: The following are the function of marine department:--General conservancy of this port.  Ensure safety by providing fire fighting arrangements.  Providing pilots for pilot age of vessels.  Providing tugs and launches to vessels at distress or availing port facility.Maintain tugs and all floating crafts in a good condition for service. The DeputyConservator exercises the overall control over the Marine Department. He is heldresponsible for crisis management, vessel related charges such as port dues, pilotage etc.(vi) Administration department: The personal management and administration co-ordination which includesarrangements of legal, welfare, labour, public, industrial relations are under the SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 35
  36. 36. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTcontrol of this department. The onsite training programs through the NationalInstitute of Port Management (NIPM) and India Institute of Port Management(IIPM) to officers and employees are arranged by port and managed byadministration. The secretary exercises the overall control over the administrationdepartment.(vii) Mechanical engineering department: The maintenance and operation of all mechanical equipments, installation ofcargo handling equipments, staff cars, electrical installation, port workshop andcentral stores are some of the functions of this department. The Chief MechanicalEngineer is the head of the department.(viii) Medical department: This department is headed by a Chief Medical Officer, who is a professionaldoctor. Services provided by the Medical Department are:-  Port health care service.  Round the clock services including ambulance van facilities available in the port trust hospital.  Providing first aid facilities in wharf, workshops etc. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 36
  38. 38. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW OF LITERATURE A review of literature on evaluation of training was conducted to identify methods of effectiveness evaluation for training programs. Five definitions of evaluation were identified in the literature.Kirkpatrick (1971)Kirkpatrick‟s first level of measurement, reaction, is defined as how well thetrainees liked the training program. The second measurement level, learning, isdesignated as the determination of what knowledge, attitudes, and skills werelearned in the training. The third measurement level is defined as behavior.Behavior outlines a relationship of learning (the previous measurement le vel) tothe actualization of doing. Kirkpatrick recognized a big difference betweenknowing principles and techniques and using those principles and techniques onthe job. The fourth measurement level, results, is the expected outcomes of mosteducational training programs such as reduced costs, reduced turnover andabsenteeism, reduced grievances, improved profits or morale, and increasedquality and quantity of production.Paquet,Kasl, Weinstein, & Waite, (1987).One study was found by a major corporation that measured change in productivityand ROI of a training program. CIGNA Corporation‟s corporate managementdevelopment and training department, which provides training for employees ofCIGNA Corporation‟s operating subsidiaries, initiated an evaluation program toprove management training made a business contribution. The research questionposed was, “Does management training result in improved productivity in the SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 38
  39. 39. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT manager‟s workplace?” The team conducting the research identified that data collection needed to be built into the training program for optimal data gathering. If managers could use the evaluation data for their own benefit as part of their training, they would be more likely to cooperate.Paulet & Moult, 1987 British Airways assessed the effectiveness of the Managing People First (MPF)training by measuring the value shift, commitment, and empowerment of thetrainees. An in-depth interview was used to measure the action potential (energygenerated in the participants by the course) and level of action as a result of thecourse. A want level was used to measure the action potential and a do level for theaction. Each measurement was assigned a value of high, medium, or low.However, high, medium, and low were not defined.Robert (1988) in his study “The Pygmalion Effect” personal journal describesthe “Pygmalion Effect” or the “Behavior Science Principle” which states that anemployees‟ success is directly related to the company‟s expectation. Goodmanagement training practice is discussed. Such as recognizing employeespotential for improved performance showing confidence in the staff marinating anin-going dialogue setting, high performance standards complimenting, criticizingconstructively and with empathy, helping people advance and overcome self-defects.Alliger and Horowitz (1989) Numerous studies reported use of components of the Kirkpatrick Model;however, no study was found that applied all four levels of the model. Althoughlevel one is the least complex of the measures of evaluation developed by SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 39
