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Hyperloop transportation system

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Hyperloop transportation system developed by Elon musk of Tesla group and spacex. It aims to reduce travel time between two cities with the help of capsules travelling in a controlled vaccum system .

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Hyperloop transportation system

  1. 1. Hyperloop Transportation System Dhananjay Kumar Debarshi Das VI Sem. Mechanical Engg. Reva University
  2. 2. Introduction Hyperloop is a conceptual transportation system designed to lower cost and travel time relative to current high speed rail system. E.g. Bullet train and TGV Elon Musk and the team of engineers from Tesla motors and the Space X proposed the idea in August 2013 This concept deviates from the existing high speed rail designs by eliminating the rails ,enclosing the passenger pod in a tube under the partial vacuum and suspending the pod on air bearings. Propulsion is handled by a set of linear electromagnetic accelerators mounted to the tube
  3. 3. Existing conventional modes of transportation of people consists of four unique types : rail, road, Water , and air. These modes of transport tend to be either relatively slow and expensive. Hyperloop is a new mode of transport that seeks to change this trend by being both fast and Inexpensive for people and goods This new transportation system should be • Safer • Faster • Economical • Convenient • Immune to weather • Self powered • Resistant to earthquakes • Less hindrance to existing infrastructure
  4. 4. Hyperloop consists of a low pressure tube with capsules that are transported at both low and high speeds throughout the length of the tube. The capsules are supported on a cushion of air, featuring pressurized air and aerodynamic lift. The capsules are accelerated via magnetic linear accelerator affixed at various stations on the low pressure tube with rotors contained in each capsule. Passengers may enter and exit Hyperloop at stations located either at the ends of the tube, or branches along the tube length
  5. 5. Basic components of Hyperloop  CAPSULE / POD 1. Compressor 2. Suspension 3. On-board power 4. Interior 5. Propulsion  ENERGY STORAGE COMPONENTS 1. Battery array of lithium ion cells • TUBE 1. Geometry 2. Tube constructions 3. Station constructions 4. Pylons and Tunnels
  6. 6. Components of Hyper loop
  7. 7. The capsule in a Hyperloop is an enclosed component in a reduced pressure tube Features • Operating pressure around the capsule is 100 pascals, such that it reduces the drag force of the air by 1000 times relative to sea level conditions • A hard vacuum is avoided as vacuums are expensive and difficult to maintain compared with low pressure solutions • Capsule can travel at maximum speed of 760mph (1220 kmph at 20°C)
  8. 8. • Tube air is compressed with a compression ratio of 20:1 via an axial compressor • 60% of air is bypassed a. The air travels via a narrow tube near bottom of the capsule to the tail b. A nozzle at the tail expands the flow generating thrust to mitigate some of the small amounts of aerodynamic and bearing drag • Up to 0.2 kg/s of air is cooled and compressed a. This air is stored in on-board composite over wrap pressure vessels b. The stored air is eventually consumed by air bearings to maintain distance between the capsule and tube walls • The compressor is powered by 436hp on board electric motor a. An estimated 1500kg of batteries provide 45 minutes of on-board compressor power b. Batteries are changed at each stop and charged at the stations
  9. 9. Block diagram of compressor components
  10. 10. Externally pressurised and aerodynamic air bearings are well suited for the Hyperloop due to exceptionally high stiffness, which is required to maintain stability at high speeds. When the gap height between sky and the tube wall is reduced the flow field in the gap exhibits a highly non linear reaction resulting in large restoring pressures. The increased pressures pushes the sky away from the world allowing to return to its nominal ride height. While a stiff air bearing suspension is superb for reliability and safety, it could create considerable discomfort for passengers on board. To account for this, each ski is integrated into an Independent mechanical suspension Air Suspension
  11. 11. The passenger capsule power system includes an estimated 2500 kg of batteries to power the capsule systems in addition to the compressor motor and coolant In order to propel the vehicle at the required travel speed an advanced linear motor system is developed to accelerate the capsule above 1220 kmph at a maximum of 1G comfort. The moving motor element (rotor) will be located on the vehicle for weight savings and power requirements while the tube will incorporate the stationary motor element (stator) which powers the vehicle
  12. 12. Linear Motor
  13. 13. • It is specifically designed with passenger safety and comfort in mind • The seats conform well to the body to maintain comfort during high speed accelerations • Overall interior weight is to be near (2500 kg) including the seats, restraint systems door panels, luggage compartments, and entertainment displays • Overall cost of the interior components is targeted not more than 255,000$
  14. 14. • Hyperloop route consists of a partially evacuated cylindrical tube that connects stations in a closed loop system • Tube is specifically sized for optimal air flow around the capsule improving performance and energy consumption at the expected travel speed • Pressure will be maintained around 100Pa. This low pressure minimizes the drag force on the capsule while maintaining the relative ease of pumping the air out of the tube • To minimize the cost the Hyperloop tube will be elevated on pillars which reduces the footprint required on the ground and construction area required
  15. 15. Tube with solar Arrays installed
