DHAN LESTER L. QUIMSONII-CHARLESMRS.LALAINE GALUTIRA
Mahatma Gandhi Childhood/Education Mohandas Gandhi was born in Porbandar, Gujarat India in October 2, 1869 but his family moved to the town of Rajkot when he was only seven years old. He was the youngest of four children in his family. Gandhi was a member of the Hindu religion which meant he wasnt allowed to eat meat or drink wine. To Gandhi his religion and beliefs were very important because he never broke his promise about eating meat, drinking wine and other forbidden things throughout his life. Even when he was small his brothers offered him meat but he refused to try it which was the best decision he made. This action showed that even though Gandhi was small he was responsible, respectful and loyal to his religion.
Childhood Gandhi attended an all boy school when he was about seven years old in Rajkot. Once he finished elementary school Gandhi attended a high school in Rajkot with other boys as well. As he was finishing high school Gandhi began to wonder were he would attend collage. He wanted to study in a different place besides India where he had lived all his life. His mother was really worried about his decision especially since they didnt really have a lot of money to pay for his career. But she still supported her son to do what he wanted to do and that was to study law in London. So in 1818 Mohandas Gandhi left his country and his family to study law in London.
There Gandhi adapted to the countrys way of dressing and other things involving school and work. But he never broke the promise he made to his mother and that was never to eat meat, drink whine, or do anything that was against his religion during his career in London. All Gandhi did in London was focus in his career and the work he had to accomplish just like he promised his mother and himself. After a four year career Gandhi finally returned to India in 1891. With his return a bad surprise was waiting for him, sadly when he was studyng in London to have a good education and make his family proud, his mother passed away shortly after he left.
Kasturba Gandhi Kastürbā Gāndhi (Gujarati: Hindi: April 1869 – 22 February 1944) was the wife of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, marrying him in an arranged marriage in 1883. Early life and background Born to wealthy businessman Gokuladas Kapadia of Porbandar, Kasturba was married to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi through arrangement. Gandhi was thirteen and Kasturba was fourteen when they married. When Gandhi left to study in London in 1888, she remained in Indiato raise their newborn son Harilal. She had three more sons: Manilal (1892), Ramdas (1897), and Devdas (1900). Kasturba Gandhi joined her husband in political protests. She traveled to South Africa in 1897 to be with her husband. From 1904 to 1914, she was active in the Phoenix Settlement near Durban. During the 1913 protest against working conditions for Indians in South Africa, Kasturbai was arrested and sentenced to three months in a hard labor prison. Later, in India, she sometimes took her husbands place when he was under arrest. In 1915, when Gandhi returned to India to support indigo planters, Kasturba accompanied him. She taught hygiene, discipline, reading and writing.
Gandhi’s Children Gandhi and Kasturba had four sons – Harilal (1888-1948) who was born in India, Manilal (1892-1956) born in India, Ramdas (1897-1969) born in South Africa, and Devdas (1900-1957) born in South Africa. Mahatma Gandhi’s sons resented their upbringing as disciples. They were not, for example, allowed the formal education which Mohandas himself had received and which would have provided them with their own choice of livelihood.
Gandhi’s Contributions The person who will head the list of people for their contribution to India it will be none other than Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Not just because he is the Father of the Nation but his immense contribution to the country not just in terms of struggle for freedom but his ideologies and thoughts which changed the map of our country. When he took the charge of Indian National Congress it was a turning point in its history due to his enormous following, his spiritual powers and his non-violent means of fighting. Gandhi introduced the concept of Satyagraha. Which appealed to the common masses who were largely pious and religious. Gandhi adhered to a strictly non-violent protest. No matter what happened he never diverted from his ideologies and every time he was successful. Gandhi always followed the path of non-violence or Ahimsa. His tactic of passive resistance or Satyagraha was his weapon to fight against the British rule. Swaraj for Gandhi meant self-rule, as much a moral and personal ethic, the self-rule of an individual over his own impulses and weaknesses, as the political objective of a people struggling rightfully to be free - an ambiguity which Gandhi was repeatedly to exploit during his Non-cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movements.
Gandhi and his ideologies were quite successful among the common masses. He planned to win leadership of those organizations, which fitted his grand purpose, the achievement of Swaraj. Gandhi made very valuable contribution, firstly, to frame the secular agenda within the parameters of the Indian cultural tradition, and subscribed to the dictum of Sarva dharma sambhava i.e. equal respect for all religions. Secondly, he gave an indigenous content to the concept of nationhood, arguing that it was the common heritage of a highly pluralistic, multicultural civilization, which provided the necessary clue to hold the Indian people together, as against the Western concept of nations being one race, one religion and one language. He always believed in the idea of unity in diversity. All his life he battled against the cult of violence and war; against cruelty of man to man; against industrialism and domination of man by machine; inequality and discrimination. His fight to give equal rights to each and every person of the society irrespective of which strata they belong made him immortal among us. He tried to attained moksha by service to mankind. Gandhi portrays a multi-faceted moral and spiritual messiah. His tireless endeavor to make people understand the basic happiness of life is to be happy with whatever you have, thus showing the only way to save the world.
The Salt March(1930) In 1930 in order to help free India from British control, Mahatma Gandhi proposed a non- violent march protesting the British Salt Tax, continuing Gandhis pleas for civil disobedience. The Salt Tax essentially made it illegal to sell or produce salt, allowing a complete British monopoly. Since salt is necessary in everyones daily diet, everyone in India was affected. The Salt Tax made it illegal for workers to freely collect their own salt from the coasts of India, making them buy salt they couldnt really afford.