  40. 40. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTKirkpatrick, no studies were found that reported use of level one as a sole measureof training. One application of the second level of evaluation, knowledge, wasreported by. In this study the IBM Corporation incorporated knowledge tests intointernally developed training. To ensure the best design, IBM conducted a study toidentify the optimal test for internally developed courses. Four separate testscomposed of 25 questions each were developed based on ten key learningcomponents. Four scoring methods were evaluated including one that used aunique measure of confidence. The confidence measurement assessed howconfident the trainee was with answers given.Bushnell (1990) also created a modification to the Kirkpatrick Model byidentifying a four-step process of evaluation. Bushnell‟s model included evaluationof training from the development through the delivery and impact. Step oneinvolved the analysis of the System Performance Indicators that included thetrainee‟s qualifications, instructor abilities, instructional materials, facilities, andtraining dollars. Step two involved the evaluation of the development process thatincluded the plan, design, development, and delivery. Step three was defined asoutput which equated to the first three levels of the Kirkpatrick Model. Step threeinvolves trainees‟ reactions, knowledge and skills gained, and improved jobperformance. Bushnell separated outcomes or results of the training into the fourthstep. Outcomes were defined as profits, customer satisfaction, and productivity.This model was applied by IBM‟s global education network, although specificresults were not found in the literature.Phillips (1991) stated the Kirkpatrick Model was probably the most well knownframework for classifying areas of evaluation. This was confirmed in 1997 whenthe America Society for Training and Development (ASTD) assessed thenationwide prevalence of the importance of measurement and evaluation to human SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 40
  41. 41. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTresources department (HRD) executives by surveying a panel of 300 HRDexecutives from a variety of types of U.S. organizations. Survey results indicatedthe majority (81%) of HRD executives attached some level of importance toevaluation and over half (67%) used the Kirkpatrick Model. The most frequentlyreported challenge was determining them impact of the training (ASTD, 1997).Lookatch (1991) and ASTD (2002) reported that only one in ten organizationsattempted to gather any results-based evaluation. In 1952, Donald Kirkpatrick(1996) conducted doctoral research to evaluate a supervisory training program.Kirkpatrick‟s goal was to measure the participants‟ reaction to the program, theamount of learning that took place, the extent of behavior change after participantsreturned to their jobs, and any final results from a change in behavior achieved byparticipants after they returned to work.Wagner & Roland, (1992). Over 20 organizations and 5,000 participants werestudied. Three measures were used to determine behavioral changes. Measure onewas a questionnaire completed by participant s both before and after training. Thesecond measure was supervisory reports completed on the functioning of workgroups before and after training. The third measure was interviews with managers,other than the immediate supervisor, to obtain reactions to individual and work-group performance after an OBERT program. Results reported showed nosignificant changes in behavior.Hopkins (1995)There are several ways managers can use professional development to increase thecompetence, skills, and leadership capacity of their employees. One way to do thisinvolves managers encouraging employees to pursue continuing education SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 41
  42. 42. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTopportunities and/or empowering employees through various leadershipopportunities within the organization.Singh has conducted a study on “Attitude Change through Training” in 1998.The study was conducted with the thirty five officers from different central/stategovernment/ public sector units/ nationalized banks. And the study was conductedto explore the impact of importing behavioral skill through training programmeresulting impersonalized attitude and co-operative attitude. Results reveal thattraining led to change in attitudes. Experimental training and belief in the source ofcommunication, facilitated attitude change.Kirkpatrick, (1998)From Kirkpatrick‟s doctoral research, the concept of the four Kirkpatrickmeasurement levels of evaluation emerged. While writing an article about trainingin 1959, Kirkpatrick (1996) referred to these four measurement levels as the foursteps of a training evaluation. It is unclear even to Kirkpatrick how these four stepsbecame known as the Kirkpatrick Model, but this description persists today). Asreported in the literature, this model is most frequently applied to eithereducational or technical training.Holli and Calabrese (1998) defined evaluation as comparisons of an observedvalue or quality to a standard or criteria of comparison. Evaluation is the process offorming value judgments about the quality of programs, products, and goals.Kirkpatrick (1998) recommended that as many as possible of the four levels ofevaluation be conducted. In order to make the best use of organizational resources SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 42