  16. 16. • Tube geometry is dependent on the speed of air If the speed of air passing through the gaps accelerates to supersonic velocities, then shock waves form. These waves limit the air flow and builds up a column of air in front of the nose and increasing the drag With these increased drag and additional mass of air to push, power requirements increases significantly • Avoid shock wave formation by careful selection of capsule/tube area ratio • In a precise manner a) Inner diameter of tube optimized to be 2.23m b)Tube cross sectional area is 3.91m² giving a capsule/tube area ratio of 36% or diameter ratio of 60% c) The surface above the tube will be lined with solar panels which provides the required system energy
  17. 17. • Material for inner diameter tube is of a uniform thickness steel tube reinforced with stringers • Tube sections are prefabricated and installed between pillar supports spaced 30m on average • Steel construction allows simple welding processes to join tube sections together • For safety and emergency exits and pressurization ports will be added in key locations along the tube • Tube wall thickness between (20 to 23mm) is necessary to provide sufficient strength for the load cases which include a)Pressure differential b)Bending and Buckling between pillars c)Loading due to capsule weight and accelerations d) Seismic considerations i.e. Earthquakes
  18. 18. • The tube will be supported by pillars which constrain the tube in the vertical direction but allow longitudinal slip for thermal expansions as well as dampened lateral slip to reduce the risk posed by earthquakes • The pillar to tube connection nominal position will be adjustable vertically and laterally to ensure proper alignment and also a smoother ride • Average spacing of the Hyperloop pillars 30m and average height of the pillars is 6m but may vary in height in hilly areas or where obstacles are in the way. • Small spacing between each support reduces the deflection of the tube keeping the capsules steadier and the journey more enjoyable. • In some short areas, tunnelling may be required to avoid going over mountains and to keep the route as straight as possible.
  19. 19. Energy storage allows this linear accelerator to only draw its average power of 8000 HP from its Solar array. The energy storage element made of lithium ion cells available can be economical. A battery array With enough power capability to provide the worst- case smoothing power has a lot of energy launching 1 capsule only uses 0.5 % of the total energy so degradation due to cycling is not an issue. A Li ion battery
  20. 20. Design of Hyperloop has been considered from start with safety in mind. Hyperloop is a single system That incorporates the vehicle , propulsion system , energy management, timing, and route. Capsules travel in a carefully controlled and maintained tube environment making the system is immune to wind, ice, fog, and rain. The propulsion system is integrated into the tube and can only accelerate the capsule to speeds that are safe in each section. With human control error and unpredictable weather Removed from the system, very few safety concerns remain.
  21. 21. All capsules would have direct radio contact with station operators in case of emergencies, allowing Passengers to report any incident, to request help and to receive assistance. In addition , all capsules would be fitted with first aid equipment. The vast majority of the Hyperloop travel distance is spent coasting and so the capsule does not require continuous power to travel. The capsule life support systems will be powered by two or more redundant lithium ion battery packs making it unaffected by a power outage. In the event of a power outage occurring after a capsule had been launched, all linear accelerators would be equipped with enough energy storage to bring all capsules currently in the Hyperloop tube safely to a stop at their destination .
  22. 22. Hyperloop capsules will be designed to the highest safety standards and manufactured with extensive quality checks to ensure their integrity. In the event of a minor leak, the on board environment control system would maintain capsule pressure using the reserve air carried on board for the short period of time it will take to reach the destination . In the case of a more significant depressurization , oxygen masks would be deployed as in airplanes. World is no stranger to earthquakes and transport systems are all built with earthquakes in mind. Hyperloop would be no different with the entire tube length built the necessary flexibility to withstand the earthquake motions while maintaining the Hyperloop tube alignment. In case of sudden stop emergency mechanical braking system would be actuated
  23. 23. The future challenges of Hyperloop consists of :  More expansion on the control mechanism for Hyperloop capsules. Detailed station designs with loading and unloading of passenger capsules. Trades comparing the costs and benefits of Hyperloop with more conventional magnetic levitation systems. Sub scale testing based on a further optimized design to demonstrate the physics of Hyperloop.
  24. 24. The Hyperloop transportation system and transport passenger as well as vehicles, it is less expensive, safer faster , more convenient . The most advantages thing of this system is it doesn’t disrupts the current infrastructure which is built along its route. As each and every invention has its limitation , well the same applies with this system which can be minimized with effective use. This concept is efficient for long distances with minimum stoppages, it requires less turns for optimum accelerations. It requires efficient implementation of aerodynamics to reduce air drag.
  25. 25. 1. www.spacex.com/hyperloop 2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperloop_Transportati on_Technologies 3. https://mdao.grc.nasa.gov/publications/AIAA-20151587.pd 4. Images – google image search

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