Before embarking on the 240-mile journey from Sabarmati to Dandi, Gandhi sent a letter to the Viceroy himself, forewarning their plans of civil disobedience: If my letter makes no appeal to your heart, on the eleventh day of this month I shall proceed with such co-workers of the Ashram as I can take, to disregard the provisions of the Salt Laws. I regard this tax to be the most iniquitous of all from the poor mans standpoint. As the Independence movement is essentially for the poorest in the land, the beginning will be made with this evil. To deliver this letter, Gandhi chose an Englishman who believed in the Indian movement in efforts to promote non-violence. The Viceroy wrote back, explaining that the British would not change their policy: "[Gandhi was] contemplating a course of action which is clearly bound to involve violation of the law and danger to the public peace."
As promised, on March 12, 1930, Gandhi and 78 male satyagrahis (activists of truth and resolution) started their 23-day-long journey. Women werent allowed to march because Gandhi felt women wouldnt provoke law enforcers like their male counterparts, making the officers react violently to non-violence. Along the march, the satyagrahis listened to Gandhis favorite bhajan sung by Pandit Paluskar, a Hindustani vocalist; the roads were watered and softened, and fresh vegetation was thrown along the path. Gandhi spoke to each village they passed, and more and more men joined the march. On April 5, 1930 Gandhi and his satyagrahis reached the coast. After prayers were offered, Gandhi spoke to the large crowd. He picked up a tiny lump of salt, breaking the law. Within moments, the satyagrahis followed Gandhis passive defiance, picking up salt everywhere along the coast. A month later, Gandhi was arrested and thrown into prison, already full with fellow protestors. The Salt March started a series of protests, closing many British shops and British mills. A march to Dharshana resulted in horrible violence. The non-violent satyagrahis did not defend themselves against the clubs of policemen, and many were killed instantly. The world embraced the satyagrahis and their non-violence, and eventually enabled India to gain their freedom from Britain.
Gandhi’s Death On January 30th, 1948, he was walking slowly from his home to attend a prayer meeting when a thirty-nine years old Hindu called Nathuram Godse who mistakably thought Gandhi was harming the Hindus by being friendly to Muslims shot the Great Soul after respectfully bowing to him. A few minutes later a man came out to the waiting crowd and announced that the little old man who sacrificed with all he had for his country, who reshaped the lives of many, who changed the path of the world, who inspired - and still will inspire- mankind till the end of the world was dead.
That night the Indian leader "Pandit Nehru" spoke over the radio to the people and said, "Friends and Comrades, the light has gone out of our lives and there is darkness everywhere. I do not know what to tell you and how to say it. Our beloved leader, Bapu as we call him, the Father of the Nation, is no more. Perhaps I am wrong to say that. Nevertheless, we will not see him again as we have seen him for these many years. We will not run to him for advice and seek solace from him, and that is a terrible blow, not to me only but to millions and millions of this country."
1. Accumulate little Gandhi believed in possessing little except the clothes he wore and some utensils for cooking and eating. He used to give away or auction any gift that was ever given to him. It may not be possible these days for us to get down to less than ten possessions like Gandhi did, but start cutting down to bare basics. Recycle, give things away, or auction your unwanted possessions. Take up the 100 thing challenge and see if you can get down to owning less than 100 or even less than 50 things. We tend to spend a lot of time and energy looking after our possessions. By having fewer things to possess and look after, your life naturally becomes simpler. 2. Eat simple food Gandhi never had a problem with being overweight. He followed a strict vegetarian diet and frequently cooked his own simple food, which was locally produced. He ate this simple food from a small bowl, a reminder to eat moderately, and at the same time he ate mindfully, often accompanied by prayers. So eat simply and moderately. 3. Dress simply. Gandhi wore simple clothes that conveyed his message. There is this anecdotal story of the time when Gandhi met the King of Great Britain in London and he wore his simple wrap around cloth. A journalist asked Gandhi, “Mr Gandhi, did you feel under-dressed when you met the King?” Gandhi replied, “The King was wearing enough clothes for both of us!”
Though it may not be practical to weave your own cloth and make your own clothes, you can simplify your life by dressing for comfort, not to impress. A simple hairstyle can shorten your grooming routine. You could even go as far as Gandhi and Leo Babauta and shave your hair off. 4. Lead a simple, stress-free life Gandhi never got stressed. He meditated daily and spent hours in reflection and prayer. Though he was a world leader and idolised by millions, he continued to lead a simple life with few distractions and commitments. He would even interrupt his political meetings to go off and play with children. And despite all his needs being taken care off, Gandhi still insisted on doing his own simple things. He advocated self-sufficiency and simple work. So don’t take life too seriously — remember to take time out to play. 5. Let your life be your message Though he was a prolific writer and powerful speaker, in private Gandhi spoke very quietly and only when necessary. He was also very punchy and concise in his writing. He preferred to let his life do the talking for him. By living a simple life, Gandhi was able to devote his life to his chosen higher purpose. He was totally focussed on his commitment to his people and the world. Even if you don’t wish to be another Gandhi, your life will be much simpler and happier by following his life lessons. “If one has wealth, it does not mean that it should be thrown away and wife and children should be turned out of doors. It simply means that one must give up attachment of these things!” ~Gandhi