  43. 43. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTof time, money, materials, space, equipment, and manpower, continued efforts areneeded to assess all levels of effectiveness of training programs. Trainers from alldisciplines should develop evaluation plans for training and share the results ofthese initiatives.Jan (1999) in his study “Training and Development” reveals that a majority oftraining programme relay that a majority of training programme relay on westerntechnique. Traditional Vedic approaches to knowledge focusing on the relation ofthe athma, pure consciousness serves as the creativity and intelligence should beviewed as an alternative approach to conduct training.Warr, Allan and Birdie (1999) evaluated a two-day technical training courseinvolving 123 mo tor-vehicle technicians over a seven- month period in alongitudinal study using a variation of the Kirkpatrick Model. The main objectiveof this study was to demonstrate that training improved performance, therebyjustifying the investment in the training as appropriate. Warr et al.(1999) suggestedthat the levels in the Kirkpatrick Model may be interrelated. They investigated sixtrainee features and one organizational characteristic that might predict outcomesat each measurement level. The six trainee features studied were learningmotivation, confidence about the learning task, learning strategies, technicalqualifications, tenure, and age. The one organizational feature evaluated wastransfer climate which was defined as the extent to which the learning from thetraining was actually applied on the job.Boulmetis and Dutwin (2000) defined evaluation as the systematic process ofcollecting and analyzing data in order to determine whether and to what degreeobjectives were or are being achieved. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 43
  44. 44. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTPhillips and Pulliam (2000) reported an additional measure of trainingeffectiveness,return on investment (ROI), was used by companies because of thepressures placed on Human Resource Departments to produce measures of outputfor total quality management (TQM) and continuous quality improvements (CQI)and the threat of outsourcing due to downsizing. Great debate was found in thetraining and development literature about the use of ROI measures of trainingprograms. Many training and development professionals believed that ROI wastoo difficult and unreliable a measure to use for training evaluation (Barron,1997).A study was conducted by HUMAN CAPITAL (2001); a leading pesticidescompany provided excellent training for sales executives on selling techniques.The trainees felt that they could make use of the selling techniques with greatadvantage in the market place. Regional managers made no efforts to follow upnew ideas and suggestions. Consequently, sales executives were unable to adapttechniques learned during the training program.Schalock (2001) defined effectiveness evaluation as the determination of theextent to which a program has met its stated performance goals and objectives.Stufflebeam (2001) defined evaluation as a study designed and conducted to assistsome audience to assess an objects merit and worth. Stufflebeams (2001)definition of evaluation was used to assess the methods of evaluation found in thisliterature review. The reason for selecting Stufflebeam‟s definition was based onthe applicability of the definition across multiple disciplines. Based on thisdefinition of evaluation, the Kirkpatrick Model was the most frequently reportedmodel of evaluation. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 44
  45. 45. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTRadhakrishna, Plank, and Mitchell (2001) used a learning style instrument(LSI) and a demographic profile in addition to reaction measures and learningmeasures. The three training objectives were to assess knowledge gainedthrough a Web-based training, to determine participant reaction to Web-basedmaterial and Listserv discussions, and to describe both the demographic profileand the learning style of the participants. The evaluation of the training beganwith an on- line pretest and an on- line LSI. The pretest included sevendemographic questions. The LSI, pretest and posttest, and LSI questionnairewere paired by the agents social security numbers. Fifty- five agents of theavailable (106) agents completed all four instruments and were included in thisstudy.According to Heathfield (2001) there six tips to which helps training anddevelopment that will transfer skills back to the job. Provide information for the employee about exactly what training session will involve, prior to the training. Explain what is expected of the employees at the training session. Make clear to the employee that the training is OMS responsibility and she needs to take the training seriously. Make sure that internal or external training providers supply pre-training assignments. Reading or thought- provoking exercises in advance of the session promote thoughtful consideration of training content. Exercises or self assessment, provided and scored in advance of the session, save precious training time for interaction and new information. Train supervisors and managers either first or simultaneously so they know and understand the skills and information provided in the training session. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 45
