Structured Cabling System A Structured Cabling System is a cabling andconnectivity products that integrates data, voice, videoand various management system of a building
The Six Sub-Systems of a Structured Cabling System1. Building Entrance2. Equipment Room3. Telecommunication Room4. Backbone5. Horizontal6. Work Area
Entrance Facility The entrance facility is the point where outside cabling and services interface with backbone cabling.
Equipment RoomThe equipment room is the area of the building whereincoming cabling interfaces with electronic equipment. It isalso the main cross-connect (MC) to the backbone cabling.
Telecommunications RoomTelecommunications Room is the area within a building thathouses telecommunications/networking equipment, as wellas the cross-connection (patch panels) between backboneand horizontal cabling i.e. Horizontal Cross-connect (HC).
BackboneBackbone consists of the pathways and cabling that provide theinterconnection between the Building Entrance/EquipmentRoom and the Telecommunication Rooms. It consists of themechanical terminations for backbone-to-horizontal cross-connects.
Horizontal cableHorizontal consists of the pathway and cabling thatextends between the Telecommunications Room and theWork Area
Work AreaWork Area is where personal computers, telephones,printers, etc are located. It also includes equipment cordsthat connect the device to the horizontal cable.
Elements/Equipments Used In StructuredCabling System : Figure 1 Figure 1
Cabling Used in the System• The most common (and lowest cost) twisted pair cabling is unshielded twisted pair (UTP). It is produced in 4 pair, 24/25 pair and 96/100 pair sizes.• A foil shielded version of the twisted pair is FTP. An aluminum shield is wrapped around all pairs under a PVC sheath. The purpose of FTP is to prevent high intensity electromagnetic interference entering the cable.• A version of twisted pair cable in which the individual pairs are shielded from each other using an aluminum foil around each pair is called shielded twisted pair or STP or ScTP. The purposes of individually shielding pairs is to reduce cross-talk interference between the pairs.
Categories of Transmission and Classes of Operation• To distinguish between the various levels of transmission quality in both cable and termination components, the term Category is used.• Ordinary telephone (voice) quality twisted pair is Category 1 and it only supports low bandwidth classes of operation such as the telephone/fax/basic internet connection.• Category 5 is commonly used in 4 pair structured cabling of office floors to the desk outlets.• Category 5 supports 1000Mb/s data rates on a bandwidth of 100 MHz using all 4 pairs of a 4 pair cable; typical system operation is Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mb/s).• Category 6 cable supports a bandwidth of 250 MHz and operation of Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mb/s) on 2 of the 4 pairs of a 4 pair cable using them as go/return pairs.• Category 5 and Category 6 twisted pair cables are available in both UTP and FTP.• Category 7 twisted pair is under development expected to be
Cable Characteristic(s) Determining its Category :The primary determinate of transmission quality is thefrequency and accuracy of the twist rate of each pair as wellas the uniformity and accuracy of its physical construction.Category 1 twisted pair (ordinary telephone cable) hasa very loose and infrequent pair twist.Category 5/6 has a very frequent pair twist with uniquetwist rates for each pair. A critical aspect of installation isto maintain these pair twist to within 10-13mm of theactual wire termination points at sockets and not todisrupt pair twists and wire geometry through poorinstallation practices.
Cabling Management :Good cable management is important and must adheretoday to local codes, EIA/TIA, and the National ElectricalCode (NEC) rules.Proper hooks and cable trays should be used.
Benefits of Structured Cabling System• Redundancy at design stage reduces downtime & repair time• Concealed cabling• Ease of fault location & repair• Flexibility, expandability & modular connecting platform• Ease of moves, adds and changes• Enhanced end-use understanding and control• Continuous product support and warranty• Significant long term cost containment