  46. 46. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Ask supervisors to meet with employees prior to the training session. Determine if key learning points are important for the organization in return for the investment of his time in the training. Identify any obstacles the employee may expect to experience as he transfers the training to the workplace.Fancsali (2002) Recommends that staff development occur on an ongoing basis.More specifically, the National Staff Development Council suggests that“educators” spend at least a quarter of their work time on staff developmentactivities (Richardson 1997).Bozionelos (2002)Placing employees in staff mentorship positions as mentors is another method thathas been identified as increasing employees‟ skills and efficiency, while alsoenhancing their reputation among managers, which can lead to greater careersuccess.Astroth (2004)Recommend that training should address what the position entails and the skillsnecessary for competency.Jackson (2006)With regard to scheduling staff development, suggests that the timing of staffdevelopment can affect the success of the development program, itself.Consequently, she recommends that the timing of the training schedule bedeveloped with consideration of staff needs and wants. In terms of strategies foreffective implementation. As for the ideal format of staff development,recommends that trainings focus on the “main points” and take into accountdiverse learning modalities, by including “hands on” activities as well as time fordiscussion and questions. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 46
  47. 47. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTCurrent Training Needs for StaffGiven the importance of a strong staff in shaping successful youth developmentprograms, Astroth and Taylor (2004) report on the National Collaboration forYouth‟s (NCY) efforts to define what successful youth workers are doing.Essentially, NCY reviewed existing competencies circulating in the field, soughtfeedback from many youth-serving organizations 8 and their staff, and ultimatelydecided on a set of ten core competencies that “entry-level workers, including part-time and full-time staff and volunteers, should possess when they begin a job orshould acquire during the first few years to be effective when working with youth,”According to a report published by the Community Network for YouthDevelopment, the fast growing need for skilled youth workers highlights the factthat there is little professional development support for these workers. Little to nonew skill development, low compensation and unclear career ladders may forceyouth workers to move from job to job in order to obtain higher wages and/or newskills and creating barriers for recruitment. Furthermore, this high turnoverdetrimentally affects the youth they serve. California is among several statescreating professional support groups, youth development worker mentorshipprograms, standards, core competencies for training, opportunities for highereducation, and clearer career pathways for youth workers. In fact, the CNYDreport, “Moving from Knowledge to Action in San Francisco: Creating aComprehensive Youth Work Professional Workforce System” lists a number of BayP.C. TRIPATHI AND P.N.REDDY (2007)After the selection of people for various jobs, the next function of management isto arrange for their training and development. This is because a person, however SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 47
  48. 48. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTcarefully selected is not moulded to specifications and rarely meets the demands ofhis job adequately. Formerly, it was thought that the training of personnel wasunnecessary on the ground that the new employees would gradually pick up all theparticulars of the job. But as the processes and techniques of production arebecoming more and more complicated, it is being increasingly released that theformal training is very important not only for new recruit‟s bus also for existingemployees. Training function, in fact, has become the corner stone of soundmanagement.(Principles of Management page no 176 3rd edition Tata McGraw-Hill publishing company limited New Delhi.)K ASWATHAPPA (2008) In simple terms, training and development refer to the imparting of specificskills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. “More clearly, training anddevelopment may be understood as any attempt to improve current or futureemployee performance by increasing an employee‟s ability to perform throughlearning, usually by changing the employee‟s attitude or increasing his or her skillsand knowledge. The need for training and development is determined by theemployee‟s performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training anddevelopment need = standard performance – Actual performance.” (Humanresource management page no 206, 5th edition Tata McGraw-Hill publishingcompany limited New Delhi.)According to Dr. N. Venkateshwara Rao Acharya Nagarjuna University, Aneed for HRD, HRD times oct.(2006) Pp.23: training is another sub system. Itrefers to the organizations efforts to improve the individual‟s ability to perform ajob or organizational role. Training in often conducted in order to improveproductivity, quality of performance reduce in efficiency and minimize the SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 48
  49. 49. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTaccidents it is advisable for ever organization to arrange for its systematic trainingfor its employees.According to Arun Monappa and Mirz saiyadain, personal management,(1990) volume 2 Himalaya publishing house, Pp 179-180: the primary concern ofon organization in its viability, and hence its efficiency and if the organization doesnot respond to this pressure it man find itself rapidly losing whatever share of themarket it has, employee training, therefore imports specific skills and knowledge toemployees in order that they contribute to the organization efficiency, and be ableto cope with the pressures of changing environment .Based on study conducted by Dr.K.N.Ramanuram, Annamalai Nagar, Managementrole in productivity HRD times may- (2006) Pp 31 denotes that training In a short-term process utilizing a systematic and organizing procedure by which non-managerial personal learn technical knowledge‟s and skills for a definite purposeof course, all the employees entering the enterprise could not at once learn a newtechnology. There in a need for adequate training to employees, it is sure andcertain that will increase per head productivity in the long run.Beyond Training: Training and DevelopmentCarter (2003) reported that training is generally defines as “ change in behavior” –Yet, how many trainers and managers forget that, using the term training only asapplicable to “ skills training”? What about the human element? What about thosevery same people we want to “train”? What about their individual beliefs,backgrounds, ideas, needs, and aspiration? In order to achieve long – term resultsthrough training, they broaden their vision to include people development as partof our strategic planning. Although training covers a broad range of subjects under SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 49
  50. 50. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTthe term “training” without linking it to development narrows our concept of thetraining function and leads us to failure.Cambell (1971), “Training courses are typically designed for a short – term,started set purpose, such as the operation of some piece of machinery, whiledevelopment involves a broader education for long – term purpose.”Scott (1970) He told about “Instruction can help employees increase their level ofperformance on their present assignment. Increased human performance oftendirectly leads to increased operational productivity and increased company profit. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 50
  52. 52. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGYThe research methods refer to the different methods which are used in researchstudies. So, before starting any research a preliminary plan has to be drawn out.The aim of the study and available resources should be understand at the outset. Research is common parlance refer to research for knowledge. It is an originalcontribution to the existing stock of knowledge. Making of its advancement it isthe help of study observation comparison and experiment. In this chapter theresearch present a clear idea about research methodology which is followed toconduct this study. The validity of any research lines to a great extent in the methodology is “Thesystematic and scientific description of how a particular study has been carriedout.” An enquiry would be neither if is done along certain methodological linesmethodology includes the generis of the study the objectives the universe. Thesampling technique adopted the tools of data collection the research design thelimitation of the study undertaken. The level of systematic research depend upon proper sampling, collection ofdata, keen observation of existing condition, classification and interpretation ofdata. At the end of formulation of relation suggestion and conclusion.Title of Study: The study which researcher has undertaken is “A study on Training andDevelopment”, with special reference to the NMPT, Mangalore. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 52
  53. 53. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTPROBLEM FORMULATION: Training is act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing aparticular job. Training is employed as techniques of control and also givesinformation for developing new skills of a job. The primary concern of anyorganization is to respond to this pressure, it may find itself rapidly losingwhatever share of the market it has. The employee training imparts specific skills and knowledge to the employees,so that they contribute to the organization efficiency and be able to cope with thepressure of a changing environment. Research methodology is a way tosystematically solve the problem. In order to find out the truth involved in orproblems, certain steps must be taken. In a certain order and the ordered steps arecalled a method. This research methodology is very essential.AIM OF THE STUDY: Aim of the researcher is to find out the level of satisfaction of employee and toknow about the different methods of training in the organization.Objective of Study:  To study the socio- demographic status of the respondents.  To study the various Training programmers provided to employees.  To understand the satisfaction levels of the employees towards Training programme.  To study the importance of Training in maintaining good human relation.  To understand the importance of Training in acquiring the skills and efficiency of employees. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 53
  54. 54. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT  To draw suggestion though interpretation of employees feedback for improvement of Training programme.HYPOTHESIS:  “Training is necessary for the overall development of any organization”.Universe of the study: The universe of this study includes 1557 employees of New Mangalore PortTrust. Employees presently working, among them research selected only 50respondents for the study. The researcher believes that this is the goodrepresentation of the universe.The purpose of the study: The purpose of the study is to gain more knowledge about Training andDevelopment to motivate the employees and to study about the trainingprogrammes provided to the employees of the organization.Sampling Technique: The researcher used the simple random sampling method to collecting data. Under simple random sampling every item of the universe has equal chance of inclusion in the sample. Researcher selected this type of sampling because it gives each event in the population an equal probability of being a sample.INCLUSION CRITERIA:  All the operational employees were taken for the study.  All the employees from various departments such as cargo handling Employees, Training department, Traffic department, Statistical and Research department. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 54
  55. 55. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTEXCLUSION CRITERIA:  Executive Employers and Employees are excluded from the study.  Dock workers are excluded from the study.RESEARCH DESIGN: The researcher adopted the descriptive research design for the study. Descriptionstudies aim at pertaining accurately the characteristics of particular group orsituation researcher wants to study the practice of training at NMPT. Thedescriptive research design helps to researcher to get a detailed study of practice oftraining facilities at NMPT, Mangalore.DATA COLLECTION: The data and information has been collected through two sources namelyprimary and secondary sources.Primary Data: The researcher collected data through questionnaire method the researchercollected responses from 50 employees belonging to various department of NMPT.Secondary Data: The secondary data collected with the help of research guide at NMPT byasking different details about the organization. Details were from annul reports,Company profile, Articles and reference books of NMPT and also from website ofNMPT.INSTRUMENT: Questionnaire method was used to collect the data from the respondents. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 55
  56. 56. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTDATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS: The information collected from the respondents through above mentioned methodhas been processed using relevant tools as mentioned bellow:Editing- Editing is done in two ways. Field editing is done to check the correction ofentries. This is done on the spot each day after the interview schedule, which arefield to check the correction of entries. Central editing is done for discarding anycomplete schedule or clarifying ambiguities in entries if the respondents are able tobe locating before moving off.Coding: The collected data through interview schedule has been arranged in theprocessing system in the numerical from. The numerical symbols have beenassigned to the variable which courses the proper evaluation. This method inanalysis by reducing the quantity of the data.Tabulation: Arrangement of data into concise and logical order is the next step. Percentageare worked out after grouping the data into seta and categories, charts and diagramwill be prepared where ever necessary. Limitations of the study: Every study has its own limitation due to unavailable circumstance.  The duration of the study is not sufficient for an in depth study.  The study is limited only to the employees of NMPT, Mangalore.  Collected the data within the work schedule.  All departments have not covered on the base of time and limitation and work procedure.  Study conducted only for academic purpose and self interest.  Within the time limitation the study has been conducted. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 56
  58. 58. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Analysis and interpretation are central steps in the research process involvesbreaking down existing complex factor into simple parts and putting the parttogether in new arrangement for the purpose interpretation. Thus the goal ofanalysis is to summaries the date in such a way that they provide answer to thequestions that the research interprets. Interpretation is the research for brooder means of research findings throughinterpretation the meaning and implementation becomes clear. Analysis it‟s not complete method interpretation and interpretation cannotproceed without analysis systematically so as to arrive and findings throughinterpretation these are two methods to analyze collected data one method throughgraphical figure representation and the other through table. SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 58
  59. 59. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTTable No. 1Sex of the Sl. Sex of the No of Per Respondents. No Respondents Respondents cent 01 Male 30 60.00 02 Female 20 40.00 Total 50 100.00 70% 60% 50% 40% 60% 30% 40% 20% 10% 0% Male Female SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 59
  60. 60. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTFrom the above Table out of total 50 respondents more than half 30 respondents(60.00 per cent) are male and remaining less than quarter 20 respondents (40.00per cent) are female. It is inferred from the above interpretation that majority 60 per centrespondents are male. Table No. 02 Age of the Respondents. Sl. Age of the Respondents No of the Per No Respondents cent 01 Below 20 years 00 00.00 02 21-25 years 00 00.00 03 26-30 years 04 08.00 04 31-40 years 13 26.00 05 Above 40years 33 66.00 Total 50 100.00 70% 60% 50% 40% 66% 30% 20% 26% 10% 8% 0% % % Belove 20 21-25 years 26-30 years 31-40 years Above 40 years years SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 60
  61. 61. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTFrom the above Table out of total 50 respondents, less than quarter 33 respondents(66.00 per cent) are belonging to the age group of above 40 years, 13 respondents(26.00 per cent) of them are between the age group of 31-40years, 04 respondents(08.00 per cent) of them are between 26-30 yearsIt is inferred from the above interpretation that Majority of the respondents arebelonging to the age group of 40 years and above. Table No. 03 Marital status of the Respondents. Sl. Marital status No of the Per No Respondents cent 01 Yes 21 42.00 02 No 29 58.00 Total 50 100.00 Yes No Yes 42% No 58% SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 61
  62. 62. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTFrom the above table show that among 50 respondents, more than half i.e. 29respondents (58.00 per cent) are Unmarried, and remaining 21 respondents (42.00per cent) are married.It clearly indicates from the above interpretation that, Majority of the employeesare Unmarried. Table No. 04 Educational Qualification. Sl. Educational No of the Per No Qualification Respondents cent 01 Undergraduate 26 52.00 02 Graduate 23 46.00 03 Master degree 01 02.00 04 ITI/Diploma 00 00.00 Total 50 100.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 62
  63. 63. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 52% 46% 2% 0% Undergraduate Graduate Master degree ITI/DiplomaAbove table shows that out of 50 respondents, just above the quarter i.e. 26(52.00per cent) of the respondents are Undergraduate are Graduate Holders, less than halfi.e. 23(46.00 per cent) of them are Master degree Holders, and remaining 1(2.00per cent) respondents are master degree holders.It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 26(52.00 per cent) of therespondents are Undergraduates. Table No. 05 Work experience Sl. Work experience No of the Per No Respondents cent 01 Below 1 years 01 02.00 02 1-5years 00 00.00 03 6-10 years 01 02.00 04 11-15 years 13 26.00 05 16-20 years 35 70.00 Total 50 100.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 63
  64. 64. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 70% 30% 20% 26% 10% 0% 2% 0% 2% Below 1years 1-5 years 6-10 years 11-15 years 16-20 yearsFrom above table out of total 50 respondents just more than half 35 respondents(70.00 per cent) have work experience of above 16-20 years, just above the quarter13 (26.00 per cent) respondents possess work experience of 11-15 years, 1 (2.00per cent) 0f them possess 6-10 years of work experience, and remaining 1 (2.00 percent) of the respondents have the work experience of 1 years.It is inferred the above analysis that majority 35 (70.00 per cent) have the workexperience of above 16-20 years. Table No. 06 Training programmes are conducted. Sl. Response of the No of the Per No Respondents Respondents cent 01 Monthly 07 14.00 02 Quarterly 09 18.00 03 Annually 34 68.00 Total 50 100.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 64
  65. 65. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 70% 68% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 14% 18% 10% 0% Monthly Quarterly AnnuallyFrom the above table out of 50 respondents, more than half i.e. 34 respondents(68.00 per cent) of the respondents are trained annually, 09 (18.00per cent) of themare trained quarterly, and remaining 07 (14.00 per cent) of the respondents aretrained monthly. It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 34 respondents (68.00 percent) often trained annually. Table No. 07 Necessary for the Training Programme. Sl. Response of Respondents No of the Per No Respondents cent 01 Fully necessary 16 32.00 02 Necessary to some extent 23 46.00 03 Not necessary 09 18.00 04 Not at all 02 04.00 Total 50 100.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 65
  66. 66. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTFrom the above table out of total 50 respondents, just below half 23 (46.00 percent) respondents opinioned that training programme is necessary to some extent,16 (32.00 per cent) respondents need training programmes, 09 (18.00 per cent)respondents feel training programmes are not necessary and remaining 02 (04.00per cent) respondents feel training programme are not at all necessary.It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 23 (46.00 per cent) respondentsopinioned that training programme is necessary to some extent. Table.No.08 Opinion regarding duration of Training programme. Sl. Response of No of the Per No Respondents Respondents cent 01 Adequate 09 18.00 02 Inadequate 13 26.00 03 Can be improved 28 56.00 Total 50 100.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 66
  67. 67. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 60% 56% 50% 40% 30% 26% 18% 20% 10% 0% Adequate Inadequate Can be improvedFrom the above table we can see that 28 (56.00 per cent) of the respondents saythat duration of training programme can be improved, where 13 (26.00 per cent) ofthe respondents feel that training duration is inadequate and the rest of therespondents 09 (18.00 per cent) reported that duration of the programme isadequate.It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 28 (56.00 per cent) respondentssay that duration of training programme can be improved. Table No. 09 Opinion to get trained in the areas of their preference. Sl. Response of No of the Per No Respondents Respondents cent 01 Yes 37 74.00 02 No 13 26.00 Total 50 100.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 67
  68. 68. A STUDY ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 26% Yes NO 74%From above table out of 50 respondents, more than half 37 (74.00 per cent) of therespondents opinioned that they are trained in their preference areas and remaining13 (26.00 per cent) of the respondents do not agree to the above mentionedstatement.It is inferred from the above analysis that majority 37 (74.00 per cent) of therespondents opinioned that they are trained in their preference areas. Table No.10 Kind of Training getting from the organization. Sl. Response of No of the Per No Respondents Respondents cent 01 Technical 06 12.00 02 Manual 04 08.00 03 Official 34 68.00 04 Safety 06 12.00 SRINIVAS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MANGALORE Page 68